PSYC 2011.11 Day 4 Notes - 9/22/15
PSYC 2011.11 Day 4 Notes - 9/22/15 PSYC 2011
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Oona Intemann on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2011 at George Washington University taught by Woodruff, P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 98 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
NOTES TUESDAY 92215 Reading for this week Chapter 5 Anxiety Disorders Moody Bitches book by Julie Holland Middleaged female psychiatrist Discusses how our moodiness is an inevitability of our biology the effects that the drugs we take and the food we eat have on our behavior Sigmund Freud s Defense Mechanisms Repression 0 Employed by the ego keeps disturbing or destructive thoughts away from our consciousness Denial o Blocking past events or truths from memory or awareness refusing to admit something happened Rationalization 0 Making explanations for the things that happen rationalizing them in our mind Reaction Formation 0 Taking our troubling thoughts and making them into the opposite of what they are Regression o Reverting to an immature pattern of behavior ie a temper tantrum as an adult etc Identification o Adopting the characteristics of an individual you consider to be more desirable than yourself Sublimation 0 An outlet that could be harmful or helpful ie venting frustration in another matter channeling anger or energy and using it to do something else Projection 0 To attribute to others the undesirable characteristics that you actually possess Freud s daughter wrote a book called Ego and the Mechanisms of Defense She outlined over 30 mechanisms of defense after a while they seem like different words for the same things Mechanisms of defense are based on three factors innate traits biologically determined mental states and environmental in uences Sigmund Freud s Stages of Psychosexual Development Oral stage 0 018 months 0 Mouth and lips are zone of pleasure o Biting chewing etc Anal stage 0 1836 months 0 Erogenous zone there discovers pleasure from expulsion of feces bladder control Phallic stage 0 36 years 0 Genital areamasturbation 39 Oedipus complexElectra complex Freud thought that the phallic stage was the Oedipus stage for a boy and the Electra stage for a girl He thinks this is biologically determined The boy lusts after his mother hates his father The girl wishes to submit to her father and hate her mother The boy will then decide to identify with his father s behavior and values same with the girl and her mother Our superego comes from the phallic stage 0 The boy or girl does not have seX with the parent so they learn rejection BUT they incorporate the values from the parents Freud does not understand women was considered a seXist 0 Thought that girls had weaker superegos than boys 39 Castration anxiety Fear of emasculation 39 Penis envy Latency stage phase Desire of females to be as masculine as males 0 From age 56 to puberty o Affectionate attachment to members of the same sex 0 You begin focusing on school sports instead of actual seX Genital stage 0 Puberty and onward o Con uence of sexuality and affection o Masturbation some sort of intercourse Fixation at a particular stage might happen if there is regression or if it was not developed enough Fixation results in a personality type Type A personality is when you re stuck at the anal stage Freud was focused on our unconscious motives in us Importance of early childhood experience Provided us a treatment method But he had a fixation on sex His theories are hard to investigate with scientific method There were others Carl Jung who modif1ed his ideas He developed the ideas of an introvert and extrovert Developed the MyersBriggs personality test Alfred Adler personality complex striving for perfection drive of aggression Karen Homey womb envy male desire of biological functions of women Henry Stack Sullivan St Elizabeth s Hospital DC Interpersonal relationships Humans are social animals This affects our behavior Eric Erickson lifespan development Eight stages from birth to death trust vs mistrust integrity vs despair Things that stem from problems in our childhood Psychoanalysis is supposed to help the patient come to terms with what s been repressed Techniques of Psychoanalysis Individual would be on a couch head a bit elevated analyst would sit in a chair Person on couch would say whatever came to mind Dream Analysis the preconscious o Manifest content the storyline of your dream 0 Latent content what the dream really meant Freud wrote a 600page book on the interpretation of dreams He always interpreted things to mean penis or vagina Staircases moving trains meant intercourse Someone might cancel the appointment change the subject this was good the patient had reached the point of resistance and now you could delve deeper and nd out what was really going on Last thing that would happen would be transference the patient beings to perceive the therapist as someone from their past a friend a lover a parent etc Warned about countertransference the therapist takes his emotions and places them on other people Since Freud s methods began shortening the period of time that one is in therapy 0 His viewpoints were centered around sex and aggression about 80 sexual and about 20 aggression Today the emphasis is more on the patient s current life situation Method is very time consuming expensive Many people feel that they have benefitted from psychoanalysis 0000 It does remain the treatment of choice for people seeking extensive self evaluation of insight about themselves Here in the US the most common schools of psychoanalysis are the Freudian methods As we are more concerned with our hormones and brain chemicals there is less and less importance placed on psychoanalysis Behavioral ModelBehaviorism Dominated the US between 1920 and 1960 Seeks to discover in the lab general laws of human and animal behavior Can apply these laws to the classroom workplace prison etc Some in common with Freud s thoughts 0 Environmentalism I All organisms are shaped by their environment 0 Experimentalism I What aspects of the environment caused the behavior 0 Optimism I Concerning change if a person is a product of the environment then if you change the environment you would change them 0 Antimentalism I Mental events thoughts and feelings are not valid as scientific inquiry Mary Roach book about digestion Also takes us back to Pavlov he was studying digestion initially He demonstrated that dogs can be conditioned to expect food He had already observed that a hungry dog salivates when it sees food coming in this case meat powder This is a perfectly normal response unconditioned response salivating UCS unconditioned stimulus the meat powder Pavlov did not initially use a bell to signify food delivery he used a tuning fork and then presented the meat powder Dog stops salivating after one or two times not getting the meat powder after the sound He found the dog would salivate at a bell buzzer metronome He discovered stimulus generalization o The conditioned stimulus creates similar responses in a subject after the response has been conditioned I 1913 John Watson s experiment with Little Albert Extremely unethical Baby was 11 months old at the time Watson wanted to see if you could condition fear in a human He would sound a very loud noise and Albert would give the normal response for a baby he would cry Watson would then take one of the lab rats and let Albert play with it he would pet it let it crawl over him Watson had a steel bar hanging from a ring and a hammer 0 Albert was put on a table handed the rat and then Watson would make a loud noise several times behind him 0 On the 8th time Watson showed the rat without the noise and Albert cried crawled away Little Albert never reached adulthood which would not be uncommon in the early 1900s
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