FUND OF HUMAN COM
FUND OF HUMAN COM COMM 1310
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scot Strosin on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1310 at Texas State University taught by K. LeBlanc in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 294 views. For similar materials see /class/212770/comm-1310-texas-state-university in Communication Studies at Texas State University.
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C ha pte r 7 1 Difference between interpersonal and impersonal communication Interpersonal A social form of human communication that occurs when two people interact simultaneouslyand attempt to mutually in uence each other usually for the purpose of managing relationships Impersonal Occurs when we treat people as obects or respond to their roles rather than to who they are as unique people ordering food asking for directions nl z of 39 m 39 39 quot simply bc our lives overlap with others lives in some way or because a situation brings us into contact family members teachers classmates coworkers Relationships of choiceones we seek out and intentionally develop lovers friends spouses 2 Difference between short term initial attraction and long term maintenance attraction Short term initial attraction the degree in which you sense a potential for developing an interpersonal relationship find classmate interesting but never introduce yourself Long term maintenance attraction the type that sustains relationships like bestfriendships marriages or committed partnering s 3 Difference in following factors of interpersonal communication Similaritythe degree to which one s characteristics values attitudes interests or personality traits are like those of another person things you have in common Physical Attractionthe degree to which one finds another person s physical self appealing find another person good looking Sexual Attractionthe desire to have sexual contact with another person I want you Matching hypothesis Theory that one tends to seek out individuals who represent the same level of physical attractiveness as oneself they re in my league they re outta my league Proximitythe likelihood of being attracted to people who are physically close rather than those who are farther away go to school together as opposed to living on another continent Complementaritythe degree to which another person s different abilities interests and needs balance or round out one s own opposites attract I like to talk you like to listen Inclusion the need to involve others in one s activities or to be involved in the activities of others Control the need to make decisions and take responsibility or the level of willingness to accept others decision making Affection the need to be loved and accepted by others or the willingness to give love and acceptance to others 4 Define and identify examples of nonverbally immediate behaviors and verbal behaviors that directly and indirectly communicate our attraction toward someone Nonverbally Immediate Behaviorsindirect and often referred to as immediacy we show this by sitting closer increase our eye contact or use of touch lean forward keep an open body orientation use more vocal variety or animation and smile more often than we normally do Verbal Behaviorsuse more vocal variety or animation levels of intimacy shown in online chats 5 Explain what Uncertainty reduction theory predicts UncertaintyReduction Theory A driving human motivation to increase predictability by reducing the unknown in one s circumstances finding out as much as we can about another person in order to more accurately determine our situation 6 Identify communication strategies that passively actively and interactiver reduce uncertainty Passively reduce certaintya noncommunicative strategy for reducing uncertainty by observing others and situations watch how they communicate with others see what they talk about who they talk to etc Actively reduce uncertainty a communicative strategy for reducing uncertainty by observing others and situationsask around to see what other people know andor think about the person in question Third Party Interactively reduce uncertaintya strategy of communicating directly with the source that has the greatest potential to reduce one s certainty go up to the person and attempt to strike up a conversation with them Conversational narcissism A communication style emerging from the view that one is the center of the universe Selfabsorbed 39 style A 39 39 39 U communication style in which one focusesattention on oneself 7 Explain the role of reciprocity and appropriateness in selfdisclosure SelfDisclosure Voluntarily providing information to others thatthey would not learn if one did not tell them Reciprocity in selfdisclosure Sharing information about oneself with another person with the expectation that the other person will share information that is similar in risk or depth Person1quot have 1 dog PersonZ quotI have 2 cats quot quot39 39 39Aquot aspect of 39f quot39 39 related to the propriety of revealing certain information to another person first date quotI have herpes 8 Explain relationship between level of intimacy and amount of disclosure as relationships develop and mature The level of intimacy will grow as the amount of selfdisclosure is shared equally between the two The less selfdisclosure happeningthe more superficial the relationship will become 9 Explain how gender effects selfdisclosure and intimacy in same sex friendships Women39s friendships with women are more often developed through interpersonal communication particularly selfdisclosure than through common experiences Men39s friendships are developed from shared experience 10 Identify two aspects of social penetration model of selfdisclosure and explain using the model how Breadth Variety of topics discussed Depth The personal significance of what is discussed Complete penetration is impossible 11e39 J 39 mu 39 39 I 739 394 39 We Selfabsorbed communicator style Verbal The number oftimes a person uses the noun nstead OTMOI39M Nonverbal Increase in volume dominant body postures long lengthy frequent online posts 12 Be able to explain the four quadranB of the lhoari Window and know what each one represent Quad 1Open the partofyourselfthat you know and have revealed to the other person Quad 2Bind nonverbal cues you are often unaware of not knowing what to do with yourfeet blushing Quad 3Hidden Information you know about yourself but have not UNKNOWN shared with the other person Quad 4Unknown The part of yourself that you have yet to 39 discover or realize 13Describethe 39 39fquot 39 39 u 1 adapt message to others Adapt yourselfdisclosure to the other person andthe context so that your revelations are appropriate Chapters 1JILJ 1 the work place Perception checking with colleagues listen and respond effectively be aware of yourverbal and nonverbalactions Z J quot J quot quot f39 quot 39 39 39eswlmiw to each stage Preinteraction awareness stage The stage of becoming aware ofone s attraction to another person and observing that person but notactually interacting Initial stage The first contact with a person whom one desires a relationship usually characterized by asking and answering questions Exploration stage The stage that involves more in depth interactions Intensi cation stage The stage in which partners begin to depend on each other for self confirmationcharacterized by more shared activities more time spent together more intimate physical distance and contact and personalized language Intimacy stage The stage in which partners provide primary confirmation of each other s self concept characterized by highly personalized and synchronized verbal and nonverbal communication 3 Identify and explain each of the five relational deescalation stages Turmoil The stage characterized by increased conflict less mutual acceptance tense communication climate and an unclear relationship definition Stagnation stage The stage in which a relationship loses its vitality partners begin to take each other for granted and communication and physical contact decline Deintensification stage The stage involving significantly decreased interaction increased distance and decreased dependence on one s partner for selfconfirmation Individualization stage The stage in which partners define their lives more as individuals and less a couple Separation stage The stage in which individuals make an intentional decision to minimize or eliminate further interpersonal interaction Postinteraction stage The bottom or final stage in relational deescalation which represents the lasting effects of a relationship on the self 4 Explain relational dialectics and be able to identify the three primary tensions in relationships Relational dialecticsA perspective that views interpersonal relationships as constantly changing rather than stable and that revolves around how relational partners manage tensions Integration Separation Autonomy versus Connection Stability Change Predictability versus Novelty ExpressionPrivacy Openness versus Closedness 5 Describe the type of interpersonal power that exists in complementary symmetrical and parallel relationships Interpersonal Power The ability to influence another in the direction one desires getting another person to do what one wants Complementary relationshipsA relationship in which one partner willineg and continuously cedes power to the other Symmetrical relationshipsA relationship characterized by similar control behaviors in partners partners compete to dominate each other or both relinquish control to the other to avoid making decisions Parallel relationshipsA relationship in which power continually shifts from one partner to the other 6 Differentiate assertive communication from aggressive communication and identify example of each Assertive Communication Communication that takes a listener s feelings and rights into account passively accept what happened Aggressive CommunicationSelf serving communication that does not take a listener s feelings and rights into account feel angry and address them accordingly 7 Identify and differentiate nonconfrontational confrontational and cooperative conflict management styles Nonconfrontational managementA conflict management style that involves backing off avoiding conflict or giving in to the other person Confrontational managementA winlose approach to conflict management in which one person wants control and to win at the expense of the other Cooperative Con ict managementA conflict management style in which conflict is viewed as a set of problems to be solved rather that a competition in which one person wins and another loses 8 Identify and describe the 8 types of conflict C 39 Conflict 39 39 39 by insights and patterns in a relationship I 39 in dealing with differences helps build new DestructiveCoanict characterized by lack of cooperation in dealing with differences dismantles relationships without restoring them Pseudocon ictCoanict stemming from lack of understanding Simple ConflictConflict over differences in ideas definitions perceptions or goals Ego ConflictConflict based on personal issues in which people attack each other s selfesteem Symbolic DisplacementA phenomenon that occurs when people engage in one conflict through or in place of another symbolically related one or when a participant s behavior is an expression of displaced or unconscious meaning Serial ArgumentsArgumentative episodes focused on the same issues that occur at least twice Irresolvable ConflictA conflict in which one or both parties deem the conflict impossible to resolve Interpersonal ConflictA struggle that occurs when two people cannot agree on a way to meet their needs PUGSS Structural Conflict Management Skills 1Recall the four conflict management skills including identify individual steps of each Managing EmotionsClearly describe the problem that s fueling your emotional intensity use language not M language Managing InformationUse perception checking in order to ensure you and the other person are on the same page Managing GoalsMake sure the problems and goals are clear to both of you Managing the problemCome up with multiple solutions to solving the problem then pick the best one you can both agree on 2 My the five stages of PUGSS conflict management skills PROBLEM Describe it UNDERSTANDING Achieve it GOALS Identify them SOLUTIONS Brainstorm SOLUTION Select the Best one 3 Identify the following communication behaviors in the PUGSS model Descriptive versus Evaluative languageDescribe how you feel personally not in a way that attacks the other person use language not YOU language SelfDisclosing EmotionsEqualy share back and forth to each other how you are both feeling Perception CheckingAsk the other person whether your interpretation of their behavior is correct or not ParaphrasingSummarize key points to make sure you understand what the other person is saying Nonverbal ResponsivenessOften the other persons nonverbal cues will tip you off that additional clarification may be needed fidgeting looking away etc AdaptingDescribe the problem from a different angle or from a different perspective 4 identify how the PUGGS model allows you to utilize the second communication principle Effectively use and interpret verbal messagesThe entire method deals with understanding and expressing verbal messages in a productive problem solving manner 5 Identity an describe the five components of interpersonal conflict Expressed StruggleA verbal expression or disagreement Perceived Incompatible GoalsHaving different intentions Perceived Scarce RewardsResourcesNot enough of a certain resource to go around nterdependenceDepend on one another for a common purpose Climate of CompetitionFeeling as though one person has to win over the other Chapter 9 1Differentiate between a group and a team Explain what is meant by the phrase quotEvery team is a group but not every group is highly organized or coordinated enough to meet the definition of a team Small Group Three to fifteen people who share a common purpose feel a sense of belonging to the group and exert influence on one another Team A coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific common goal A teams goals are usually explicitly laid out and a group is not so it doesn t function quite as effectively 2 Be able to define smaIIgroup communication Small Group Communication The transactive process of creating meaning among three to fifteen people who share a common purpose feel a sense of belonging to the group and exert influence on each other 3 Be able to identify and explain six types of groups PrimaryA group such as a family that exists to fulfill basic human needs StudyA group that exists to help group members learn new information and ideas TherapyA group that provides treatment for problems that group members may have Problem SolvingA group that meets to seek a solution to a problem and achieve a goal FocusA group that is asked to discuss a particular topic or issue so others can better understand how the group members respond to the topic or issue presented to them SocialA group that exists to provide opportunities for group members to enjoy an activity in the company of others 4 Define and differentiate three types of roles within a group TaskA role that helps a group achieve its goal and accomplish its work take minutes of meetings write notes on a chalk board SocialA role that helps a group manage relationships and affects the group climate soothing hurt feeling and helping celebrate accomplishments ndividualA role that focuses attention on the individual rather than on the group don t help the group emphasize individual accomplishments constantly complaining and whining and getting the group off track 5 Be able to differentiate between rules and norms by identifying examples of each RulesThe behaviors that are expected of the team members often spelled out in explicit rules of acceptable behavior developed by team members working together meetings start on time each member should follow assignments NormsStandards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group language casualness of clothes whether first names are used 6 Be able to define norms and explain how an individual can identify a group norm Norms Standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group language casualness of clothes whether first names are used Ask Yourself How does the group dress What kind of humor is acceptable How does the group treat the leader 7 Identify and explain strategies to enhance group cohesiveness 0 Talk about the group in terms of we rather than I stress teamwork and collaboration 0 Reinforce good attendance to group meeting praisepunish 0 Establish and maintain group traditions 0 Set clear shortterm and longterm goals 0 Encourage everyone in the group to participate in the group task 0 Celebrate when the group accomplishes either a shortterm or a longterm goal 8 Differentiate status and power by identifying examples of each Status An individual s importance and prestige quotGroup members watch every move As the chairperson she has much influence Without her support no new issues will come before the board Power The ability to influence other people s behavior 9 Be able to explain five types of power Legitimate Power that stems from being elected or appointed to a position of authority Referent Power that stems from being liked Expert Power derived from having expertise and information Reward Power that comes from the ability to provide rewards or favors Coercive Power that stems from being able to punish others 10 Explain group cohesiveness and its relationship to group productivity Group Cohesiveness The degree of attraction group members feel toward one another and toward their group When a group is too cohesive the group productivity can suffer A group primarily obsessed with having fun and enjoying one another s company will produce less work 11 Recall and explain Fisher s four phases of group talk OrientationThe first phase of group interaction in which members become adjusted to one another and to the group s task Primary tensions Tension arising from the uncertainty and discomfort that occur when a group first meets ConflictGroup members experience some degree of disagreement about social and task issues Secondary Tension The conflict that occurs after the members of a group have become acquainted with one another over group norms roles leadership and differences among members EmergenceConflict or disagreement is managed decisions are made and group problems begin to be solved or managed ReinforcementGroup members express positive feelings toward each other and toward the group 12 Describe how principle four enhances Fisher s four phases of group talk Listen and respond thoughtfully to others It addresses and solves problems that show up within the group by listening to one another and effectively talking it out and coming to a decision everyone can agree on Chapter 10 1Define the functional approach to group communication An approach to group problem solving that assumes to achieve a group goal group members should perform certain communication functions 2 Identify the six functions effective group members perform Identify a clear elevating goal Develop a resultsdriven structure Gather and use information effectiver Develop options Evaluate ideas Develop sensitivity toward others 3 Differentiate structure and interaction within the group process and explain the relationship between the two Structure group processThe way a group discussion is organized focusing on the group39s agenda and the task that needs to be achieved Interaction group processThe giveandtake discussion and responsiveness to other group members 4 Recall the five steps of John Dewey s reflective thinking process to group problem solving Identify and define the problem Analyze the problem Generate creative solutions Select the best solution Take action 5 Differentiate brainstorming and nominal group technique Brainstorming A technique for generating many possible solutions to a problem by withholding evaluation while group members suggest ideas Ideas are evaluated after suggestions have been offered Nominal Group Technique A method of generating creative ideas group members brainstorm individually and write down their ideas before meeting together to share them 6 Define consensus and recall primary strategies that may help a group reach consensus Consensus Agreement among all members of a group or team to support an idea proposal or solution Be goal oriented Listen Promote honest dialogue and discussion 7 Define groupthink and identify five key communication symptoms that characterize groupthink Groupthinka faulty sense of agreement that occurs when members of a group fail to challenge an idea a false consensus reached when conflict is minimized and group members do not express concerns or reservations about an idea or proposal The group feels apathetic about its task Group members don t expect to be successful One group member has very high credibility group members tend to believe what they say One group member is very persuasive Group members don t usually challenge ideas it s expected that group members will agree with one another 8 Recall some of the communication strategies to overcome groupthink Describe howprinciple one can help overcome group think 0 Don t agree with someone because of their high status examine all ideas regardless of position 0 Consider asking from someone outside of the group to evaluate the decision 0 Assign someone to be devil s advocate 0 Ask group members to break up into smaller teams to examine pros and cons 9 Be able to explain and differentiate approaches to understand leadership Traita view of leadership that identifies specific qualities or characteristics of effective leaders FunctionalA view of leadership that identifies the key task and process roles that need to be performed in a group StylesA view of leadership that identifies three methods of interacting when leading others authoritarian directing controlling telling ordering democratic developing consensus among group members and laissezfaire fails to leadonly leads when asked to by group SituationalA view of leadership as an interactive process in which a leader gauges how to lead based on such factors as the quality of the relationships among group members the power of the leader the nature of the task and the maturity of the group TransformationalA view of leadership that defines a leader as one who leads by shaping the vision of the group and by developing the trust through quality interpersonal relationships with group members 10 Identify three steps to managing meeting structure Determining meeting goalsGiving information Discussion information Taking action Identify what needs to be discussed to achieve the goal Organize the agenda 11 Identify and explain some of the communication skills to managing meeting interaction Gate KeepingEncourages people who talk too much to contribute less and invites those who are less talkative to participate We haven t heard from you what do you suggest MetadiscussionDiscussion about the discussion process Sensitize group to elapsed and remaining timeKeep aware of how much time is left BrainstormingA technique for generating many possible solutions to a problem by withholding evaluation while group members suggest ideas ideas are evaluated after suggestions have been offered Nominal Group TechniqueA method of generating creative ideas group members brainstorm individually and write down their ideas before meeting together to share them Binh Pham Chapter Study Guide 16 Unit 1 Principles of Communication Chapter 1 Foundations of Communication 1 Communication Process of acting on information Human Communication Process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others by creating meaning through the use of verbal and nonverbal messages 2 To improve employability relationships and health 3 Process of making sense out of the world and sharing that sense with others by creating meaning through the use of verbal and nonverbal messages 4 The message should be understood develop a common understanding of the message from both the sender s and the receiver s perspectives The message should achieve its intended effect MSMR The message should be ethical a message that is understood and achieves its intended effect but that manipulates listeners unfairly restricts their choices or uses false information may be effective but it is not appropriate or ethical 5 Components of the Communication Process Source Originator of an idea or emotion Receiver Person or group toward whom a source directs messages and who decodes the message Channel Pathway through which messages pass between source and receiver Message Verbal Nonverbal Noise Literal Psychological Context Physical Historical and Psychological Environment Feedback Verbal and nonverbal responses to a message Encoding Translation of ideas feelings and thoughts into a code Decoding Interpretation of ideas feelings and thoughts that have been translated into a code 6 Three Models of Communication Communication as action message transfer Communication as interaction feedback Communication as Transaction all of interaction is spontaneous 7 5 Characteristics of Communication Communication is inescapable opportunities to communicate are everywhere Communication is irreversible can t take back what was already said Communication is complicated 6 people involved in communication with another person Communication emphasizes content and relationships relationship dimension cues about emotions attitudes and amount of power and control the speaker directs towards each other Communication is governed by rules rules that help define appropriate and inappropriate communication in any given situation may be explicit or implicit 8 1 Be aware of your communication with yourself and others intrapersonal communication communication that occurs within yourself including your thoughts your emotions and your perceptions of yourself and others 2 Effectively use and interpret verbal messages Language 3 Effectively use and interpret nonverbal messages Nonverbal communication 4 Listen and respond thoughtfully to others otheroriented 5 Appropriately adapt messages to others make choices about how best to formulate a message and respond to someone to achieve your communication goals 9 Interpersonal Communication when we interact simultaneously with another person and attempt to mutually influence each other usually for the purpose of managing relationships Group Communication verbal and nonverbal message transactions that occur among three to about 15 people who share a common goal who feel a sense of belonging to the group and who exert influence on each other Presentational Communication when a speaker addresses a gathering of people to inform persuade or entertain Chapter 2 Self Awareness and Communication 1 SelfConcept your interior identity or subjective description of who you think you are which remains relatively stable despite the changing world in which you live SelfEsteem our assessment of our value as persons 2 Attitude learned predisposition to respond to a person object or idea in a favorable or unfavorable way Beliefs way in which you structure your understanding of realitywhat is true and what is false Values enduring concepts of good and bad right and wrong 3 Communication with others we learn who we are by communicating with others receiving their feedback making sense out of it and internalizing or rejecting all or part of it such that we are altered by the experience Association with groups our awareness of who we are is often linked to those with whom we associate Assumed roles cultural expectations of roles we assume in our lives SelfLabels selfreflexiveness the hum an ability to think about what we re doing while we re doing it 4 Material Self total of all the tangible things you own your body your possessions your home Social Self part of you that interacts with others Spiritual Self a mixture of your beliefs and your sense of who you are in a relationship to other forces in the universe 5 Gender the difference in selfesteem levels seems to pertain to such factors as boys feeling better able to do things than girls Social Comparison measuring ourselves against others SelfExpectations goals we set for ourselves SelfFulfilling Prophecy idea that what you believe about yourself often comes true because you expect it to come true 6 SelfTalk your inner dialogue has an impact on both your selfconcept and selfesteem Visualize imagining oneself behaving in a certain way Besides telling yourself that you can achieve oal you can actually try to see yourself achieving your goal Reframe process of redefining events and experiences of looking at something from a different point 0 view 7 Perception The arousal of any of our senses 8 1 Attention and Selection Experiencing a lot of stimuli and picking 1 thing to focus on 2 Organization Convert the 1 thing we focus on and process it 3 Interpretation Assign meaning to the 1 thing we focus on 9 Increase your awareness avoid stereotypes check your perceptions 10 Indirect perception checking seek additional information to either confirm or refute your interpretations of someone s behavior CF B creeping Direct perception checking asking straight out whether your interpretations of a perception are correct describe the behavior verbal or non offer 2 possible interpretations request clarification Chapter 3 Understand Verbal Messages 1 Words are symbols that trigger thoughts concepts or feelings 2 SapirWhorf Hypothesis hum an language and thought are so interrelated that thought is actually rooted in and controlled by language 3 Bypassing a speaker s and receiver s meanings do not correspond because the same words mean different things to different people 4 Denotative meaning conveys content the restrictive or literal meaning of the word Connotative meaning conveys feelings people create personal and subjective meanings for words 5 Concrete if we can experience what the word refers to with one of our senses see it touch it smell it taste it or hear it Abstract if we can t experience what the word refers to with our senses 6 Culturebound the meaning of a word just like the meaning of a symbol can change from culture to culture and across cocultures Contextbound all of our words plus the nonverbal elements ever present in communication like the environment or setting in which the communication occurs as well as the facial expressions tone of voice and other nonverbal cues that surround and accompany a verbal message 7 The Power to Create and Label Experience Words give us tools to create and understand our world by naming and labeling what we experience The Power to Affect Thoughts and Actions words not only have the power to affect how we think about and respond to something they also affect policy and procedures The Power to Shape and Re ect Culture the way you use the language the words and meanings you choose as well as the way you interpret others communication has the effect of shaping your culture The Power to Make and Break Relationships you either love me or you don t 8 Biased Language Race Ethnicity Nationality and Religion Allness words re ect unqualified o ten untrue generalizations that deny individual differences or variations Biased Language Gender and Sexual Orientation Sexist or exclusive language heterosexist or homophobic language Biased Language Age Class and Ability calling an elderly person a geezer or oldtimer 9 Evaluating Judging Use 1 instead of you to avoid evaluating others Descriptive the suggestion that you separate behaviors from persons in order to create a supportive climate 10 Problem Solving What seems to be the problem or How can we deal with this issue Controlling You know what your problem is or Don t do that ll Genuine honestly being yourself rather than attempting to be someone you are not Also means taking a sincere interest in others considering the uniqueness of each individual and situation and avoiding generalizations or strategies that focus on your own needs and desires Manipulative has hidden agendas and her or his own concerns and interests most at heart 12 Empathetic ability to understand and actually feel or approximate the feelings of others and then to predict the emotional responses they will have to different situations Detached not concentrated or not listening to what s going on with the other person 13 Flexible I may be wrong but it seems to me or Here s something you might want to consider Rigid I m right you re wrong 14 Superior pulling rank ual we and not I or ou 15 Gunny Sacking dredging up someone s past mistakes or problems and linking them to a current situation Chapter 4 Understanding Nonverbal Messages 1 Nonverbal Messages Communicate Feelings and Attitudes primary tool for conveying our feelings and attitudes and for detecting the emotional states of others 93 of communication is through nonverbal messages Face 55 and Vocal cues 38 Nonverbal Messages Are More Believable Than Verbal Ones some nonverbal communication is conscious but a great deal of it is generated subconsciously as we act and react to stimuli in our environmen Nonverbal Messages Are Critical to Successful Relationships handshakes 2 Nonverbal Messages Serve Multiple Functions Substitute take place of verbal message Accent nonverbal highlights one word Repeat repeats verbal message Regulate use of nonverbal to control flow of conversation Compliment clarifies verbal content verbal and nonverbal simultaneously Contradict gives opposite of verbal meaning 3 CultureBound some nonverbal gestures may be appropriate in one culture may not be appropriate in another RuleGoverned Expectancy violations model we develop expectations for appropriate nonverbal behavior in ourselves and others based on our cultural backgrounds personal experiences and knowledge of those with whom we interact Ambiguous perception checking observe in detail the nonverbal cues make your own interpretation and then do one of the two things or both 1 ask the people you re observing how they feel or what s going on andor 2 run your interpretation by another observer to get a second opinion or more input before you draw a conclusion Continuous nonverbal cues fly faster than verbal ones but they re essential in getting the message across NonLinguistic nonverbal communication doesn t conform to the patterns of a language Multi channeled nonverbal cues register on our senses from a variety of sources simultaneously 4 Nonverbal Codes Appearance artifacts dress body type 5 amp 6 Kinesics study of gestures movements and posture Emblems direct verbal translation Substitutes for verbal messages Illustrators accompanies verbal messages Regulators control flow of conversation Adaptors make you more comfortable Affect Displays reflection of emotion face expression body expresses intensity Haptics study of touch Eye contact 8 Vocalics tone rate volume ackchannel cues indicate that you re listening and understand Res onse Latencies lack time between the response time it takes to respond 9 Proxemics intimate space 015 ft Personal space 154 ft friends and family Social space 412 ft acquaintancesprofessional interactions Public space lZbeyond presentational Territoriality ownership of space Territorial markers objects used to indicate claimed space Space power wealth 7 Quasicourtship behaviors nonverbal actions we consciously and unconsciously exhibit when we are attracted to someone Stage 1 courtship readiness altered normal nonverbal patterns eye contact posture Stage 2 preening combing hair apply makeup straightening our tie Stage 3 positional cues using our posture and body orientation to get noticed Stage 4appeals to invitation close proximity exposed skin open body positions to si nal our availability and interest 10 Immediacy nonverbal behavior that communicates liking and engenders feelings of pleasure Arousal increased eye contact closer conversational distances increased touch animated voalics more direct body orientation and more smiling and active facial expressions Dominance communicate status position and importance Chapter 5 Listening and Responding 1 Hearing physiological process of decoding sounds Listening process we use to make sense out of what we hear 2 5 Activities of listening selecting a lot of noise going on at one time39 sorting through sounds attending choose to focus on one thing understanding interpret sounds and give meaning remembering ability to recall information responding giving feedback 3 4 listening styles people oriented feelings or emotions common interests empathize action oriented well organized and free of errors want to do something with it content oriented detailed and complex as much info as possible time oriented brief and short quickly get to the point 47 Listening Barriers Self barriers internal thoughts that interfere with dialogue criticism instead of listening judges them emotional noise emotional arousal that hinders listening Information Processing Barriers how we understand information which causes problems Processing rate we can process 600800 wordsminute Speak less than that gap for other information to leak in Information overload a lot of information coming from a lot of places Receiver 1 J 39 fear of 39 quot oi 39 39 J 39 the messages spoken by others or of not being able to adjust psychologically to messages ex ressed by others Shifting attention paying attention to more than one thing at one time Context barriers external noise related to the situation time and place 8 3 Step Process Stop turn off competing messages and decenter remove yourself from your thoughts and focus on other person Look observe nonverbal cues Listen between the lines are the verbal and nonverbal contradicting Maintain eye contact direct body orientation and forward lean active listening Listen Mentally summarize details of the message work to overcome listening barriers and engage in active listening 9 4 Strategies of Effective Responding Be descriptive being descriptive rather than evaluative encourages positive communication and s an impact on the overall quality of the relationship you have with another person Be timely provide feedback just before the person might make another mistake just in time for the feedback to have the most benefit Be brief don t overwhelm you listener with details that obscure the key point of your feedback Be useful when providing feedback be certain that it is useful and relevant 10851 1 4 Strategies of How to Respond With Empathy Understand your partner s feelings attempt to decenter by first projecting how you might feel and then asking appropriate questions and offering paraphrases to confirm the accuracy of your assumptions Ask appropriate questions ask questions to help clarify your conclusions Paraphrase message content check whether your interpretations are accurate by paraphrasing the content you have heard Paraphrase emotions so you feel Chapter 6 Adapting to Others Diversity and Communication 1 4 Forms of Human Diversity Sexual Orientation gay lesbian bisexual Ethnicity social class nationality religion language39 identity Age generation Gender socially constructed masculine feminine androgynous 2 Androgynous Traits communicate from high levels of both instrumental doing find out more info on info and expressive connecting with others and establishing relationships 3 Culture a learned system of knowledge behavior attitudes beliefs values and norms that is shared a group of people and shaped from one generation to the next 4 Intercultural Communication occurs when individuals or groups from different cultures communicate culture shock a sense of confusion anxiety stress and loss worldview general cultural perspective that shapes how we perceive and respond to what ens to us 5 HighContext Cultures Interpret nonverbal communicators rely on the context to interpret messages LowContext Cultures Interpret verbal communicators use fewer contextual cues to interpret info 6 Cultural Values 1 Decentralized and Centralized Power Decentralized collective leadership is not vested in one person power is distributed among peo le Centralized not collective39 prefer strongly organized centrally controlled form of government 2 Individualism and Collectivism lndividualism Value individuals tend to be loosely knit oc39e Collectivism Value ou s 3 Uncertainty and Certainty Uncertainty happy with the unknown relaxed and informal expectations for others Certainty needs to know what s going to happen develop and enforce rigid rules for behavior establish elaborate codes of conduct 4 Masculine and Feminine Masculine values achievement assertiveness heroism and traditional male and female roles Feminine emphasize building relationships and seeking peace and harmony with others 5 LongTerm vs ShortTerm Time Orientation Long what s going to happen in future value perseverance and thriftiness Short use past to guide future respect tradition 7 Masculine Instrumental doing finding out more information act on information Feminine Expressive connecting with others and establishing relationships 8 Women tend to engage in Rapport Talk ommunicate to connect with others Focus more on the quality of relationships than on information exchange Face to face Men tend to engage in Report Talk Communicate to create or establish status Focus more on information exchange than on quality of relationships Side by side 9 Barriers to Bridging Differences and Adapting to Others Assuming Superiority ethnocentrism value our culture more than any other Assuming Similarity we re the same Assuming Differences we re different Stereotyping and Prejudice lO Stages of Intercultural Competence Denial deny cultures exist 2 Defense Ethnocentrism 3 Minimization minimize differences assume similarity 4 Acceptance other ways of thinkingacting 5 Adaptation Appropriately adapt to fit in with cultures 6 Integration integrate other cultures into our own minimizing our own culture