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Curriculum & Pedagogy of ESOL

by: Everette Ullrich

Curriculum & Pedagogy of ESOL TSL 4080

Marketplace > University of South Florida > OTHER > TSL 4080 > Curriculum Pedagogy of ESOL
Everette Ullrich
GPA 3.8

James Green

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James Green
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Everette Ullrich on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TSL 4080 at University of South Florida taught by James Green in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/212690/tsl-4080-university-of-south-florida in OTHER at University of South Florida.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
1 Language Minority Student a student whose primary language is not the majority for example a student in the US whose first language is not English They may not be able to speak the majority language proficiently This does not refer to an ethnic minority meaning that a German student would be considered a Language Minority Student even though a European background is not considered minority 2 LEP Student a student who has Limited English Proficiency 3 Lau V Nichols states that LEP students have a right to accommodations in the classroom Having the exact same thing as English speaking students does not give them an equal opportunity for an education Does not mandate accommodations but states that they have a right to have them Plyler V Doe a state cannot deny school enrollment to children ofillegal immigrants Students are not required to provide a Social Security Number Equal Education Opportunity Act EEOA 1974 quotNo state shall deny equal educational opportunities to an individual on account of his or her race color sex or national origin by the failure of an educational agency to take appropriate action to overcome language barriers that impede equal participation by its students in its instructional programs 4 Florida Consent Decree 6 outcomes 1 All LEP students must me properly identified and assessed Explains how students are to be placed in the ESOL program how they are to be monitored and how they are to exit the program 2 All LEP student in FL are entitles to programs which are appropriate to their level of English proficiency their level of academic achievement and any special needs they might have 3 LEP students are entitled to equal access to all programs appropriate to ehier academic needs such as compensatory exceptional adult vocational early childhood education drop out prevention and other support services regardless of their level of English proficiency 4 Details specific requirements for ESOL certification and inservice training and sets standards for personnel delivering ESOL instruction 5 The Florida Department of Education is charges with the monitoring oflocal school districts to ensure compliance with the provisions of the Consent Decree 6 The Florida Department of Education is required to develop an evaluation system to address equal access and program effectiveness 5 TESOL Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages developed an ESL standards document to draw attention to English learners needs OMSLE Office ofMulticultural Student Language Education Primary focus is to assist schools and districts in ensuring that LEP students receive understandable instruction Monitors school districts for compliance with the Consent Decree and assist districts in developing grant proposals and obtaining federal funding NCELA National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition offers a variety ofweb based resources about twoway immersion programs 6 Home Language Survey consists of three questions 1 What is the native language of the student 2 What is the predominant language of the student 3 what language is most often spoken by the student at home If the answer to any of the questions is quotyesquot then the child is tested for English proficiency to determine if they should be placed in an ESOL program Court Decisions see question 3 Section 3 l distinguish between the different hypotheses that comprise Krashen s Monitor Model Acquisiti0n vs Learning acquisition is not conscious learning is conscious Two kinds of knowledge are separate When we communicate in anatural setting it is acquired knowledge that we use The Monitor The learned knowledge can be used to monitor your communication There is a time factor works better for written than spoken language Learned knowledge is limited The Input Hypothesis i1 Give extra challenge to linguistic input Give learners lots of reading input quantity matters Make input relevant to students quality matters too Meaningful input that is J 39 39 J 39 quot39 in the 39 The Affective Filter When the lter is high input will not pass through Low affective lter High selfesteem Low anxiety level High motivation The Natural Order Hypothesis All learning is acquired in a natural predictable order Builtin syllabus Corder 1967 Morpheme acquisition Dulay and Burt 1975 2 J an A 139 ofthe39 139 39J 39 r 39 which combine to produce communicative competence7grammatical sociolinguistic discourse and strategic l Grammatical Competence knowledge of language code 7 accuracy 2 Sociolinguistic Competence knowledge of the norms of interaction 7approprz39ateness 3 Discourse Competence ability to connect utterances 7 relevance 4 Strategic Competence manipulation of language to meet communicative goals 7 adaptability 3 identify strategies that students must develop to demonstrate communicative competence Repetition in short term memory imitating a word or structure used by another formulaic expressions using words or phrases that function as units such as greetings hi How are you verbal attention getters using language to initiate interaction Hey Ithink Monitoring correcting ones own errors in vocabulary style and grammar appealing for assistance asking another for help requesting clari cation asking the speaker to explain or repeat 4 Identify appropriate instructional 39 39 J for the J 39 I of 39 quotve competence A classroom environment in which the students engage in in communicative pair or group tasks practicing a reader s theater with other students develop interview questions in order to survey local opinions and planning an exhibition of art or written work to which to invite portents or other students teacher need to provide ample opportunity for English learners to engage in conversation with native English speakers 5 Distinguish between topdown and bottomup approaches to language acquisition Bottom up processing Connecting the sounds of the language with the written form Top down processing Creating the schema of the text to understand the meaning Current theory and a combination of the two Identify characteristics of psychological factors in language learning Background factorsnaming practices forms of address age first language pro ciency types of bilingualism previous second language assistance assessed second language level prior academic success likes dislikes Social emotional factorsself esteem motivation anxiety level attitudes of the learner and cognitive factorsc0gnitive style learning styles learning strategies Demonstrate an understanding of cognitive factors such as age language acquisition processes stages of development and learning styles Age A kind of instruction varies greatly according to the age of the learner and although it has been theorized that children have an easier time learning a second language than adults there is little to no evidence that indicates this theory is true Language Acquisition processes In order to begin the language learning process one must distinguish how much prior experience the student has in the second language and the knowledge must be properly assessed in order to function as afoundation for the student to build their uency of the second language Teachers must also have a complete record of the students prior school success in order to made future informed instructional decisions It is also important to inquire about the students likes and dislikes in order to help bridge a teacher student or intercultural gap Learning style once a learning style is identified in a student the teacher can use the information to plan and to modify certain aspects of courses and assignments Identify the characteristics of the theory of common underlying proficiency This theory is one of Cumins s theories of bilingualism and cognition Cummins asserts that cognition and language fundamentals once learned in the primary language form a basis for subsequent learning in any language This Common underlying proficiency is the belief that second language and the primary language have a shared foundation and that competence in the primary language provides the basis for competence in the second language Identify the differences between BICS and CALP Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills BICS AKA everyday conversational language developed NATURALLY by all L2 speakers Includes totality of everyday communications Cognitive Academic Language Pro ciency CALP AKA quotclassroomschoolacademic language developed through education and schooling Includes system 8 9 15 16 Language Universals Language is dynamic Language is complex All languages have structure Phonology The sound patterns oflanguage Phonemes Pitch Stress Morphology the study of the meaning units in a language astro bio geo luna Syntax The sentence patterns oflanguage Semantics The meanings oflanguage Pragmatics The in uence of context language functions appropriate language conversational rules nonverbal communication Grammar Whether or not a sentence conforms to a standard Bound morphemes o Derivational added to other words to create new ones Example adding ness to the end of happy to create happiness 0 In ectional modify a word s tense without creating a new word Example adding s to the end ofdog to get dogs 4 stages oflanguage proficiency 0 Pre production Silent period Can respond to commands 0 Early production One word responses short utterances 0 Speech emergence Participates in small group activities demonstrates comprehension in a variety of ways 0 Intermediate uency Participates in reading and writing activities Theory of common underlying proficiency 0 Skills learned in one language will transfer from one language to another Phonology 0 Study of the phonemes Morphology 0 Study of the morphemes Syntax 0 Study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences Pragmatics 0 Proper use of the language in a contextual setting BICS amp CALP 0 Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills informal language used everyday 0 Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency In class language learned Krashen s hypotheses o acquisitionlearning hypothesis Acquisition is gathering knowledge and information on a subconscious level Learning is a conscious effort to gather information 0 input hypothesis Using language which is a little above the students level 0 monitor hypothesis Students mentally check to see ifwhat they are saying is correct before they say it o affective filter Negative emotion impedes a student s learning 0 natural order hypothesis a student s grammatical learning follows a natural order They will naturally learn certain concepts before others SECTION 6 1 purposes ofassessment a make decisions about student placement b Make day to day instructional decisions as to when to provide a student with additional mediation c Measure student achievement against standards 2 Methods of assessment a Test scores b Classroom grades c Teacher observation d Evaluation 3 Norm and criterion referenced test a Norm referenced tests compare students to other students b Criterion referenced tests compare students to set standards 4 Limitations of assessment a Anxiety b Time limitations c Rapport P Cultural differences 1 Culture everything people learn to do Ned Seelye 1974 a i Ewequot19190quot Universal Simplifies life Learned Valueladen Verbal and nonverbal Binds people together Makes behavior of others fairly predictable Thin descriptors observablesurface Thick descriptors nonobservabledeep subconscious unarticulated 2 Cultural Relativism actions can be judged only in relation to the cultural setting in which they occur 3 Euphoria a Everything s new and exciting b Students may be positive can t stop smiling excited full of energy c Everything is a new experience it s unique and fun Culture Shock a Differences become annoying frustrating and depressing b Feeling oflack of direction c Feeling ofnot knowing what to do or how to do things in a new environment d Not knowing what is appropriate or inappropriate e Students may express anger hostility depression may be tired lack of energy f Students may feel exhausted from having to constantly focus attention on what to do and when g Students may rebel against the patterns of the quotnew culture and may yearn for the familiar familiar foods people activities h Students may become irritable little things may set them off they may be unable to solve simple problems Adaptation a May take months or years b Once basic activities oflife are quotnormalizedquot and they no long have to focus so much of their energy and attention on just quotsurvivingquot c Occurs once the newcomer is able to accept the differences and similarities between the 2 cultures and recognizes there are both good and bad elements to each culture 4 Euphoria then Culture Shock then Adaptation 5 Racism a View that a person s race determines psychological and cultural traits and that one race is superior to another Stereotypes a Preconceived and oversimplified generalizations about a particular ethnic or religious group race or gender often resulting from racist beliefs Classism a Distaste of the middle and upper classes for the lifestyles and perceived values of the lower classes compounded with racism in the US Discrimination a Actions that limit the social political or economic opportunities ofparticular groups 6 Understand culturally in uenced learning styles7 HELP 7 Culturally Responsive Pedagogy a Effectively using what you learn ab out your students b Effectively using what you learn ab out yourself c Be sensitive exible and open 8 Native Americans a Cities and roads b Agricultural systems such as advanced forms of irrigation c Medicinal products d Political systems religious theocracies to democratic councils e Astronomical and mathematical achievement African Americans a Dance b Music jazz c Literature d Religion e Science aviation electrical mechanical and construction engineering rocketry marine biology f Inventions g Social science and philosophy HispanicsLatinos a Agriculture b Mining c Cattle industry d Politics urban life and education e Literature and other arts f Songs and ballads g Theater h Culinary contributions Asian Americans a Economic power ofAsian capital b Martial arts c Eastern spiritual philosophies d Fireworks e Acupuncture f Food g D cor h Gardening Arab Americans a Family b Economics c Education d Surgical e Comedy f Acting g Law 9 Parents role in cultural mediation a Create a home environment that encourages learning b Express high but not unrealistic expectations for their children39s achievement and future careers c Become involved in their children39s education at school and in the community d Mediate between the school and home to solve cultural problems and create effective homeschool relations 10 Some key words a Assimilation quotSwallowed Up Digested subtractive The newcomers are absorbed into the dominant culture and their culture gradually disappears This is the quotmelting pot metaphor i Cultural Assimilation adopting behaviors values beliefs and lifestyle of the dominant culture Structural Assimilation participating in social political and economic institutions and organizations of mainstream society particularly the educational system and labor markets b Acculturation adapt to a new culture without giving up one s first culture It is an additive processSchumann 1978 claimed that the greater the level of acculturation the greater degree of second language learning c Ethnography inquiry process that seeks to provide cultural explanations for behavior and attitudes


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