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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luella Carter on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXP 4204C at University of South Florida taught by Christine Ruva in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/212703/exp-4204c-university-of-south-florida in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
EXP 4204 Perception Christine Ruva PhD Exam Review 0 O PERCEPTION EXAM 3 REVIEW You are responsible for all material covered in my lectures on my handouts in your labs and in your textbook assigned readings This outline is meant to serve as a general overview of what will be on the exam but it is not intended to represent all of the material that you are responsible for There will be approximately 80 questions on the exam 20 questions per section CHAPTER 11 THE AUDITORY SYSTEM AND PITCH PERCEPTION SOUND Physical and Perceptual De nition Sound Stimulus Produced by a Loudspeaker Sound wave pure tone amplitude decibel frequency Hertz sine waves frequencies people can hear Additive Smthesis for creating a complex tone Harmonics Fourier analysis Sound As A Perceptual Response The Experience Of Hearing audibility curve fundamental frequency auditory response theory threshold for feeling Loudness SS Steven s magnitude estimation procedure equal loudness curves pitch tone height tone chroma octave timbre Auditor39y SystemStructure amp Function Know structural components and function of each 0 The Outer Ear pinnae auditory canal resonance 0 The Middle Ear ossicles malleus incus stapes oval window middle ear muscles eardrum o The Inner Ear Cochlea cochlea scala vestibule scala tympani chochlear partition organ of Corti hair cells inner and outer basilar membrane 0 Auditor y Pathways SONIC MG auditory nerve fibers cochlea superior olivary nucleus inferior colliculus medial geniculate nucleus Freguency Analysis In The Cochlea And Audit01 y Nerve o Bekesy s Place The01 y of Hearing his methods his findings base apex wave envelope physiological evidence for place coding characteristic frequency psychological tuning curves basilar membrane s response to complex tones Fourier analysis Why are the tuning curves so narrow Motile response outer hair cells 0 Signaling Freguency by the Timing of Nerve Firing Freguency Analysis In The Cortex Primary auditory receiving area in the temporal lobe of the cortex Al Core area tonotopic maps phase locking loss of timing information Processing Complex Sound Stimuli in the Cortex 0 Musical Notes Periodicity Pitch Effect of missing the fundamental periodicity pitch central pitch processor Perception Review for Exam 2 2 CHAPTER 13 SPEECH PERCEPTION STRUCTURE OF LANGUAGE LANGUAGE IS LEVELED I Know each level and how one level builds on another phonemes morphemes phrases and sentences Phonemes de nition how many distinctive features allophones categorical perception coarticulation Vowels how produced resonant frequency formants Consonants how produced formant transitions Sound Spectrogram know how to identify consonants and vowels on this know how to identify formants and formant transitions WHY IS SPEECH PERCEPTION A PROBLEM I Lack of Invariance 0r Variability Problem know reasons for variability e g Coarticulation pitch variation speech rates and how we overcome these problems I Why is this lack of invariance a problem for speaker independent systems I Sementation Problem CATEGORICAL PERCEPTION I Methodology for Categorical Perception Experiments identification and discrimination tasks IPhonetic Boundary Perceptual discontinuity different languages development of categorical perception infant perception of phonemes eg Werker amp Eimas work MULTIPLE INPUTS USED FOR SPEECH PERCEPTION I auditory context knowledge syntax semantics expectation visual I bottomup processing I topdown processing McGurk Effect McDonald amp McGurk 1976 Phonetic Restoration Effect Warren 1970 and Samuel 1981 and 1990 Pollack amp Pickett 1964 Christmas Carols and other examples Speaker Characteristics indexical characteristics THE PHYSIOLOGY OF SPEECH PERCEPTION I localization of function lateralization left and right hemisphere Broca s and Wernicke s areas aphasias contralateral conduction PET scans I What areas of the brain does speech activate What about lip movements CHAPTER 16 PERCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT INFANT BRAIN DEVELOPMENT What the infant is born with which part of the brain experiences the most postnatal growth what of its adult weight at birth METHODS OF STUDYING PERCEPTIONAL DEVELOPMENT I Measures of attention I Preferential Looking Technique What is it Why does it work And what can it tell you about infant perception Perception Review for Exam 2 3 Orienting Response What are these I Autonomic Nervous System response Central Nervous System response CNS to environmental stimuli USE OF LEARNING PRINCIPLES TO STUDY INFANT PERCEPTION l HabituationDishabituation Paradigm and Operant Conditioning lKnow how each is used to study infant perception and examples of their use from both text and lecture INFANT VISION Vision is the least mature of the newborn baby s senses Know the reasons behind why infants are born legally blind and the timing of visual development Visual acuity how measured what is it at birth how quickly does it develop Contrast Sensitivity in infancy this is restricted to low frequencies why is it so poor at birth Object Recognition recognizing mom s face Bushnell Sai amp Mullin 1989 Occlusion Kellman and Spelke s 1983 experiment rod behind block importance of movement Slater et al 1990 Perceiving Adiacent Obiects as Separate Xu and Carey s 1994 experiment ducktruck importance of movement Color vision Cones poorly developed at birth What is the earliest age that all 3 cone systems are working What is the main challenge to measuring infant color vision What are the 2 dimensions that the light stimulus can vary on Methods for studyingtesting infant color vision Depth Perception What are infants born with How tested eg visual cliff randomdot stereograms What is the order in which depth cues develop eg motion binocular disparity pictorial cues The importance of39 J J J u u t in its 3 39 Importance of binocular fixation and what age it is possible Saccades and their importance Perceiving Movement Perceiving Biological Motion 7 PointLight Walkers importance of occlusion INFANT HEARING Newborns preferences newborns are Universal Language perceivers Decasper and Spence 1986 methodology what this study demonstrated When do fetuses begin to respond to sound Equivalence Classification Kulh 1983 1989 methodology and what did it find OLFACTION amp TASTE Olfaction and Taste are the most highly developed of all the senses at birth How measured PRESENTATION QUESTIONS I There will be 1 multiplechoice question from each of the presentations N 24
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