FUND OF HUMAN COM
FUND OF HUMAN COM COMM 1310
Popular in Course
Popular in Communication Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scot Strosin on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1310 at Texas State University taught by J. Hutchins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/212771/comm-1310-texas-state-university in Communication Studies at Texas State University.
Reviews for FUND OF HUMAN COM
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/23/15
Communication Chapters 1115 Chapter 11 Be able to identify the eight steps involved in the audience centered model of the public speaking process Select and narrow topic Identify purpose Develop central idea Generate main ideas Gather supporting material Organize presentation Rehearse presentation Deliver presentation NP WFWF Be able to explain the signi cance of being an audience centered public speaker Audience centered presentational speakers are inherently sensitive to the diversity of their audiences While guarding against generalization that might be offensive they acknowledge that cultural ethnic and other traditions affect the way people process messages They apply the fundamental principle of appropriately adapting their messages to others Be able to explain how each of the following methods help speakers manage their anxiety Know how to develop a presentation Just knowing what you need to do to develop a presentation can boost your confidence in being able to do it Be prepared Being well prepared will also mean less anxiety Focus on your audience The more you know about your audience and how they are likely to respond to your message the more comfortable you will feel about delivering that message And as you finally deliver your presentation focus on connecting to your listeners The more you concentrate on your audience the less you can attend to your own nervousness Focus on your message Focusing on your message can also be a constructive anxiety reducing strategy It keeps you from thinking too much about how nervous you are Once you are speaking maintain your focus on your message and your audience rather than on your fears Give yourself a mental pep talk Rather than allowing yourself to dwell on how worried or afraid you are make a conscious effort to think positively Use deepbreathing techniques Take a few slow deep breaths before you get up to speak As you slowly inhale and exhale try to relax your entire body These simple strategies will increase your oxygen Take advantage of opportunities to speak As you gain public speaking experience you will feel more in control of your nervousness Past successes build confidence Seek professional help Systematic desensitization helps you learn to manage anxiety through a combination of general relaxation techniques and visualization of successful and calm preparation and delivery of a presentation Another proven strategy is performance visualization viewing a videotape of a successful effective speaker becoming familiar enough with the videotaped presentation that you can imagine it and eventually visualizing yourself as the speaker Be able to identify examples that reflect the following guidelines for selecting and narrowing a speech topic Who is the audience Your college classmates are likely to be interested in such topics as college loans and the job market Older adults might be more interested in hearing a speaker address such topics as the cost of prescription drugs and investment tax credits Thinking about your audience can often yield an appropriate topic What is the occasion A Veteran s Day address calls for such topics as patriotism and service to one s country A university centennial address will focus on the successes of the institution s past and a vision for its future What are my interests and experiences Exploring your own interests attitudes and experiences may suggest topics about which you know a great deal and feel passionately and result in a presentation that you can deliver with energy and genuine enthusiasm Be able to differentiate the general purpose from the speci c purpose statement of a speech General purpose the broad reason for giving a presentation to inform to persuade or to entertain an audience Specific purpose a concise statement of what listeners should be able to do by the time the speaker finishes the presentation Be able to differentiate the speci c purpose statement from the central idea of a speech While your specific purpose indicates what you want your audience to know or do by the end of your presentation your central idea make a definitive point about your topic It focuses on the content of the speech Be able to recall six criteria for evaluating Internet sites 1 F E Iquot 9 Accountability Find out what organization or individual is responsible for the Web site A good place to start is to examine the domain indicated by the last three letter of the site s URL Accuracy Sources of facts should be documented on a Web site just as they are in a print source Web sites should also be relatively free of errors in grammatical usage and mechanics Objectivity Consider the philosophies and possible biases of the organization or individual responsible for the site The more objective the author the more credible the facts and information Date When you are concerned with factual data the more recent the better Usability Consider the practical efficiency of the sites you explore Sensitivity to diversity A diversity sensitive Web site will be free of bias against either gender against any ethnic racial or sexual preference subgroup and against people with disabilities Be able to differentiate different library sources H Periodical A popular magazine or professional journal Newspaper Reference resources Material housed in the reference section a library may include encyclopedias dictionaries atlases almanacs yearbooks books of quotations and biographical dictionaries Government documents Material published by the government including records of official proceedings pamphlets and brochures and statistical data Be able to list and identify different types of supporting material WPquot 91 NF Illustration A story or anecdote that provides an example of an idea issue or problem the speaker is discussing Description A word picture Explanation A statement that makes clear how something is done or why it exists in its present or past form Definition A statement of what something means Analogy A comparison between two ideas things or situations that demonstrates how something unfamiliar is similar to something the audience already understands Statistics Numerical data that summarize examples Opinions A speaker can use three types of opinions expert testimony the opinion of someone who is an acknowledged expert in the field under discussion lay testimony the opinion of someone who experienced an event or situation firsthand and literary quotations a citation from a work of fiction or nonfiction a poem or another speech Chapter 12 Be able to identify ve methods or organizing your main ideas quot2quot FE Chronological Organization by time or sequence Topical Arbitrary arrangement of topics or organization according to recency primacy or complexity Spatial Organization according to location or position Causeandeffect Organization by discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects Problemandsolution Organization by discussing a problem and then various solutions Be able to identify six methods or organizing your supporting material WFWF 0 Chronology Organization by time or sequence Recency Most important material last Primacy Most convincing or least controversial material first Complexity From simple to more complex material Specificity From specific information to general overview or from general overview to specific information Soft to hard evidence From hypothetical illustrations and opinion to facts and statistics Be able to identify different types of signposts that help speakers organize their message to the ears of their audience 1 2 3 4 Preview A statement of what is to come Verbal transition A word or phrase that indicates the relationship between two ideas Nonverbal transition Facial expression vocal cue or physical movement that indicates a speaker is moving from one idea to the next Summary A recap of what has been said Be able to differentiate initial previews internal previews internal summaries and nal summaries Initial preview First statement of the main ideas of a presentation usually presented with or near the central idea Internal preview Preview within the speech that introduces ideas still to come Internal summary A recap of what has been said so far in the presentation Final summary A recap of all the main points of a presentation usually occurring just before or during the conclusion Be able to explain why previews transitions and summaries are important components to a well organized speech Previews help your audience members anticipate and remember the main ideas of your presentation They also help you move smoothly from the introduction to the body of your presentation and from one main idea to the next A transition signals to an audience that a speaker is moving from one idea to the next A summary provides an additional opportunity for the audience to grasp a speaker s most important ideas Be able to recall ve functions of an introduction Gaining attention Introducing a topic Creating a reason to listen Establishing credibility Previewing main ideas WFWF Be able to recall four functions of a conclusion 1 Summarizing the presentation 2 Reemphasizing central idea 3 Motivating an audience response 4 Providing closure Be able to differentiate a preparation outline and a delivery outline Preparation outline Detailed outline of a presentation that includes main idea subpoints and supporting material and that may also include specific purpose introduction blueprint internal previews and summaries transition and conclusion Delivery outline Condensed and abbreviated outline of a presentation from which speaking notes are developed Be able to recall and identify components of a preparation outline 1 Standard numbering 2 Two subdivisions for each point 3 Proper indentations 4 Parallel heading structure Be able to recall suggestions for developing a delivery outline Use single words or short phrases whenever possible Include our introduction and conclusion in abbreviated form Include supporting material and signposts Do not include your purpose statement Use standard outline form WPPJNE Be able to recall examples of delivery cues and identify how they are used during the presentation of a speech Delivery cue A reminder of how to speak or move during a presentation which is often written on a speaker s note cards Examples Louder Pause or Walk two steps left Chapter 13 Be able to identify and differentiate four methods of speech delivery 1 Manuscript Reading a presentation from a written text 2 Memorized Delivering a presentation word for word from memory without using notes 3 Impromptu Delivering a presentation without advance preparation 4 Extemporaneous Speaking from a written or memorized outline without having memorized the exact wording of the presentation Be able to identify examples of words in a speech that enhance verbal delivery Concrete word A word that refers to an object or describes an action or characteristic in the most specific way possible The word poodle instead of dog Unbiased word A word that does not stereotype discriminate against or insult any sexual racial cultural or religious group Member of congress instead of congressman Vivid word A colorful word Distressed oak table instead of table Simple word A short word known to most people who speak the language Correct word A word that means what the speaker intends and is grammatically correct in the phrase or sentence in which it appears Be able to identify examples of effective word structures that enhance verbal delivery Figurative language Language that deviates from the ordinary expected meaning of words to make a description or comparison unique vivid and memorable o Metaphor Making an implied comparison between two things 0 Simile Making an overt comparison between two things using the words like or as o Personification Attributing human qualities to nonhuman things or ideas Drama Phrasing something in a way that differs from the way the audience expects o Omission Leaving out a word or phrase the audience expects to hear 0 Inversion Reversing the normal word order of a phrase or sentence Suspension Withholding a key word or phrase until the end of a sentence 0 Cadence The rhythm of language 0 Parallelism Using the same grammatical structure for two or more clauses or sentences 0 Antithesis A two part parallel structure in which the second part contrasts in meaning with the first 0 Repetition Emphasizing a key word or phrase by using it more than e o Alliteration The repetition of a consonant sound usually the first consonant several times in a phrase clause or sentence Be able to explain how the following ve components enhance the nonverbal delivery of a presentation Eye contact with your audience lets them know that you are interested in them and ready to talk to them It also permits you to determine whether they are responding to you And most listeners will think that you are more capable and trustworthy if you look them in the eye Gestures movement and posture are the three key elements of physical delivery A good speaker knows how to use effective gestures make meaningful movements and maintain appropriate posture while speaking to an audience Your facial expression plays a key role in expressing your thoughts emotions and attitudes Your audience sees your face before they hear what you are going to say giving you the opportunity to set the tone for your message even before you begin speaking Vocal delivery involves nonverbal cues not the words you say but the way you say them Effective vocal delivery requires that you speak so that your audience can understand you and will remain interested in what you are saying There is considerable evidence that your personal appearance affects how your audience will respond to you and your message If you violate your audience s expectations you will be less successful in achieving your purpose Be able to differentiate three components of physical delivery 1 Gestures Movements of the hands and arms to communicate ideas 2 Movement Change of location during a presentation 3 Posture A speaker s stance Be able to differentiate four components of vocal delivery 1 Volume The softness or loudness of a speaker s voice 2 Pitch How high or low a speaker s voice is 3 Rate How fast or slowly a speaker speaks 4 Articulation The production of clear and distinct speech sounds Be able to identify the types of presentation aids Objects Models People Drawings Photographs Ma 5 Charts Graphs Videotapes 10 CD ROMs and DVDs 11 Audiotapes and Audio CDs PNP WFWF Be able to recall guidelines for preparing aids 1 Select the rig ht presentation aids 2 Make your presentation aids easy to see 3 Keep your presentation aids simple 4 Polish your presentation aids Be able to recall guidelines for using presentation aids Rehearse with your presentation aids Maintain eye contact with your audience not with your presentation aids Explain your presentation aids Time the display of your presentation aids to coincide with your discussion of them Do not pass objects picture or other small items among your audience Use handouts effectively Use small children and animals with caution Use technology thoughtfully AWNquot an Chapter 14 Be able to quot 39 39 quot from r 39 speaking Informative To share information with others to enhance their knowledge information concepts and ideas you present Persuasive The process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener s attitudes beliefs values or behavior Be able to identify and differentiate the types of informative presentations Presentations about objects Presentations about procedures Presentations about people Presentations about events Presentations about ideas WFPJNE Be able to identify and recall strategies for making your informative presentation clear 1 Simplify ideas 2 Pace your information flow 3 Relate new information to old Be able to identify and recall strategies for making your informative presentation interesting to your audience Relate to your listeners interests Use attention catching supporting material Establish a motive for your audience to listen to you Use word pictures lively descriptions that help your listeners form a mental image by appealing to their senses of sight taste smell sounds and touch Create interesting presentation aids Use humor FWP men Be able to identify strategies for making your presentation memorable 1 Build in redundancy 2 Use adult learning principles 3 Reinforce key ideas verbally 4 Reinforce key ideas nonverbally Chapter 15 Be able to define persuasion Persuasion The process of attempting to change or reinforce a listener s attitudes beliefs values or behavior Be able to recall and identify ways to motivate an audience 1 Motivating with dissonance 2 Motivating with needs 3 Motivating with fear appeals 4 Motivating with positive appeals Be able to explain how to use Masow s hierarchy of needs when attempting to persuade an audience Hierarchy of needs Abraham Maslow s classic theory that humans have five levels of needs and that lower level needs must be met before people can be concerned about hig her level needs One practical application is to do everything in your power to ensure that your audience s physiological needs are met For example if your listeners are sweating and fanning themselves they are unlikely to be very interested in whether Bigfoot exists or whether the city should re open River Park If you can turn on the air conditioning or fans you will stand a greater chance to persuade them Be able to differentiate attitudes beliefs and values Attitude A learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorany to something a like or dislike Belief A sense of what is true or false Value An enduring conception of rig ht or wrong good or bad Be able to differentiate propositions of fact value and policy Proposition of fact A claim that something is or is not the case or that something did or did not happen Proposition of value A claim that calls for the listener to judge the worth or importance of something Proposition of policy A claim that advocating a specific action to change a policy procedure or behavior Be able to define credibility and differentiate its factors Credibility An audience s perception of a speaker s competence trustworthiness and dynamism Competence An aspect of a speaker s credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as informed skilled and knowledgeable Trustworthiness An aspect of a speaker s credibility that reflects whether the speaker is perceived as believable and honest Dynamism An audience s perception that a speaker is energetic Charisma Talent charm and attractiveness Be able to define proof and differentiate evidence from reasoning Proof Evidence plus reasoning Evidence Material used to support a point or premise Reasoning The process of drawing a conclusion from evidence Be able to identify examples of the following types of logical reasoning Inductive Using specific instances or examples to reach a probable general conclusion Deductive Moving from a general statement or principle to reach a certain specific conclusion Causal Relating two or more events in such a way as to conclude that one or more of the events cause the others Be able to identify and differentiate the following types of logical fallacies Causal fallacy Making a faulty cause and effect connection between two things or events Bandwagon fallacy Suggesting that because everyone believes something or does something it must be valid accurate or effective Eitherorfallacy Oversimplifying an issue as offering only two choices Hasty generalization Reaching a conclusion without adequate supporting evidence Personal attack Attacking irrelevant personal characteristics of someone connected with an idea rather than addressing the idea itself Red herring Irrelevant facts or information used to distract someone from the issue under discussion Appeal to misplaced authority Using someone without the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product Non sequitur Latin for it does not follow an idea or conclusion that does not logically follow the previous idea or conclusion Be able to identify three strategies for enhancing the emotional appeal of a persuasive presentation 1 Use emotion arousing words 2 Use concrete illustrations and descriptions to create emotional images 3 Use visual aids to evoke both positive and negative emotions Be able to identify the following organizational patterns for persuasive messages Problemandsolution organization by discussing first a problem and then its various solutions Causeandeffect organization by discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its effects Refutation organization according to objections your listeners may have to your ideas and arguments Motivated sequence Alan H Monroe s five step plan for organizing a persuasive message attention need satisfaction visualization and action Be able to identify strategies for persuading receptive neutral and unreceptive audiences Persuading the receptive audience Identify with your audience Emphasize common interests Provide a clear objective tell your listeners what you want them to do Appropriately use emotional appeals Persuading the neutral audience Gain and maintain your audience s attention Refer to beliefs and concerns that are important to listeners Show how the topic affects people your listeners care about Be realistic about what you can accomplish Persuading the unreceptive audience Don t tell listeners that you are going to try to convince them to support your position Present your strongest arguments first Acknowledge opposing points of view Don t expect a major shift in attitudes or behavior ALANNA PEREZ Chapters 710 Study Guide Extra Credit10142010 102400 AM CH 7 1 o Impersonal communication that treats others as objects or that responds only to their roles rather than to whom they are as unique people o Interpersonal communication that occurs between two people who simultaneously attempt to mutually influence each other usually for the purpose of managing relationships o Short term initial attraction the degree of potential for developing an interpersonal relationship with someone o Long term initial attraction the level of liking or positive feeling that motivates one to maintain or escalate a relationship 3 Interpersonal Attraction o Similarity the degree to which ones characteristics values attitudes interests or personality traits are like their own o Physical attraction the degree to which one finds another persons physical selfappealing o Sexual attraction the desire to have sexual contact with a certain person o Proximity the likelihood of being attracted to people who are physically close rather than to those who are father away o Complementary the degree to which another person s different abilities interests and needs balance or round out ones own o Nonverbally immediate behavior nonverbal cues such as eye contact forward lean touch and open body orientation that communicate feelings of liking pleasure and closeness o Verbal behaviors often is introduced by using informal and personal language addressing a person by their first name and referring to we instead of you and I We also ask questions to show interest and refer to information shared in the past if any 5 Uncertainty Reduction Theory a driving human motivation to increase predictability by reducing the unknown in ones circumstances we respond by using passive active or interactive strategies Passive helps us predict what the person s like through observation Active helps us predict what the person s like through perception checking or from getting information from a third party Interactive helps us predict what a person s like through the source who has the greatest potential to reduce your uncertainty going over and talking to the interest Receprocity sharing information about oneself with another person with the expectation that the other person will share information that is similar in risk or depth Appropriateness an aspect of selfdisclosure related to the propriety of revealing certain information to another person 8 Without selfdisclosure we form only superficial relationships Relationships cannot fully develop into intimacy unless both partners share information about themselves equal in depth and frequency The amount of selfdisclosure highly develops intimate relationships with someone 9 Female self disclosure women develop relationships through interpersonal communication specifically selfdisclosure Male men develop relationships by having shared activities 10 o 1St aspect Breadth variety of topics discussed o 2nd aspect Depth personal significance of what is discussed o Self disclosure causes your layers to be penetrated as well as your partners c As you pass the breadth level of social penetration you gradually increase to the superficial spiral depth level then the intimate then the VERY intimate 11 12 The Johari Window has four quadrants Open represents what you know about yourself and have revealed to the other person Hidden information that you know about yourself but have not disclosed to the other person Unknown part of yourself that you have yet to realize or discover Blind includes real aspects of ourselves that we fail to recognize 13 Self disclosure plays a big role in appropriately adapting messages to others because CH 8 As you self disclose information you have to know how to convey your message so that you achieve your communication goal Also self disclosure plays a role in the 5th communication principle because of differences in gender and depending on how other people interpret your messages directly affects how far your intimate relationship will last 1 Effectiveness in Workplace 4th principle listen and respond effectively to colleagues to respond appropriately it s important to listen patiently fully and nonjudgmentally 5th principle Adaptation is critical Communicate to people by achieving communication goals and communication ethically according to whom you talk to 2 Five relational escalation stages Initiation first contact with a person with whom one desires a relationship usually characterized by asking questions Exploration partners share more indepth information yet still have minimal physical contact and may limit the amount of time spent together Intensification partners begin to depend on each other for self confirmation characterized by more shared activities more time spent together more intimate physical distance and contact personalized language Intimacy stage where partners provide primary conformation of each other s selfconcept characterized by highly personalized and synchronized verbal and nonverbal communication 3 5 relational deescalation stages Turmoil increased conflict less mutual acceptance a tense common climate unclear relationship definition Stagnation relationship loses vitality partners begin to take each other for granted and communication and physical contact decline Deintensification significantly decreased interaction increased distance and decreased dependence on one s partners for self confirmation Individualization partners defend their lives more as individuals and less as a couple Separation individuals make an intentional decision to minimize or eliminate further interpersonal communication Post interaction represents the lasting effects of a relationship on the self 4 Relational Dialects perspective that views as constantly changing rather than stable and that revolve around how relational partners manage tensions Three Primary Tensions IntegrationSeparation this involves finding a balance between personal freedom and shared activities autonomy v connection Stability change when a relationship starts we tend to overlook negative traits and focus on positive With time we react by exerting control or persuasion in effort to change our partner to our standards predictability v novelty Expression Privacy occurs when some partners want complete openness and others wanting to retaining a degree of privacy openness v closedness 5 8 types of conflicts Constructive conflict characterized by cooperation in dealing with differences helps build new insights and patterns in a relationship Destructive conflict characterized by a lack of cooperation in dealing with differences dismantles relationship without restoring them Pseudo conflict stemming from lack of understanding Simple over differences in ideas definitions perceptions or goals Ego based on personal issues in which people attack each other s self esteem Symbolic a phenomenon that occurs when people engage in one conflict through or in place of another symbolically related one or when a participant s behavior is an expression of displaes or unconscious meaning Serial argumentative episodes focused on the same issue that occur at least twice Irresolvable one or both parties deem the conflict impossible to solve 6 Interpersonal Power ability to influence another in the direction one desires getting another person to do what you want Types of Power Relationships Complementary one partner willingly and continuously cedes power to the other Symmetrical similar control behaviors in partners they compete to dominate each other or both relinquish control to the other to avoid making decisions Parallel power continuously shifts from one partner to another Assertive Communication communication that takes a listener s feelings and rights into account ex to CLEAR UP a problem Aggressive Communication selfserving communication that does NOT take listener s feelings into account ex BLOWING UP and getting PERSONAL 8 Management Styles PUGSS Nonconfrontational involves backing off avoiding conflict or giving in to the other person Confrontational one person wants control and to WIN at the expense of the other winlose Cooperative conflict is viewed as a set of problems to be solved rather than a competition H Manage Emotions o Separate the people from the problem 0 Don t make conflict personal keep discussion focused on issues rather than personalities o Focus on shared interests 0 Seek to identify goals and objectives common to all people involved in conflict o Generate many options to solve the problem 0 Rather than arguing overjust one possible solution try to find many different ways to achieve the goal o Base decisions on objective criteria 0 Identify what you re looking for in a solution Clearly spell out what everyone needs in order to be satisfied with a solution 2 5 Steps of PUGSS Management Model o P Clearly describe the problem that is causing the conflict in a calm rational way c U Achieve understanding to ensure that you and your partner are clearly talking about the same things in terms that makes sense to both of you c G Identify your goals Determine what you re looking for as well was what your partner is looking for in terms of a solution to the problem o S Brainstorm solutions Generate several possible ways to achieve your goals rather than arguing about just one option o S Select the best solution After considering the alternatives select a solution that best achieves your goals o Descriptive V Evaluative Language P o Self Disclosing Emotion P o Perception Checking G o Paraphrasing U o Nonverbal Responsiveness P o Adapting S 4 2nd Principle PUGSS helps us use and interpret verbal messages by helping us and avoid personal attacks as well as avoiding escalating emotions o Describe Problem o Achieve Understanding o Identify Goals o Brainstorm Possible Solutions o Select Best Solution CH 9 1 o Group 315 People who share a common purpose feel a sense of belonging to the group and exert influence on one another o Team a coordinated group of people organized to work together to achieve a specific common goal What is meant by the phrase o Explains that all teams are groups because they have a common purpose feel a sense of belonging and exert influence The only difference is that teams are ALSO organized to work together to reach that common goal o Small Group Communication Transactive process of creating meaning among 315 people who share a common purpose feel a sense of belonging to the group and exert influence on each other 3 Types of Groups Primary exists to fulfill basic human needs family Study exists to help group members learn new information and ideas Therapy provides treatment for problems that group members may have AA Problem Solving meets to seek a solution to a problem and achieve a goal Businesses Focus group is asked to discuss a particular topic or issue so that others can better understand how the group members respond to the topic or issue presented to them advertising agencies Social exists to provide opportunities for group members to enjoy an activity in the company of others book clubs 4 Roles within a group 7 9 Task role that helps a group achieve its goal and accomplish its work Social helps a group manage relationships and affects the group climate often help resolve conflict and enhance flow of communication emotional Individual focuses attention on individual rather than a group Rules behaviors that are expected of team members often spelled out in explicit rules of acceptable behavior developed by team members working together Norms standards that determine what is appropriate and inappropriate behavior in a group Differences Rules are explicit usually written down or ate least verbalized and are often linked to a specific goal Norm is basically what is expected of you nonverbally by the group Examples Rule get to glass on time Norm in class don t use profanity Norm refer to 5 You can identify a group norm by watching the group listen and observe repeated verbal and nonverbal behavior patterns Strategies to Enhance Group Cohesiveness Talk about group in terms of we Reinforce good attendance Establish and maintain group traditions Set short and long term goals Encourage everyone to participate Celebrate when group accomplishes goals Status an individual s importance and prestige ex in group or it girl Power ability to influence other s behavior ex outspoken dominant person Types of Power Legitimate Stems from being elected or appointed to a position of authority Referent stems from being wellliked o Expert from having expertise and information o Reward comes from the ability to provide rewards or favors o Coercive stems from being able to punish others 10 o Group Cohesiveness degree of attraction group members feel towards one another and toward the group 0 Relationship to productivity in a highly cohesive group the goal of the group is also the goal of the individual so therefore more work will get done since it s in the best interest of all members BALANCE cohesiveness with concern for accomplishing task 11 Fishers Four Phases of Group Think lst Orientation members become adjusted to one another and to the groups task 2nd Conflict members experience some degree of disagreement about social and task issues 3rd Emergence conflict or disagreement is manage decisions are made and group problems begin to be solved or managed 4th Reinforcement members express positive feelings toward each other and toward the group 12 4th Principle enhances four phases of group think by being able to stop and focus on what is being said and listen accurately for ideas and major details Also by being clear and accurate and timely in providing appropriate ffeedback CH 10 1 o Functional Approach to Group Communication approach to group problem solving that assumes that to achieve a group goal group members should perform certain communication functions 2 6 Functions Effective Group Think Perform o Identify a clear elevating goal o Develop a resultsdriven structure o Gather and use information effectively o Develop options o Evaluate ideas o Develop sensitivity toward others o Structure the way a group or team discussion is organized focusing on the groups agenda and the task that needs to be achieved o Interaction the give and take discussion and responsiveness to other group members o Difference Structure manages the task by being well organized and one person may dominate whereas Interaction manages relationships and reactions to task and involves considerable give and take discussion There is therefore much talk and participation From the groupteam members 4 5 Steps to JD s Reflective thinking Process lst Identify and Define the Problem 2nd Analyze the Problem 3rd Generate Creative Solutions 4th Select the Best Solution 5th Take action o Brainstorming technique for generating many possible solutions to a problem by withholding evolution while group members suggest ideas ideas are evaluated after suggestions have been offered o Nominal silent brainstorming method of generating creative ideas group members brainstorm individually and write down their ideas before meeting together to share them o Differences Brainstorming risks having your ideas criticized as you present the whereas nominal gives you the chance to brainstorm individually and then present them later o Consensus agreement amount all members of a groupteam to support an idea proposal or solution Strategies to Help Group Reach Consensus o Be Goal oriented o Listen o Promote honest dialogue and discussion 1 2 3 4 Pquot Groupthink faulty sense of agreement that occurs when members of a group fail to challenge an idea false consensus reached when conflict is minimized and group members don t express concerns or reservations about an idea of proposal 5 Symptoms that Characterize Groupthink The group feels apathetic about its task Group members don t expect to be successful One group member has very high creditability I group member is very persuasive Group members don t usually challenge ideas 8 Strategies to Overcome Groupthink Don t agree with someone just because they have a high status examine ideas of others carefully regardless of their position Consider using someone from outside the group to evaluate the groups decision and decision making process Assign someone to be a devil s advocate to look for disadvantages and decision making process Ask group members to break into smaller groups to consider both pros and cons of a proposed solution By using the first principle you can easily manage groupthink because you re aware of your personal thoughts and can challenge proposals 9 Approaches to Understanding Leadership Trait identifies specific qualities or characteristics of effective leaders Functional identifies the key task and processes roles that need to be performed in a group Styles leadership that identifies three methods of interacting when leading others authoritative democratic and lassiefaire Situational leadership as an interactive process in which a leader gauges how to lead based on such factors as the quality of the relationship among group members the power of the leader and nature of the task and the maturity of the group Transformational leadership that defines a leader as one who leads by shaping the vision of the group and by developing trust through quality interpersonal relationships with group members Differences Traits refer to qualities that generally make a good leader functional refers to identifying tasks and process roles that need to be performed styles refers to 3 different methods controlling others developing consensus and leading only when asked situational refers to leading based on factors of the group transformational refers to shaping goals by developing trust 10 Managing Meeting Structure Determine your meeting goals by 0 Giving info 0 Discussing info 0 Taking action Identify what needs to be discussed to achieve goal 0 Determine how to structure the meeting to achieve goal which topics to talk about what info Take time to arrange the items in most effective way Organize agenda 0 Organize agenda around meetings goals Put important items first Use sub headings big problem in the middle first item should engage group members in discussion put controversial topics after easily agreeable ones ask for additional items in beginning of meeting estimate time for discussion 0 O O O O O O 11 Managing Meeting Interaction Gate keeping skills that encourage lesstalkative members to participate as well as limiting over contributors manage the flow of the conversation Metadiscussion discussion about the discussion process comments that help the group remain focuses on goals of the group or that point out how the group is doing its work Sensitize group to elapsed or remaining time be aware of time and what you want to complete and make sure you re on track Brainstorming Nominal manage interaction by using structure 10142010 102400 AM 10142010 102400 AM