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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nova Orn on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 2011 at University of South Florida taught by Frederick Essig in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/212648/bsc-2011-university-of-south-florida in Biological Sciences at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
dwersuy Eunures elhmm WWquot 3 was area numberntmweyemgenem vanewmgmm vows and Me was nrgamsms are there nnme earw 54DmeHmn mtmaW Namvahzm Mmmdmn Mmmau mmmab a museum 5 ms swammemnumanennanceaemnmnw kmds M nrgamsms an M manw Maplannn Ecu ngma Nwmes Apamcum chmnevsuc m an mgznsm m May be phwozk mmwngm m behzvmva Mnmmmmgeneymnmgenmmn can mm 6 What 5 an em ngma mum awanesnansesmau quewtmadmnns 011mmweus nmwmcuavmwumswmma sssmmmcmrs mm m m was whmw r mm mm emrs mm was mmmmmm m e mmmmmmmmusnnmum zrvsmiavspeues W mme mm mm m Competitive Exclusion The interactions among organisms help de ne their niches A close relationship in which the survival of both partners is enhanced is mutualism symbiosis in the classical sense Predation includin sitism herbivory bene t one species while harming the other Competition is harmful to both interacting species What are 00 0 and 0 relationships neutralism amensalism commensalism How are all species the same Universal features what is LUCA 7 Cell structure 7 DNA cud 7 Metabulic pathways 7 etc Additional features are shared by particular groups or cla es of organisms eg mammals have body hair mammary glands 10 What s the difference between a dog and a cat and whats the same about them 11 What is the pattern of relationship among the different kinds of life Phylogeny Are human beings more like a chimpanzee or a mushroom Chump human How do you know Physical similarity Genetic similarity Fossil record recent common ancestor What is a phylogenetic tree A diagram ofthe pattern of similarity among 39 d o organisms base A phylogenetic tree may be interpreted as the pattern of common ancestr amon organisms ie their evolutionary history 14 How do we formalize information about diversitw Hierarchical classi cation Tne blnumlal system er numenclature creates a We part name fur Every species Which meiuues tne genus Cams and tne speci c epithet lupus Cams lupus e tne Wle quot39 mint LIOHEOIJISSED Phylogenetic tree Fig 25 z 39um yuurtext 17 Why is there a controversy about the theo biological evolution Should alternatives to evolution be taught in science classes7 What does the word evolution mean Gradual change while remaining functional Change is caused by natural forces that can be observed experimentally lmprovement increasing complexity or sophistication not necessarily Diversi cation branching What kmds nHmngs Emma Language an smpes Ammskmsandsw es ew ammg me panem LMng nrgamsms change nvemme mmn dexem mm a cummnn ancesmr Wm M a smg e ancesva wemes descendemsmln newspemes anamea tn newmches s n 3 mm and We may sn 3 man nvrehgmn vs suence7 y hipdhmwmmd mnm 22 Acceptance of science and evolution in particular is inversely related to belief in divine intervention andor literalness of interpreting scriptures l iuun39 Hu k39rLarlmlil uvlulrun L39nurumum Lnurrm ri Arm Jhlrlit It Flat Earthensm nulinu Geocenlrism an Crcallnnism DavA 0 rest i0 m Progressive Creationism Evoluticnary Creatrcmsm 39 c E39Jaluuonrsm God works through natural laws The universe develops l nlniiun compldely oh its own From Scott Evolution Vs Creationism 2004 23 Is it a conflict of science vs science Is there scientifically based alternative to the theory of evolution 24 What is science A process of acquiring knowledge empirical Explanation theory derived from facts Connecting the dotsquot based on natural cause and effect Discovery of natural laws Selfcorrecting We 8 a ad A aa emem based on mump e Z vvnansamenrw Hnwdnesn mummyquot a nypmnew Hypn hessrz quasunnsumemmsmg Thanhsmemmrzcnmpveher we mp znztmnimz zvgebnd mm Themy z ewmnndkmwx 2 mm based an 2 mm amnum m anmzunn Amemynas pvem wpwev Fundamema quotHenry M smenue 3m my mmmm mms umaeammugh mm mm mm mm mm mums mum manna mm m Summs vmnmnnmnmwmnmesmsetm n nmhzs mm mm am nmsnme nbsmah e Wm Swenu mhmznzmm Wdz mxm mm m mm mm s wremaue am 0025 m was ws mmm n 5 mm mm rumew m What 5 mmmgem deswgn Many bm ngmz stmmves 212mm cnmp ex n have mm m smaHsmpsavgumemv1 meauumg cnmp exmjrevnmmn mm m have happened Them me man um ma 2 s mmecnssu mm rwnhmnn ma nnmzppen zM cnncn sd pn mcz shztegyr me Wedge smw mmmmmm n ms nu rename mm mums mm mppnnswme hgem des gm What te ah e hvpmheses dues me hgem desgn um What fadsnhservalmnsemenmems suppnnthwsmenrw What Wm smemmc evmenue fur s mmgem deswgn swarms of pseudnsmence7 30 What 5 pseudnsmenue Thenrv m Search nuaas nghw se eclwe Wm lads nr heav v 39 rans axen nul mmmeXL amnnen mwsmpresemed M s eadmguse nHanguage mealmn mayhemquot gnnrancenr mtemmna pn mcs sa es ega defense Pseudnsmenue Enr puzw wmws Wumsvea Am abduct penp e 2mm pmbes m G nbz wzvmmgdnes quotmm Negameczmpmgnz Ewan cannnt accnun nv bm ngmz dNEYSW What mum he augm m smence dasses7 Smence p mm melhndn ngv Legmm ale smemmc dalamat mppnr theory Reierenue EugemeC Sum mm Evnhmnnvs Creaunmsmr An mmduamn Greenwood Press We pnn m Unit 1 The ecological and evolutionary basis ofdiversity Text references most material for Unit 1 will be found in Chapters 2325 with selected material from Chapters 22 26 56 57 and 59 but you will have to use the index to find references to specific terms Prologue The scientific thought process why is evolution science and intelligent design not Intelligent design Many biological structures are too complex to have evolved in small steps argument of llirreducible complexityquot evolution could not have happened There are many unexplained gaps in the fossil record evolution did not happen Deliberater concocted political strategy the llWedge Strategyquot A systematic search for quotevidencequot that conflicts with the theory of evolution Does not provide explicit alternative Does not reference religious scriptures There are no factsobservationsexperiments to support this theory It is pseudoscience What is empirical thought thought that relies on observation to form an idea or hypothesis rather than trying to understand life from a nonphysical or spiritual point of view Began in the 1600 s in Europe John Raysystem for naming animals and plants based on anatomy and physiology Pg480 What is pseudoscience Highly selective with facts or heavily dependent on gaps in information Facts taken out of context distorted misrepresented Misleading use of language Motivation may be from ignorance or intentional politics sales legal defense 1 Why are there so many different kinds of organisms a Each species of life is has a unique ecological niche orjust niche ie its particular place or role within the environment it arises from a unique set of adaptations fitting it to use particular resources within a particular environment in particular ways b Each species requires certain resources obtains those resources in a particular way has a broader or narrower tolerance for variation in those resources and competes with other organisms for those resources Competition affects two or more species negatively as they compete over food or other resources The interactions among organisms help define their niches c Different species competing for the same resources will tend to reduce that competition by adapting to modified resource requirements competitive exclusion two species with the same resource requirements cannot occupy the same niche one of them will become extinct d Species may develop mutualistic relationships with other organisms which enhances the survival ability of both and which may ultimately become obligatory A close relationship in which the survival of both partners is enhanced is mutualismsymbiosis in the classical sense Example bacteria pollination e Each species has a unique position within the food chain or food web and a unique way of escaping or defending itself from predation A food chain is a linear depiction of energy flow between organisms with each organism feeding on and deriving energy from the preceding organism A food web is a complex model of interconnected food chains in which there multiple links between species Predation including parasitism and herbivory benefit one species while harming the other f Each species has a unique range of tolerance for abiotic factors in the environment temperature extremes water deficit salinity oxygen levels and other physical conditions and unique ways of coping with extremes Part of the ecological niche 2 The evidence of past evolution establishing a pattern of relationship a the fossil record remains or impressions of dead organisms buried in sedimentary rocks layers of sand silt clay that accumulate over time and include fossil remains of animals i How do we estimate how old fossils are 1 relative age position within sedimentary rocks a rocks of different age are named and characterized according to the geological time scale we will refer to this frequently in Units 2 and 3 become familiar with its general features now a timeline of Earth s history from its origin about 455 billion years ago to the present It is divided into four eons and further subdivided into eras The first three eons are Precambrian 2 actual age radioisotope dating a common way to estimate the age of a fossil by analyzing the elemental isotopes within the accompanying rock of surrounding igneous rocks Deep inside the earth the temperature is very high and the minerals there are in liquid form called magma As the magma pushes towards the earth39s surface it starts to cool and turns into solid igneous rock b Homology and comparative biology homology is the similarities we see between organisms are fundamentally the same Inherited from a common ancestor used to establish relationships between organisms c DNA sequencing and molecular evolutionDNA sequencing is the newest most precise measure of similarity 3 How does evolution happen a natural selection the cornerstone of evolutionary theory discovered by Darwin natural selection allows individuals that are best adapted to the environment to survive and reproduce Includes overproduction variation limits on population growth i Variationindividuals vary in their characteristics and how they interact with the environment It is a result of errors in replication of information molecules mutation the source of variation Organisms produce more offspring than needed for replacement exponential growth rapid population growth that occurs when the percapita growth remains above zero JShaped curve example elephants In any environment the number of individuals that can be supported is limited by key resources carrying capacity K the maximum number of individuals in a particular species that can be supported by a particular area or environment The most common limit is the food supply b Squot 53 5 r 2 iv individuals with the most adaptive combination of characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce Natural Selection artificial selection or selective breeding is analogous to natural selection and provides a model of how it works known as selective breeding used to modify traits in domesticated species Done by humans other subtle forms of natural selection include directional selection stabilizing selection disruptive selection and sexual selection directional selection is a type of natural selection that favors individuals at one extreme of a phenotypic distribution that have greater reproductive success in a particular environment Stabilizing selection is a pattern of natural selection that favors the survival of individuals with intermediate phenotypes Disruptive selection favors the survival of two or more different genotypes that produce different phenotypes Sexual selection is directed at certain traits of sexually reproducing species that make it more likely for individuals to find or choose a mate and engage in successful mating Why is it impossible for natural selection not to occur it is logically impossible for natural selection not to occur because Microevolution allele frequencies the number of copies of an allele divided by the total number ofalleles in a population In a populationa group of individuals of the same species that can interbreed with one another allele frequency change as a result of natural selection random genetic drift the random change in a population s allele frequencies from one generation to the next that is attributable to chance It occurs more quickly in small populations and migration longrange seasonal movement among animals in order to feed or breed i genetic drift includes the founder effect a small group of individuals separates from a larger population and establishes a colony in a new location and the bottleneck effect a population size is dramatically reduced and then rebounds Both generally results in decreased genetic diversity within a population the HardyWeinberg equation p2 2pq q2 1 relates allele and genotype frequencies the equation predicts an equilibrium if the population size is very large mating is random the populations do not migrate no natural selection occurs and no new mutations are formed It is also used to detect microevolutionary change within the gene pool all of the genes in a population of a population by predicting allele frequencies and genotype frequencies the number of individuals with a given genotype divided by the total number of individuals in a hypothetical state of equilibrium population size stays the same Adaptation is the evolution of new or modified traits in a population due to natural selection in response to particular environmental stresses pressure or opportunities the word adaptation is also used as a noun for a particular characteristic of an organism that has a clear survival value different species show different patterns of population growth and mortality and these affect how natural selection will operate on them r and K selection r selected species produce large number of offspring and invest relatively little in each of them Their main pressure is to produce as many offspring with little resource input They are simpler organisms and include mushrooms fish plants amphibians Rrate of reproduction 7 Kselected species invest heavily in a few offspring and remain close to the carrying capacity K There are no drastic changes in the population they take care of their young nest in their offspring Their strategy is to make sure their offspring survive They include more complex organisms such as mammals birds humans and elephants They educate their offspring teach them how to survive offspring tend to be more mature Various mechanisms balancing selection maintains genetic diversity in a population promote the retention of multiple alleles for particular genes polymorphic genes a gene that commonly exists as two or more alleles in a population including heterozygote advantage negative frequencydependent selection neutral variation l39 0 J g a I 39 in which a heterozygote has a higher Darwinian fitness compared to the corresponding homozygotes Negative frequencydependent selection the fitness of a genotype decreases when its frequency becomes higher the result is a balanced polymorphism Neutral variation variation that does not favor any particular genotype 4 Speciation results from the isolation of previously interbreeding populations from one another followed by their independent acquisition of new characteristics a b reproductive isolating mechanisms reproductive barriers i prezygotic isolating mechanisms are structural or behavioral differences that prevent sperm and egg from uniting and arise between species as a result of their separate evolutionary histories ii postzygotic isolating mechanisms usually involve chromosomal modifications that prevent pairing at meiosis or that prevent full and compatible genetic expression different definitions of species emphasize different aspects of the speciation process i the widely used biological species concept defines species as populations of individuals capable of breeding with one another and reproductively isolated from other such populations 5 Distinctive groups of species emerge through adaptation speciation and extinction of intermediates macroevolution relies more on fossil records comparative DNA structure long term changes 3 major of of reproductive isolation of populations extinction of intermediates a 57 Squot Organisms with different ancestry and adaptive histories may develop similar traits by adapting to the same ecological conditions convergent evolution two different species from two different lineages show similar characteristics because they occupy similar environments Organisms with a common ancestry and common history of adaptation may adapt to different ecological situations and develop conspicuously different traits adaptive radiation the process whereby a single ancestral species evolves into a wide array of descendant species that differ greatly in their habitat form or behavior evolution of new species or groups of species may proceed at a uniform pace gradualism a concept that suggests that species evolve continuously over long spans of time or in spurts punctuated equilibrium a concept that suggests that the tempo of evolution is more sporadic than gradual Species rapidly evolve into new species followed by long periods of equilibrium with little evolutionary change d Mutualistic symbiosis between species may result in radically new life forms eg endosymbiosis a symbiotic relationship in which the smaller speciesthe symbiont lives inside the larger species e microorganisms may acquire genes from unrelated organisms horizontal gene transfer the transfer of genes between different species Modern classification is based on phylogeny the history of organismal lineages as they change through time It implies that different species arise from previous forms via descent and that all organisms from the smallest microbe to the largest plants and vertebrates are connected by the passage of genes along the branches of the phylogenetic tree that links all of life a A phylogenetic tree is a graphic r 39 of the ancestu 39 39 relationships within a group oforganisms b Phylogenies can be generated objectively with mathematical tools cladistics based on shared character traits and compares primitive c Traditional classifications were based on overall similarity of characteristics subjective weighting of characters or on experience and intuition and sometimes included groups of unrelated organisms polyphyletic does not include the most recent common ancestor of the included lineages d Modern classification is based explicitly on phylogeny taxa are monophyletic they include a common ancestor and all of its descendents e classifications are hierarchical from large domain to small genus f Species names are formal binomials consisting of the genus name and the speci c epithet and are governed by international conventions 182010 aduachhanged we evn ved nvemm mums pvnczss mm mm We may Sul menmmeinnhmpmcesstnhzvevesuhed The pattern Enmpzvsnnnmegimmsrpzmm mpwsm day a What are mm and hnwdn we connect them mgelhe 11 dead mgznsms Fnundmsemmenmw y owesme mung bumm newes nmhe mp forms Evnnkev th 23 5 5 The pattern does not run in a straight line tttsacunstanttybvanchmgpattern um mum ends Thuse m upper 51m yesembte madam arms Ontygenussttttew mgtsqus huvses dunkeys zebvas Emnkev th 25 m 182010 6 What do vestigial structures tell us tmm campuew slat 182010 The fossil record and vestigial structures together support evolutio What do comparative biology and DNA sequencing tell us about evolution 1 The pattern ofsimilarity homology morphology ana omy emb olo physiologybiochemistry DNAsequences 9 My My ulna saw Masai Fluiyuus Vila Homologous Human one rgt structure in the forelimbs of vertebrates mm suggests a ancestry Ba Wm BrankeV Fig 2313 10 Similarities among organisms at different stages of embryology are part ofthe pattern 182010 tmm Snlnmnnl el al out Mimi 11 Amino acid sequences in large proteins reveal molecular homology or genetic homologyquot adding to the pattern of diversity and re ecting DNA homology These nucleutlde changes typlcally have nu effect an the funztlunlng ufthe prDtElrl Emukel Flg 2313 12 hi m Multfuliv Dill quota m Evolutionary Rllihmshivs or mem n mu m a Numan um earmale mum wwm u Add Another example It involves hemoglobin we lg l l r7 lllmmnm l A L f i tmm Campbell elal 182010 13 Chromosomal banding patterns are clues to genomic evolution and add to the relationship among organisms amnmng 2318 14 DNA sequencing the newest and most precise measure of similarity Typically taken from nonman regions of DNA amnkemg 25 w 15 Wnat does convergent evolution tell us Convergence is super cial similarity due to independent evolution of similar adaptations in unrelated organisms lnternal body structure embryology and DNA equencing reveal the true relationships of similarlooking organisms 16 Marsupial and placental mammals evolved independently in different parts ofthe world acemai 39quotquotquot 182010 Convergence illustrates the power of evolutionary old rganisms to certain niches Some reptiles animals quotum Snlnmnn el al
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