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by: Luella Carter

Motivation EXP 4304

Luella Carter
GPA 3.99


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Class Notes
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This 47 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luella Carter on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EXP 4304 at University of South Florida taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/212705/exp-4304-university-of-south-florida in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Exam 3 Review ailiemailusfedu EXAM 3 Info Exam 3 will take place on Tuesday May 3rd at 800 am in the same room PCD 1147 Exam 3 Chapters Exam 3 will be based on the following chapters 13 14 and 15 excluded Ego Psychology subchapter pp4 05 411 from Chapter 14 so there won39t be any questions on the exam from this subchapter Howe39ver excluded only the first two lines from page 41 Object Relations Theory is a topic you c need to know for the exam Individual differences I Somewhat stable characteristics that explain Why people are similar or different eg dispositions personality selfconcept Individual differences I Ones we ve talked about include Goal orientation 1 Entity vs incremental theories of performance Cognitive ability Locus of control I Internals vs externals Selfesteem Individual differences I Normally distributed Most people in the middle few are extreme Thrill S eeking of Avoiders Seekers fOIKS Low High Happiness I Set point for happiness High for some ow for others Returns to baselinefollowing major life events leg winning lottery injury HAPPINESS 7 Neuroticism 39 7 Emotional Set Point Happiness I Set point for happiness Related to approach motivation ISensitivity to positive information lLikelihood of accessing and recalling positive information 1 Biobased and heritable eg twins reared apart Happiness I Set point for happiness Related to approach motivation 1 Positive affectivity PA I Behavioral Activating System BAS 1 Promotion regulatory focus 1 Extra version Happiness I Set point for happiness Extraversion ISociability Preference for social situations lAssertiveness Preference for social dominance IVenturesomeness Preference for excitement stimulation Happiness I What can we say about extraverts Emotionally they are happier than are introverts and enjoy more frequent positive moods than do introverts Extraverts are more sensitive to rewards They have a stronger BAS Behavioral Activating System Note The BAS energizes approachoriented goaldirected behavior Extraversion is heritable twin studies Happiness 1 Set point for happiness is related to E 1 l39 van v a 961265275 39 50me mars Happiness I Set point for unhappiness Related to avoidance motivation ISensitivity to negative information losses amp punishers ILikelihood of remembering accessing and recalling negative information lBiobased and heritable Happiness I Set point for unhappiness Related to avoidance motivation 1 Negative affect NA IBehavioraI Inhibition System BIS 1 Prevention regulatory focus 1 Ne uroticism Happiness I Set point for unhappiness Neuroticism gt a predisposition to experience negative affect and feel chronically dissatisfied and unhappy l Emotionally unstable highly reactive to stress lSubfacets include Anxiety Angerhostility Vulnerability Happiness I What can we say about neurotics I The opposite of neuroticism is emotional stability Neurotics experience I Greater stress IEmotional suffering anxiety fear irritability I Negative thoughts Possess a stronger BIS Behavioral Inhibition System sensitivity to avoidanceoriented behavior Neurotics are particularly sensitive to the potentially punishing aspects of a situation Happiness I Set point for unhappiness is related to Neuroticism 50h m ma me I m lime 35H 3 go a 00 gour busmess ave rena I39m ho have Arousal I Arousal represents a variety of processes that govern alertness wakefulness and ac va on Governed by various systems 1 Cortical reticular formation lAutonomic NS 1 Skeletalmuscular Arousal l Externally and internallyregulated A person s arousal level is mostly a function of how stimulating the environment is eg Stimulating env 9 T arousal Stimulation setpoint lPeople motivated to maintain optimal level of arousal gtUnderarousal9 Busch Gardens party exercise gtOverarousal read a book nap curl up in fetal position Arousal I Underarousal Sensory deprivation lUnchanging visual audio tactile environment I Body combats it by creating stimulation eg dreams hallucinations 1 Consequences Heron s study w college students Blank mind Irritability L cognitive activity Arousal I Overarousal Cumulative stress from daily hassles chronic circumstances amp major life events Consequences Irritability Drains cognitive resources L cognitive activity Forgetfulness Impaired concentration Hyperactive sympathetic NS high blood pressure Arousal I Performance InvertedU High Performance Level Low Arousal High Arousal I Sensation seeking The seeking of varied novel complex and intense sensations and experiences 1 Prefer continual stimulation 1 Hate routine Willing to take physical legal social and financial risks Arousal I Sensation seeking Mundane variety lSpicy foods channel surfing video games Exciting variety lSkydiving Risky variety lBase jumping deviance vandalism theft drug use promiscuous and varied sexual encounters Arousal I Sensation seeking Biological bases 1 High levels of dopamine Approach behavior 1 Low levels of serotonin Beh inhibition lStable over time Temperament studies with infants Emotionally intense reactive newborns tend to be intense reactive children and adults as well Arousal I Affect intensity The strength with which individuals typically experience their emotions Psychological not physiological l Intense emotions are really and emotions are really Control I Sense of control important for motivation Selfefficacy Locus of control Mastery and helpless orientations Perceived control Desire for control Control I Perceived control Belief that interactions with environment will produce desired outcomes and minimize undesired ones I Entails beliefs that a environment is somewhat predictable and responsive b desired outcomes are available Control I Perceived control If high then hhhh greater effort challenging goals and tasks more planning greater effort and persistence maintain positive emotions monitor feedback and adjust behavior Selfconfirming cycles 1 High ctrl T effort T performance T ctrl I Low ctrl L effort L performance L ctrl Control I Perceived control Differs from other stuff we ve talked about 1 Functions as antecedent for constructing beliefs about one s competence efficacy and ability 1 Function of internal and external sources Aspects of situation Coach teacher Available equipment tools Help from God Control I Desire for control Extent that people are motivated to establish control over events in their lives I l preferjobs where l have control over what I do and when I do it l l enjoy having control over my own destiny l l like to have a good idea of what a job is all about before I begin l l do not like to rely on others in order to complete my work Control I39d3 t 39I 9 I I I 3 t i 3 ii 11 Elia I Desire for control It s about desire not actual control lYOU can desire control when you have none lYou can avoid control when you have total power Desire for control good bad when situation is uncontrollable 1 Liabilities Impossible goals Invest too much effort Refuse to disengage Illusion of control Unconscious Motivation gt Thus far we have assumed that goals and behavior are intentional Selfef cacy Planning gt Butane they always Unconscious Motivation 5 Automaticity Schmidar 8 Shi rin 1977 Outside awareneas Without Intention Uncontroliabla Ef cient fast depletes few cognitive msoumes gt Most behavior is mix of auto and ctrl Driving a car Playing Guitar Hero fax Psychoanalytic Theory gt Freud psychoanalysis presents a deterministic and pessimistic View of human nature J Deterministic Unconscious biological amp social lrnpulsss determine behavior Personality fixed after puberty a Pessimistic Impulsss concern aggression sex 8 conflict Psychoanalytic Theory 1 Dual Instinct theory Satisfying bio needs and Instincts builds energy Physical bio energy feeds psychic mental energy Freud the physician Everything boils down to instincts Psychoanalytic Theory gt Dual lnstlnct theory Instinct for life Eros a Maintain life and ensure own amp species survival 4 Sex nurturance af liation a Pleasure seeking 1 Psychoanalytic Theory 3 Dual Instinct theory Instinct for death Thanatos J Inherent urge to return to state of calm Inactivity energy conservation J Aggression directed toward the saif vs others Psychoanalytic Theory gt Dual Instinct theory I a Instincts speci ed as wishes or desires No physiological basis a Operate via actualwish discrepancies Reduced by changing behavior Not being a99nassiva go pick a ght Psychoanalytic Theory gt Freudian personally ld J Immediate grati cation pleasure principle Suporogo J Consclenoe soda norms 0 Ego Mediates Id and superego reality principle Psychodynamic Theory gt Four postulates of psychodynemic theory 1 Unconscious 4 Mental life mostly unconscious 2 Peychodynalnlce 4 Psychic forces often oompete 3 Ego development a Heailhlness a maturity Interdependence 4 Object relations theoty J Mental schemes of self and others from childhood guide adult behavior Three Conceptuallzations of the Unconscious Unconscious gt Freudian Unconscious Cannot be known directly mshadow phenomenon 3 Components of the mlnd A Combos A Pmclous 4 Unconscious Impulaos wishos dams repressed oxporionoos 4 Iceberg Unconscious Freud39s model of personalith structure Praeonsciaus HBIQI i I must beneaih the sunace a awareness a 1 7 r Unconscious Dll rcull Io v wlrlwe quotInterim well below the surface a awareness Unconscious gt Freudian Unconscious a Cannot be known directly a Can be infomd from indirect manifestations a Free association J Hypnosis J Projective tests J Humor 2 Errors accidents amp slips Fraud s theory 1 Dreams


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