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Date Created: 09/23/15
Perception Exam 2 Review 1 EXP 4204 Perception Christine Ruva PhD PERCEPTION EXAM REVIEW 2 o You are responsible for all material covered in my lectures on my handouts and in your textbook assigned readings This outline is meant to serve as a general overview of what will be on the exam but it is not intended to represent all of the material that you are responsible for CHAPTER 5 PERCEIVING OBJECTS TASK OF COGNITIVE PSYCHOLOGIST is to identify CONSTRAINTS What are these constraints HISTORY OF RESEARCH IN OBJECT PERCEPTION o Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism introspection o Gestalt Psychologists emergent qualities apparent motion revolt against structuralism Subjective Contours GESTALT PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTUAL GROUPING 0 Good figure or simplicity Similarity Proximity Good Continuation Common Fate Closure Familiarity MORE PRINCIPLES OF PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION 0 Common Region Element Connectedness Synchrony Perceptual constancy shape and size PERCEPTUAL SEGREGATION HOW OBJECTS ARE SEPARATED Properties of Figure and Ground Segregation Contours and FigureGround Segregation When in the Perceptual Process Does FigureGround Separation Occur Use in art and Figure and Ground Reversal HOW OBJECTS ARE CONSTRUCTED 0 Feature Detection Theories 0r Distinctive Features Models 0 Pattern Recognition how it occurs according to this model 0 Feature Detectors found in nonhuman species Hubel amp Weisel s cats 1959 1965 1979 0 Eleanor Gibson s Feature Analysis Theory 0 Know the criticisms of and problems with feature detection theories 0 Illusory Conjunctions Perception Exam 2 Review 2 o Marr s Computational Theogy 0 Recognition by Components Biederman 11987 1990 19951 0 Basic Properties of Geons View Invariance Shape Constancy Discriminability Resistance to visual noise Componential Recovery closure 0 Evaluation of Marr s And Biederman s Theories o Strengths o Weaknesses 1 can t explain our ability to discern subtle differences win classes of objects 2 Deemphasize the role of context 3 Palmer 1975 and 4 Neurons TOP DOWN amp BOTTOM UP PROCESSING Word superiority effect Palmer s 1975 study THE PROBLEMS OF PERCEPTION Impoverished data How the 2D projection of light onto the retina of the eye gives rise to the phenomenal experience of a 3D world The stimulus on the Receptors is ambiguous Control Problem Objects need to be separated Parts of objects can be hidden The reasons for changes in lightness and darkness can be unclear TO WHAT EXTENT DO WE LEARN TO PERCEIVE 0 Adults who were born blind o Selective Rearing Studies Blakemore and Cooper 1970 Perception Exam 2 Review 3 CHAPTER 7 COLOR PERCEPTION THE FUNCTIONS OF PERCEPTION 0 Know the function discussed in your text and in class PHYSICAL ATTRIBUTES OF PERCEPTION o Re ectance curve 0 Achromatic colors vs Chromatic colors 0 Selective re ection 0 Know the wavelengths associated with the following colors blue green orange red yellow and purple HOW WE DESCRIBE THE COLOR EXPERIENCE Basic colors psychological signi cance of and what they are Color wheel Saturation Intensity THEORIES OF COLOR PERCEPTION o Trichromatic Theogy of Color Vision 0 According to this theory how do we perceive color What is necessary for normal color vision Know the psychometric and physiological support for this theory Color matching studies know methods and implications of results Know the colors associated with short medium and long cone visual pigments Also know the differences between these pigments in regards to numbers where located in the retina and when discovered Additive vs subtractive color mixture know the differences between these and the outcomes when you mix various color paints vs lights 0 Are 3 color receptors necessarv for color vision Know the differences between I Dichromats know which are sexlinked genetic disorder and what this means in regards to prevalence among males and females 0 Unilateral Dichromatic 7 why are they used to examine how a color deficient person perceives colors I Trichromats I Monochromats I Know the difference between color blind and color deficient OO O O o Opponent Process Theogy of Color Vision 0 According to this theory how do we perceive color What is the psychometric and physiological support for this theory 0 Know why this theory was originally incompatible with the Trichromatic Theory of Color Vision and how this discrepancies was resolved O O Perception Exam 2 Review 4 Support for theog know how each of the items presented below supports this theory Opposing after images Simultaneous color contrast Visualizing colors Color de ciencies Opponent neurons know how these respond to various colors The mechanisms of opponent process theory Know how opponent responding can be created by 3 receptors and how both Trichomatic and Opponent Process Theories are necessary for color vision Processing of color vision takes place in 2 stages be able to describe these stages COLOR DEFFICIENCY o How tested Be able to describe the tests used for this purpose and how people with various color de ciencies would respond to these tests 0 Types of color deficiencies u color blindness J39I I I I cortical COLOR CONSTANCY 0 De nition of color constancy 0 Why it occurs 0 Chromatic adaptation o The effect of surroundings 0 Memory color Chromatic Adaptation Some of you had problems with this on the last quiz 1 Chromatic Adaptation prolonged exposure to chromatic color such as red light selectively bleaches your longwavelength cone pigment which decreases your sensitivity to red light and causes you to see the reds and oranges viewed with your adapted eye as less saturated and bright than those viewed with your nonadapted eye a When in a tungsten lit room your eyes become adapted to the yellowlongwavelengthrich tungsten light which will decrease your eyes sensitivity to long wavelengths This decreased sensitivity causes the longwavelength light re ected from objects to have less effect than before adaptation and this compensates for the greater wavelengths in the tungsten light Perception Exam 2 Review 5 CHAPTER 8 PERCEIVIN G DEPTH amp SIZE 0 DEPTH PERCEPTION THE CUE APPROACH 0 Evidence for the cue approach Tumbull 1961 and Kenge Hudson 1960 o 3 Types Of Cues Oculomotor Convergence Accommodation Binocular Binocular Disparity convergence and Monocular Pictorial Cues Linear Perspective Interposition Relative size Cast Shadows Relative Height Familiar Size Texture Gradients Atmospheric Perspective accommodation MovementProduced Cues Motion Parallax o Binocular Disparity Charles Wheatstone 1802 1875 stereoscope Corresponding Retinal Points Horopter angle of disparity crossed and uncrossed disparity random dot stereograms disparity information in the brain disparity selective neurons zero disparity neurons Selective rearing studies monocular rearing strabismus 0 Our Perception Of Size Can Be In uenced By Our Perception Of Depth 0 Holoway and Boring Experiment Know methods results what happens when depth information is reduced or eliminated and real world examples 0 Size Constancy S KR X D Emmert s Law 0 Visual Illusions know what the illusions are and the explanations for the illusions theories and support for these theories Also know any cultural differences in vulnerability to these illusions o Muller Lyer Illusion Misapplied size constancy Gregory 1966 Con icting Cues Theory Day 1989 1990 and crosscultural differencesSegall Campbell amp Herskovits 1966 o Ames Room relative size explanation Ponzo Illusion Linear Perspective Misapplied size constancy Gregory 1966 Mood Illusion Apparent Distance Theory Angular Size Contrast Theory 00 Q Are Pictures Seen In The Same Way In Different Cultures Hudson 1960 Perception Exam 2 Review 6 CHAPTER 9 PERCEIVING MOVEMENT Basic Principles Of Perception o Perception is the creation of the NS 0 Perception depends on more than the image on the retina o Perception often involves an interaction between different perceptual abilities o Perception often depends on heuristics and topdown 39 Four Different Ways Of Creating The Perception Of Movement Real Movement Apparent Movement Induced movement and Movement Aftereffect Neural Feature Detectors And I Hubel amp Weisel s 1959 1965a Tuning Curve Neural Firing and Judg39ng the Direction of Movement The medial temporal area MT in the dorsal stream Methods of Studying e g Lesioning Stimulating Measuring Activation Movement of the Eyes Corollapx Discharge Theopx Taking Eye Movements Into Account Know this theory methods for testing this theory and research supporting this theory 0 Movement depends on 3 types of signals Motor Signal MS Corollary discharge signals CDS and Image movement signal IMS Know when movement is perceived and when it is not perceived 7 also know why 0 Methods Used to Test Theopv Observing an After Image Pushing on your eyeball following a moving object paralyzing an observer s eye muscles 0 Galletti Battaglinia amp Fattori 119901 Real Movement Neuron Information For Movement In The Optic Array 0 JJ Gibson 1979 optic array Local Disturbances in the Optic Array Global Optical Flow Perceptual Organization And Movement Principles Gestalt Principles Organization of Dots in PointLight Walkers Structure From Motion kinetic depth effect motion capture The Intelligence Of Movement Perception o Heuristics and Movement Movement Continues in the Same Direction good continuation The Occlusion Heuristic An Object s Meaning In uences Movement Perception Knowledge About the Human Body In uences Movement Perception Shiffrar amp Freyd s Experiment 1990 1993 Shortest Path Constraint