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Cognitive Psychology

by: Luella Carter

Cognitive Psychology EXP 4680C

Luella Carter
GPA 3.99

Kenneth Malmberg

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Kenneth Malmberg
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luella Carter on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXP 4680C at University of South Florida taught by Kenneth Malmberg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/212702/exp-4680c-university-of-south-florida in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 5 7 ShortTerm and Working Memory What Is Memory Memory The processes involved in retaining retrieving and using information about stimuli images events ideas and skills after the original information is no longer present The Purposes of Memory Clive Wearing 7 A musician from England who in his 40 s contracted viral encephalitis which destroyed parts of his temporal lobe which is important for forming new memories He lives totally within the most recent one or two minutes of his life Because of his inability to form new memories he constantly feels he has just become conscious for the first time His loss of memory has robbed him of his ability to participate in life in any meaningful way and he needs to be constantly care for by others The Modal Model of Memory 7 Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin 1968 This model is too simple to explain many of the things that have been discovered about memory since the model was proposed but it does provide a way to introduce many of the basic principles of memory Structural Features of The Modal Model of Memory 1 Sensory Memory An initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second 2 Shortterm Memory STM Holds 57 items for about 1530 seconds 3 Longterm Memory LTM Can hold a large amount of information for years or even decades Memory system also includes control processes active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another Examples include Rehearsal Repeating a stimulus over and over Strategies you might use to help make a stimulus more memorable such as relating the numbers in a phone number to a familiar date in history Strategies of attention that help you selectively focus on other information you want to remember Longterm memory is essential for storing information but before we can become aware of this stored information it must be moved back into STM Sensory Memory Sensory Memory The retention for brief periods of time of the effects of sensory stimulation ex The trail left by a moving sparkler The Sparkler s Trail and the Projector s Shutter Persistence of Vision The continued perception of light for a fraction of a second after the original light stimulus has been extinguished Perceiving a trail of light from a moving sparkler is caused by the persistence of vision Sperling s Experiment Measuring the Visual Icon The lingering of the visual stimulus in our mind was studied by Sperling 1960 in a famous experiment in which he ashed an array of letters on the screen for 50 milliseconds and asked his participants to report as many of the letters as possible They were able to report an average of 45 out of the 12 letters Whole Report Method Participants are asked to report as many letters as possible from the whole matrix Two Possibilities 7 1 Because the exposure was brief participants saw only an average of 45 of the 12 letters 2 Perhaps participants saw most of the letters immediately after they were presented but their perception faded rapidly as they were reporting the letters so by the time they had reported 45 letters they could no longer see the matrix or remember what had been there Next 7 Flashed the matrix for 50 ms as before but immediately after it was ashed he sounded on of the following cue tones to indicate which row of letters the participants were to report 7 HighpitchedTop Row Medium pitchedMiddle Row LowpitchedBottom Row They were able to report an average of 33 of the 4 letters Partial Report Method Participants are asked to report only some of the stimuli in a brie y presented display Therefore Sperling concluded that the correct description of what was happening was that immediately after the display was presented participants saw an average of 82 percent of the letters in the whole display but were not able to report all of these letters because they rapidly faded as the initial letters were being reported Sperling did an additional experiment to determine the time course of this fading He devised a delayed partial report method in which the presentation of cue tones was delayed for a fraction of a second after the letters were extinguished The results was that when the cue tones were delayed for about half a second after the ash participants were able to report only slightly more than 2 letter in a row or a total of about 4 letters for all three rows 7 the same number of letters they reported using the wholereport technique Figure 57 7 The Results 7 Indicates that immediately after a stimulus is presented all or most of the stimulus is available for perception Then over the next second sensory memory fades until by 1 second less than 5 of the 12 letters in the matrix can be reported Note that this corresponds to the number of letters that were reported in the whole report technique He concluded from these results that a shortlived sensory memory registers all or most of the information that hits our visual receptors but that this information decays within less than a second


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