THE SPACE RACE
THE SPACE RACE HIST 3368J
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emmalee Bruen on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3368J at Texas State University taught by J. Mauck in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see /class/212724/hist-3368j-texas-state-university in History at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Lunar Science Otherwise known as lunar geology 7 purpose is to tell the history Things we learned from lunar geology o The moon is mostly dead The moon consists of Maria seas and terrae highland areas What the moon is made of Theories on how it was created The debate over what created the moon s surface features I Created by volcanism and impacts but mostly impacts I Huge Basins 7 impacts lled with lava Craters are round and can be explained because even impacted at an angle meteors produce round holes and vaporize on contact Eugene Shoemaker o Decided in 1948 that we will go to the moon and he wanted to go but got Addison s disease and be the rst lunar geologist 19571959 7 Unlocks the mystery of Meteor Crater Discovers secondary impact craters at Copernicus 7 ejected rock from the explosion Dominated lunar geology until he quiet just after Apollo 11 O O O O OO O 0 Most astronomers in the late 1950s thought going to the moon was a waste of money Harold Urey 0 Did not believe the moon came from the Earth 0 It was a primordial piece of solar system 0 Helped convince NASA that moon was a good direction 1959 7 NASA head Glennan believes the US can beat the Russians to the moon and will gain knowledge of the origins of the solar system 1959 7 Luna 2 crashes on the moon 1960s 7 Using photographs and telescopes the US maps the moon to pick landing sites and so begins lunar geology as a serious eld The Gold Problem 0 Scientist Thomas Gold obsessed with the idea that powdery regolith could be hundreds of thousands of meters thick and the Lander would sink Apollo 1 0 January 27 1967 0 Fire in the capsule cause by a small spark in 16 PSI pure oxygen environment and 16 miles of open wire 0 Gus Grissom Ed White and Roger Chaffee died The hatch was very dif cult to open at the time so the men could not get out quickly 0 Using 5 times the PSI of Mercury and Gemini There was no sharing of information between the US and the Soviet s so had no idea about the same thing happening to the Soviet s in 1961 Gus Grissom O O o Probably would have been the first to land on the moon 0 Wife sued North American Aviation and won I Many astronauts were upset about this because they knew the risks they were getting involved in o CongressionalInvestigation o Mondale 7 Why send rockets into space when we can feed the poor 0 Phillips Report of 1965 0 James Webb head of NASA had no idea about the Phillips Report 0 NASA investigation 0 NASA and North American take blame 0 NASA completely remodeled the capsule 0 Never conclusive on the exact cause because the damage was too extensive but knew it had to do with the sealed pressurized cabin and ammable materials and wiring Apollo 8 o LEM not ready in 1968 7 still too heavy and every pound makes a difference 0 November 1967 first Saturn 5 launch goes well the second not very well 0 George Low 0 Conceives of idea of moon trip and orbit o Webb concerned of the risk after Apollo l and the risk of ruining the entire program 0 Borman skeptical but goes along 0 The Crew 0 Frank Borman Jim Lovell Bill Anders o The Mission 0 6 day trip to the moon orbit and return 0 Scout land sites 0 Encourage nation after disasters of 68 I MLK and Robert Kennedy assassination protests about the war bad race relations 0 Man enters deep space 7 greatest historic significance of ight 0 Laws of Celestial Mechanics give them free ride home after and essential burn o Hypergols 7 no igniter when the two fuels reach each other it explodes 0 Moon had much less mass than earth 0 Became the first humans to see the entire earth Apollo 9 10 11 o Sixties culture and NASA 0 The American left was more focused on Vietnam Civil Rights and the women s movement to really pay much attention to NASA 0 Radicals targeted LBJ Nixon war racism and lack of money for social programs 0 Race 0 Ralph Abernathy calls Apollo a waste of money 0 Space states were Alabama Florida not as badly segregated and Texas o MLK never mentions anything about the space program 0 1971 Ruth Bates Harris appointed rst equal opportunity director I Clashes with Von Braun 0 Doors were closed to women and minorities at the time because they could not get engineer degrees and most were not ghter pilots 0 Media was generally very nationalistic and conservative until Vietnam 0 People around the world were very excited about space 0 Apollo 10 o LEM in Lunar Orbit 0 Total checkout of system 0 Examines landing sites 0 Mascons 7 mass concentrations density not spread evenly through the mass 0 Apollo 11 0 World applauds achievement at a time when US popularity at an all time low 0 Seen as a human accomplishment o The space race was a push to get people to mimic the US system of democracy and capitalism 0 Vietnam ruined any advancement we had made with the space race 0 Nixon and NASA 0 Had pushed Ike to do something about Sputnik but only for political gain 0 Didn t have a lot of interest in social policy or the space race more interest in foreign policy 0 Detente 7 wanted to ease tensions with the Russians o Nixon s task force 0 Webb had been promised missions through 20 but resigns and is replace by Thomas Paine I Paine was an advocate of the continuation of deep space exploration but did not have the president s support 0 The task force recommends I 12 man space station in near future 50 man by 1980 I Lunar Base by 1976 I Mars by 1981 I All this gets the boot 0 Just as NASA turns to real science the budget axe begins to fall I 15 16 and 17 did amazing science work Moon Machines Movie 0 Saturn 5 rocket 0 May 1961 Kennedy says we will go to the moon at the end of the decade 0 Huntsville 7 rocket city 0 German rocket engineers 7 Van Braun 0 Van Braun very persuasive especially toward Kennedy 0 Kennedy felt resentment toward VB bc at the same time he meet him and he also learning about the real death of his brother 0 Saturn 1 began the process of staging 0 Getting to the moon was a 3 stage process 0 5 Fl Engines 7 stage one o 5 J2 Engines 7 stage two 0 2 J2 Engines 7 stage three 0 Sonny Morea 0 Stage 1 Director Government produced 0 Donald Binns 0 Stage 2 Director North American Aircraft 0 Reduced weight by going from two tanks to one with a divider between the two different liquid fuels 0 Don Brinkca 0 Stage 3 Director Douglas Aircraft 0 Welding was a big problem but was eventually solved 0 Nov 9 1967 o The Saturn 5 was tested 0 Also know as Apollo 4 o Unmanned 0 Successful Perfect ight 0 Apollo 6 0 April 1968 Less than 2 min in things started going bad Too much vibration Stage 2 one of the J2 engines was failing and shut down I More engines began to fail 25 0 Close call but Apollo 6 made it to orbit 0 Apollo 8 o Borman Lovell and Anders o 215 miles above the earth 7 lst goal 0 2quotd goal get to the moon 000 Part 2 0 Command module needed electricity 0 Batteries 0 Solar Panels 0 Finally choose liquid fuel cells 0 Splashdown initially sunk and also happened with Gus Grissom ight 0 Apollo l 0 An explosion occurred and the crew died 0 A spark ignited under 16 psi and caused a huge explosion Part 3 Lunar Module 0 John Hobolt o Lunar module idea 7 rendezvous and docking in lunar orbit 0 Shut down and many believed he was crazy 0 VB favored direct dissent and wanted Hobolt to shut his mouth 0 Hobolt wrote to Bob Seamans that VB s idea was wrong and he believed that LOR was the only way 0 Hobolt s proposal was given a hearing and it became a serious turning point I VB agreed with Hobolt and Lunar orbit rendezvous o Grommen Received the bid to make the lunar module Located on Long Island NJ Changed many times Made in one of the very first clean rooms Shook out any extra debris in each stage White Sands NM I Built a rocket testing facility I Assent engine was the most important to manufacture If failed the astronauts would be lost on the moon I Fuel was so coercive after every test the engine had to be rebuilt 0 Very risky 0 Had to find ways to heavily insulate the module I 25 layers of Mylar 0 Once NASA gets the LM there are hundreds of problems with it I A great embarrassment from Grommen O O O O
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