HIST US TO DATE
HIST US TO DATE HIST 1320
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmalee Bruen on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1320 at Texas State University taught by J. Selcraig in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/212722/hist-1320-texas-state-university in History at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
August 24 2011 History HIST 1320 Dr Jim Selcraig JS32txstateedu 512 2453746 TaylorMurphy 224 Emma Long Sl Three times a week meeting Lecture 1 Reconstruction A Begins after the civil war 1865 B Period of Reform and change in the south Definition reconstruct the South C Led by Radical republicans Examples 0 13 h amendmentAbolished slavery o 14 h amendmentguarantee legal equality equal protection effecteliminates discrimination goal was to eliminate discrimination o 15 h amendmentgrant the right to vote to black MEN no women black or what can vote which party do they vote forRepublican 90can run for office and get electedblack men win some electionsnow not a slavemaking the law and enforcing the law So period of change as a result D OPONNENTS 1 Critics Democrats 2 Didn t like reconstructiondon t want equality 3 EXPLAIN why democrats didn t like equality E COMPROMISE of 1877 1 Marks of end of reconstruction Radical Republicans loose political powerlosers 2 Racist Democrats take power after 1877 II AGE OF SEGREGATION 18771920 Starts in 1877 A White Supremacy 1 2 Lynching a Lynching is a racist violent act b A group of racist doing violence against one or more black persons The violence is going to be brutal or cruel in a long drawn out process c Slowly torture a black individual It is a gradual process taking 4 6 1 0 hours d Because it took so long there are always witnesses It is always done with a group of whites The whites were never arrested put on trial convicted e What is significant white southerners approved of lynching They knew it was going on and approved At the end of lynching the black person is dead The purpose is to scare and intimidate all the other blacks in the town 1 Don39t vote don39t go in the store 2 You have no rights in the south 3 We are going to control your life 4 Mob processnot legal process White Politics a Going to exclude black men from voting b Excluded in different ways 1 Lynching white Violence 2 State Laws in the South Purpose of States laws was to exclude and discriminate Whites were successful in excluding blacks from voting So even though the blacks had the right to vote and run for office they were excluded State laws dealing with segradation These souther state laws that delt with segration That whites had power and say so to dominate in terms of any possibility KEY to that segration is not seperatness Students who define segradation as separateness will fail EXAMPLE Every student who comes to any university will beNOT SeparatenessSense of power control dictatorshipone group controls the other 3 Poll tax literacy tax Does the Literacy test test for literacy N0 IT DOES NOT The literacy test is discriminatory Test standards for whites were different from requirements for blacks The purpose of the test was to discriminate 4 Share cropping most important work system in the south a Most signi cantin this system whites owned the and white landlords with blackfarm workersemployeesworking on the landfor the white owner b In this system the black farm worker will work for several months until the harvest After several months when the crop comes in the blackfarm worker is promised a share ofthe crop However what happened instead was that the black remained in poverty because they were cheated out of their share They did notget what they were promised c Sharecropping was a sort ofa dead end EMPHASISE In 2011 we see it as unfair in that time it was the law All of the white land lords used this system to enrich themselves RESEMBLES SLAVERY in many ways QUESTION Was discrimination the same in the North QUESTION What was the mindset for people in Texas 3 Black Resistance 11 Family several things emphasize 1 The family was more unified and more secure than during slaveryduring slavery family members could be sold 2 The black family was under stress during this period The family may be poor but they will never be sold 3 The black family gave a positive sense of identity to other family member This positive self esteem and dignity challenges WHITE SUPREMACY as can be seen in the following a Ifgrandfather had not volunteered to ghtfor the United States in 1863 ourfamily might not have walked in such proud shoes andfelt so assured ofits place in history What he attempted made him our colossus and beacon light Because ofhim wefelt that we belonged that we had a stake in our country sfuture and we clung to that no matter how often it was snatched awayfrom us As a childgrowing up I was never allowed toforget thatgrandfather had been a soldier b Christianity 1 God opposes racial injustice discrimination and therefore not only is the mother and father giving positive self esteem GOD is on the side of the black christens being abused and oppressed 2 Black Christianity believes in judgment day God is going to bring those black christens to heaven That white land lord will burn in hell forever Well burn in hell with Lee and Davis God is a source of hope to the oppressed and a source of salvation QUESTION Were blacks christens Blacks hear sermons good samaraton ruleare white people following what they said QUESTION Did what Supremacist believe They were told that the bible approved of their white Supremacy ways Slave owners believed in Christianity and believed in slavery QUESTION Where did get LAND for churches Land not of much value c Work 1 Booker T Washington Born a salve He grows up a slavefreed by the war and the 13 h amendment Brand new freed person a Tuskegee Institute School set upbegan Tuskegee Institute Purpose was to teach practical job skill Teach everydayjob skills so black can get ajob Graduates can get a job Ifyou can get ajob you won t be a sharecropper Come to my school and become a whateveryou want at do soyou won t have to be a sharecropper anymore Come to my school soyou will have option QUESTION Did they have to pay for it IT WAS NOT FREE QUESTION How did he get the money He went to Northern Whites and persuaded them to give him money for the school Look at him as a salesman as someone who can walk into a room and persuade he had the knackgift to walk out with money Very very good at it Over the years Tuskegee will become famous but it start QUESTION What date di it start He started it in the 1880 s After 1877 QUESTION How did they afford to go He put them to work Who built the first building at the school The students built the buildings The students built the school and cleaned the school POP QUIZ Are you going to be taught history etcNOthose things have no job skillfocused on Job skills and WORK QUESTION Job market for graduates Yes Whites would hire blacks because they could pay them less So there were job opportunities Washington was quite on politics because he didn t want to alienate potential customeremployers Don t talk politics QUESTION Where Alabama August 29 2011 POLITICAL ACTIVITISM 11 Homer Plessy Plessy v Fergusion challenges segration End up in the supreme court Court ruled that segregation was legal Plessy looses b WEB DuBois 1 He was an African American and one of the black founders of the NAACP 2 Also political activist a Wants to challenge segregation politically b DuBois and the NAACP knew they wouldfoil in the short term Knows he can t change the system quickly Hove since ofdeterminotion courage nevergive in never throw in the towel Con tin ueyeor ofteryear being hordnosed and persistent c Very active Disagrees with Booker T Washington He is not quite You are wrong to be quite on politics Economics and Business 1865 to 1900 III Industrial Revolution A Railroads 1 Invented before the civil war Not the beginning the beginning was before the civil warwhat changes after the civil war a More railroad track was built throughout the United States The best example track was built across the continent all the way to the west coast Huge transformation with all the railroad track being built b Previously RR engines were leled by wood Now instead there is a new engine fueled by coal The new engine is a more powerful engine Generates more horsepowerthis new coal burning engine results more speed and more cargofreight at one time The key isn t how fast it39s how much you can haul The new coal burning engine can haul more freight Not whetheryou can haul 4 cars behindyou but whetheryou can haul 50 cars behind you As the RR grows the coal mines grow c The RR is going to divide the US into di erent time zones divided by the Railroads The result of this is that people are going to have a new since of time People are going to have a standardized time Eastern Time western time Mountain Time All the little towns had different time before that The RR put everyone on the same time Everyone changed from individualism to d The RR is going to grow in the size of their business RR are going to become bigger and bigger business with more employees more freightbecause they are going to grow to such since CORNELIUS VANDERBILT is a good example of those businessmen responsible for these changes RR Company Owner QUESTION 2 Andres Carnegiegoing to start a NEW business in a new industry a Carnegie Steel Company Steel is a new product New industry with a new product Carnegie is a successful business manSELL LOTS of steel to 1 Railroad 2 First Skyscrapers Began to use skyscrapers for the interior framing For a long time people used brick and stone but steel is stronger Now buildings can be taller than five stories They can be built much taller CHART France Russia Great Britain Germany United States has twice the produciton1880 1914 b 0 dJ john D Rockefellernew produanew business 1 Standard Oil 2 Refineries Produces kerosene as predominate consumer productused for lamps people used kerosene lamps to light their homeskerosene is a very success productonce again his business starts small and growsPost Civil War activity 3 Refineries located in Northern Statesthat39s where oil had been discovered Built his re neries close to where it was discovered NOT TEXAS Thomas Edison 1 Electric Light BulbThomas Edison is going to invent the electric light bulb He is an unsuccessful businessmanfailed to make his company growreason is it was too exspensive and too complicated to set up an electric gridway too expensive and complicated to make money quicklyonce again if you set up an electric grid you have to build an electric power plant have to run wire to everything once again if you create all the plants and wires how much do you generatetoo much and you blow out the circuits if too little brownoutstwo types AC and DC he believed should be based on DC he was wrongHad a nice invention but really hard to takeWith invention of light blub doe ROckfeller loose moneynopeople are still using lanmps 2 PhonographEdison is going to invent the phonefailed agin in making into a consumer productdidn39t think it could be used for musicnice inventorit is just difficult to take an invention and make it into a successful businessCarnigie and Rockfeller grew their business QUE STION He thought it would be used for office dictation for dictating letters to their secretary Alexander Graham Bell also failed as a businessmanalso unsuccessful in making into a businessreally hard to establish a telephone gridsystem full of wire full of lines lots of houses Pretend I am a salesman and you are the rst to be offered a telephonehave to sell lots ofphonessold patentent to A TampT 1 Telephone 2 ATampTled by 6 type of film Retail 3 a Theodore Vailgoing to make ATampTgrowtake the telephonefrom a small product very limitedgoing to make ATampTgrow into a medium sized businessfew had telephonesway too complicated to use a phone QUESTION where were phone rst set upbig cities and wealthy neighborhoods in those cities It was the wealthy who could a ord the phones and electricityBoth ageography and class issue QUESTION wasn tATampT around beforeyes it was telegraphthey grafted the telephone onto the telegraph business QUESTION What is the cost with various companies laying down di erent lines One system had wires that connected some people some connected othersVAIL tried to take over all the small companies in to one large companyprocess that took several decades to gure out ifall these companies should be separate Ifyou talked to someone who had a MAC or PC in the 80 s they were entirely di erent systems Now days they are more compatible Photographybefore civil warVery expensive to take and develop photoswhat changes George Eastmaninvented new camera called Kodak and new 1 Kodakfim cheaper and easier to usefirst camera for the average consumerinvents makes and sells the cameras and develops the filmtherefore there are many more photos after the civil war More photos of average people You had to send you film back to Kodak to be developed His business did all aspects selling developing 1 Department Storesgoing to be in the big citiesgoing to be locally ownereach city had it s own department storeN0 National Chain yetiust locally ownedThey are located downtownthey are big buildings three to five stories tall No stores in the suburbs In 1885 people bought downtown 2 Mail order businessstarted by 11 Montgomery Word as business growhas competator b Richard Searsboth of them crated catalogs full of various products Full of all sorts of productsall of these catalogs people could read through and order by mail These products would be delivered by the railroad therefore Sears and Wards grows because there are more RR tracks and more RR going to more placescould you build a mail order business before the civil war NO because there was no way to get the products to themthe KEY was it was RR distributedSEVERAL MORE THINGS who are their customers The people who can t go to townrural peoplesmall towns If you live in a big city you go to the big department store but ifyou can t you orderfrom Wards or Sears QUESTION Was more expensive More competitive than local stores Question guns sold YESls there a sears store inAustin or Dallas NO NO NO Sears and Stores do not have stores Ordering by Mail send through sears headquarters you don t go to a store EASY POP QUIZ QUESTION QUESTION since everyone ordering same price Varies depending on location shipping costs QUESTION Have to order more NO you can order one thing because they knew you would buy more later these are small businesses that GRO W Finance 1 NYC Stock market 2 Wall Street a P MorganInvestment bankerbuys stock in a particular company buys in another company x y 2 then merges all ofthe companies into one company Makes one huge company by combining many small His job as investment banker was to build bigger through the stock market buying company stocks Buys and sells stock to make a company grow EXAMPLE creats a new steel company 1 US Steel a Morgan buys out Carnegie Steel b Carnegie retires so Morgan buys out the stock then he buys several rivalscompetitors to create one GIANT company c Morgan creates a huge business DON T write big business it s a HUGE ie Carnegie Steel 20000 employees while US Steel 1 68000 employees 1 Morgan believed in HUGE Question N0 regulation N0 regulationthat sgood because we aregoing to get another lecture atsome point about regulation Overall economic characteristics 1 Economic boom growth a Depressions in 1870 s amp 1890 ssome periods of slumps Most people saw this as a modern areatheir area was being economically transformed From their point of view they lived in a period of amazing change 2 Rise of big business a Trusts Business grows in size and scalemuch bigger than before the civil war 3 Personality of Big Businessmen Very competeitive on an individual levelby making their business grow they are crushing small business From their perspective this is competition a Social Darwinism beliefconcept life is a competition not easy those who win power successful deserve their success wealth If you are poor you are to blame The people at the top derserve it and the people at the bottom deserve that also because they are inferior If I created a big business I didn t do anything wrong lam just a better businessman than you are You are just a failure SURVIVAL of the FITTEST nickname SUCCESS of the FITTEST 4 The United States increased the size of the national market the United States is moving products back and fourth between different regions They are buying and selling between different areas The North and the South buy and sell to each other They are economically linked to each other Another example are East and West They are also linked into a single market INTERDEPENDANT with each state EXAMPLE a The West b Cattle Ranchers what are they going to do They are going to put their cattle on the railway and move the cattle to the East Run by i Gus Swift ii Philip Armour iii MEATPACKERS Swift and ArmourThey own big meat packing plants in various areas They are national companies national in scop Ranchers dependant on markets in the East Rancher Railroad Meatpackers 5 QUESTION Support big businesssome support and some don t 6 QUESTONDepressons of the 1870 s and 90 s didn t last long but there were several times then the layed people off They were short periodsthere were slumps but most of the time it was a period of growth GOVERNMENT POLICIES TOWARD THE ECONOMY 1865 TO 1900 1 Conservatives Dominant political faction In both Republican and Democrative Party 2 Limited role of government LaisseZfaire Conservatives did not believe you should regulate the trusts Court case CC Knight court case Supreme Court ruled that the government could not regulate the trust The government role should be limited hands Off Conservatives did not want laws to protect the consumer Business could claim anything in advertising Lack of unified quality in a productthe cosumer can t be sure a product is as advertised QUESTION can sue No LET THE BUYER BE WARE The idea that 1 Conservatives a Dominant political faction b In both Repub amp Dem Party 2 Limited role of government LaisseZfaire a No Regulation of trusts i EC Knight Court Case b No consumer protection i Let the buyer be ware c Banks are not regulated by the government Since not regulated putting your money into the bank is risky The bank might be honest or it might not be No laws regulating the banks d Stock MarketNo laws regulating the stock market Stock brokers can claim any profit they wantQU ESTIO NS stock owner or broker e Enfironmental Protection there are no laws regulating the environment so there are massive pollution EXAMPLE Air Pollution caused by coal smoke SECOND EXAMPLE Waterfactories dumped their waste into the water It was common to dump excess into the local creek MASSIVE environmental problems Open Immigration the government had an open immigration policy That ment that immigrants were allowed in in large numbers The result was that all these extra workers remained low or declined a little bit Economic impact No government stopping the immigration QUESTION Were a lot of them from Europe QUESTION Why laissezfare Why policies QUESTION What was the ruling on EC KNIGHT Government could NOT break up the trust 3 Active Role conservatives believed the government should have an active role a Indians The government defeated the Indians The government took their land and put the Indians on reservations The Indian land was taken by the government When you take someone s land that isn t laziefare that is strong government Railroads land grants and loans the government gave land to the railroads The government also gave easy loans to the railroads The government was deeply involved in building the railroads Texas gave 32153878 acres to railroads QUeSTION Why Tariffs conservatives believed in high tariffs What is a tariffs Tariff is a tax on foreign product Tariffs increased the government was involved in the economy EXAMPLE BR product 3 US product 5 Put tariff on BR to make it more expensive than domestic Gold Standard Under a gold standard the government will have an amount of gold in Fort Knox Whatever that amount is the government can print the same amount in paper money There is a quotstandardquot between printed money and gold What is the effect of this equilivancy Interest rates tend to be higher because the economy is growing The gold amount is fixed AntiUnion The government did not like unions The government tried to break unions in many different ways ANSWER WHY Why would conservatives sometimes have an active role THE ANSWER IS both of these are methods wanted to help big business and big trust Government wanted to help the winners Become wealthy and we will help you September 2 2011 History HIST 1320 Dr Jim Selcraig JS32txstateedu 512 2453746 TaylorMurphy 224 1 Populists Definition Poor farmers South amp West LeftWing critics of conservatives 2 Problems Culturejokes stories poems songs farmers were often ridiculed backward stupid ignorant because they never went to the city City person considered to be smart savvy streetwise Country portrayed to be hick Populists didn t like that they were ridiculed PRCE PER CROP price was generally falling because of overproduction Most years the farmers felt they were economically were at the short end of the stick CHART 1866 to end of the civil war 1989 price of wheat going down RRs didn t like the railroads Why Farmers sold their crops to the RR The farmers felt the RR were making lots of money Felt the RRs were making money off the farmers Only carried crop for a few days and made tons of money BANKS Angry at banksWHY Banks charged high interest rates to the farmers Farmers felt the banks were exploiting them Felt interest rates were higher than what was fair Government Angry at the governmentThe GOLD standard busted the interest rates up The government is on the banks side The Government WAS CONTROLED BY CO NSERVITVE from both sides DO NOT LIKE GOLD STANDARD POPU LIST PARTY 3rd Party Created their own party because of all those reasons CRITICS of SOCIAL DARWIUISM the Populist didn t believe in social Darwinism The felt they were being cheated rather than deserving their fate QUESTION Republican other parties Conservatives in both parties run things QU ESTION Money to campaign CARTOON Businessman on the railroad is robbing the farmer Gov with army is on the businessman s side QUOTE Wall Street owns this country IT is no longer a government of the people by the people and for the people but a government of Wall Street by Wall Street and for Wall Street 3 ELECTION OF 1896 RWilliam McKinleyRepublicans nominate William McKinley Republican Conservative Likes Gold Standard Likes high Tariffs etc Traditional conservative DWilliam Jennings BryanDemocrats is the democrat candidate but NOT a conservative REFORMER 31 FREE SILVERAgainst the Gold Standard gong to change to concept called free silverjust called free silverwhat it would really do is change the gold standard purpose is to lower interest rates more prosperity to the poor farmers 32 Phrases Farmers and rural people as the best Americans Won the west Does this in many speeches MOST FAMOUS CROSS OF GOLD SPEECHmade same speech over and over again all across the United States In this speech FREE SILVER PHRASE THE FARMERS llYou come to us and tell us that your great cities are in favor of the gold standard We reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies Burn down your cities and leave our farms and your cities will spring up again as if by magic But destroy our farms and grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country Having behind us the producing masses of this nation supported by the laboring interests and the toilers everywhere we will answer their demand for a gold standard by saying ot them You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold I THE DEMOCRATICE CONSERVITIVES VOTED REPUBLICAN BECAUSE THE WERE CONCERNED ABOUT William Jennings Bryan Associates to religion thus connecting with the farmers who were religious QUESTION New to bring religion like that No but Bryan did it with great skill Not brand new but did it really good He considered the best speaker of his day QUESTION Did he grow up a farmer No but he identified himself with him QUESTION Were all the farmers Populist Nodepends upon the year Significant as a 3rd party because they were a significant QUESTION ARE THE POPU LISTS GOING TO JOIN THE DEMOCRAT PARTY THE DO POPULIST in 1896 do not run their third party but endorse the democrat CONSERVICE voters vote republican MCKINLEY WINS ELECTION Bryan is decisively beaten AFTERMATH After the election of 1896 the populists never organize a 3rd party They still think in a populist way but never organize a 3rd party QUSTION Is this what causes the switch REPUBICANDEMOCRAT It is one thing that shifts but there are many other QUESTON When shift to Republican do they tend to stay Republican Yes they generally stayas long as Bryan ranconservative democrats hated him QU ESTON NAACP in the USwhen you have a 3rd party they lose The tradition is that the 3rd party will rise and go away because they never win QUESTON Why Bryan did not get populist vote He was a democrat reformer QUESTION Was Wizard of Oz based on it Some connection between the Wizard of OZ and populist story Yes QUESTION Would Free Silver really work FREE SILVER WAS NO BETTER No better either one based on something too limited and simplistic WORKERS 1865 to 1900 1 STATUS a Positives i WagesThese guys are making regular wages A worker is working in a factory earning wages ii ECO Opportunity Ex to invent they had the opportunity to invent stuff 1 Horatio Algerwriterauthor PLOT Rages to Riches success story WORK HARD at the end of the book SUCCESS Very positive yes you can pull yourself up by your bootstraps b NEGATIVES or problems Worked 1112 HoursDay and 6 daysweek felt physically and mentally beaten because of all the work These guys never say a weekend Only one day off Six days on and one day off no vacations Work Dangers when a worker got injured sick that worker would loose their job no compensation or benefits working conditions no air conditioner no exhaust system can t keep up due to sickness you would be fired QUESTION hours per day considered the norm iii Increasing gap from the rich felt the gap between the rich was getting bigger They felt this was because there was no income tax CHILD LABOR families got their kids to quite school and go to work permanently At aged 9because the father feels he isn t making enough IE money Feels the family would starve if the kids don t work QUESTION Wheat price Over production QUESTION Children make same wages No they make less QUESTION Children have to work same hours QUESTION If they quite school did they go back Generally no If you went to college you were part of a tiny elite QUESTION if the children are going to the work force do the women go to the workforce No a few women did but the women s place was considered in the home QUESTION If you are a rich child did you go to college Some did Most average people did not go to college QUESTION Little girls work They would work usually in a domestic faction MAID 2 Activism Form Unions went on strikes a Challenge Social Darwinism
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