FUND OF HUMAN COM
FUND OF HUMAN COM COMM 1310
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Scot Strosin on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 1310 at Texas State University taught by J. Wallace in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/212772/comm-1310-texas-state-university in Communication Studies at Texas State University.
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1 J U S haEtor 15 Detine Persuasion and describe Five ways in which listeners may be motivated Forsuasion is tho Procoss 01C attompting to chango or roinicorco a listonosz attitudos ljolioics valuos or ljohaviors Listonors mag ljo motivatod through cognitivo dissonanco tho sonso 01C montal disorganization or imljalanco that mag Prompt a Porson to chango whon now intormation coniclicts with Proviouslu organizod thought Pattorns nood icoar appoals attompting to got tho audionco to roact duo to somo sort 01C icoar Positivo appoals Promisos that good things will happon it tho spoakor s advico is tollowod and indiroct or Poriphoral tactors things such as a catchg song croativo logo or attractivo SPOlCCSPCFSOH Detine attitudes beliets and values and explain why a speaker should lltnow which one he or she is targeting in a Persuasive message An attitudo is a loarnod Prodisposition to rospond tavoraljlu or untavoraljlu to somothing a lillto or a disliko a ljolioiC is a sonso 01C whatjs truo oricalso and a valuo is tho concopt 01C what is right or wrong Tho spoalcor should lltnow which thou aro targoting ljocauso an audionco mom ljor will rospond much moro drasticallg to an attompt to chango thoir valuos than thou will to chango thoir attitudos Detine and Provide examples 0t Propositions ot tact value and Policy A Proposition 01C tact is a claim that somothing is or is not tho caso tolling tho audionco that Nucloar Powor Plants aro saico and otticiont a Proposition 01C valuo is a claim that calls For tho listonor tojudgo tho worth or importanco 01C somothing claiming that rocllt music is ljottor than classical music and a Proposition 01C Polic is a claim advocating a spociicic action to chango a rogulation Procoduro or ljohavior claiming that tho cit9 should build a now Puljlic liljraru 4 U Detine credibility analyze its three tactors and describe how to enhance initial derived and terminal credibilitg Credibilitg is an audiencejs perception 01C a speakens competence established through verbals trustworthiness established through verbals and dgnamism established through nonverbals such as maintaining ege contatc and using enthusiastic vocal in ection Initial credibilit can be enhanced b9 dressing appropriatelg and having a short list 01C quali cations and accomplishments readg For whoever is introducing you derived credibilitg can be enhanced b9 establishing common ground with our audience supporting arguments with evidence and presenting a wellorganized message Detine and Provide examples oi inductive deductive and causal reasoning and reasoning b5 analogg Inductive reasoning uses speciicic instances or examples to reach a probablg general outline such as giving examples oiC people gou lltnow that have had owned Honda vehicles For long periods 01C time as well as giving statistics trom other I39Ionda owners and askinggour audience to agree I39Iondas are reliable One tape 01C Inductive reasoning is reasoning b9 analog drawing a comparison between two ideas things or situations that share some essential common teature Deductive reasoning is moving trom a general statement or principle to reach a certain speciicic conclusion like the statement that Ab and EC theretore Casual reasoning is relating two or more events in such a wag as to conclude that one or more ot the events caused the others this would be reasoning trom cause to ehcect Casual reasoning can become subject oiC logical tallacies talse reasoning that occurs when someone attempts to persuade without adequate evidence or with arguments that are irrelevant or inappropriate 6 List and explain eight logical Fallacies Eight logical tallacies are l 00 O casual tallacg making a taultg causeandeicicect connection between two things or events bandwagon tallacg suggesting that because evergone believes something or does something it must be valid accurate or ettective eitheror tallacg oversimplituing an issue as ottering onl9 two choices hast generalization reaching a conclusion without adequate supporting evidence personal attacllt attacking irrelevant personal characteristics 01C someone connected with an idea rather than addressing the idea itselic red herring irrelevant tacts or intormation used to distract someone trom the issue under discussion appeal to misplaced authoritg using someone without the appropriate credentials or expertise to endorse an idea or product and non sequitur latin tor it does not tollow presenting an idea or conclusion that does not logicallg tollow the previous idea or conclusion Explain three ways to make emotional appeals in a persuasive presentations Use emotionarousing words use concrete illustrations and descriptions to create emotional images and use visual aids to evollte both positive and negative emotions List and explain tourwags to organize a persuasive message The wags to organize a persuasive message are problem and solution organization b9 discussing tirst a problem and then its various solutions cause and ehcect organization b9 discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its ehcects retutation organization according to objections our listeners mag have to our ideas and arguments and the motivated sequence a message organized in the Following order Attention Need Satistaction Visualization and Action List and explain the tive steps at the motivated sequence The steps For the motivated sequence are attention get the listeners attention need establish wh9 the topic idea or issue should concern our O listeners satisicaction identitg our plan and bow it will satisicg tbe need visualization give our audience a sense 01C wl1at it would be like itgour solution is or is not adopted and action adapt our solution to our audience and give speciicic actions tl1at tbeg mag take to solve tbe problem Provide specitic suggestions tor adapting to receptive audiences neutral audiences and unreceptive audiences A speaker mag adapt to a receptive audience b9 empbasizing tbeir similarities and common interests witl1tl1e audience being overt in stating our speaking objective and using emotional appeals A speaker mag adapt to a neutral audience b9 using a book to get tbe audiences attention reterring to universal belieics or common concerns sbowing bow tbe topic attects tbe audience and tbe audiencejs loved ones and being realistic about wl1at tbeg can accomplisb A speaker mag adapt to an unreceptive audience b9 not telling tbe audience tbat be or sl1e is going to trg to convince tbem to support bis or ber position presenting tbe strongest arguments First acknowledging opposing points 01C view and not expecting a major sbiict in attitudes or bebaviors M 1 List and explain lzive strategies tor organizing main ideas in a presentation Organize ideas topicallg determined 53 t5e speaker s discretion or 59 recen9 primac9 and complexitg organize ideas clironologicallg 59 time or sequence organize ideas spatiallg according to location position or direction organize ideas to s5ow cause and eicicect 59 discussing a situation and its causes or a situation and its eicicects and organize ideas 59 pro5lem and solution 59 discussing icirst a pro5lem and t5en various solutions J Define tl ie Principles oi recencg primacg and complexitg and explain how each can 5e applied to organizing main ideas Kecencg suggests t5at audiences remem5er 5est wl1at t5e9 5ear last t5us main ideas would 5e organized icrom least important to most important Frimacg suggests t5at Bou discuss our most convincing or least controversial idea icirst in order to get t5e audience on our side earlg on Complexitg suggests t5at Bou organize our ideas icrom simplest to t5e most complex so t5attl1e points 5uild on eacli otl1er U List and explain six strategies tor organizing supporting material in a presentation T5e strategies are clironologg 53 time or sequence recenc9 most important material last primac9 most convincing or least controversial material First complexitg material goes icrom simple to complex speciicicitg icrom speciicic inicormation to general overview orgeneral overview to speciicic inicormation and so t to l1ard evidence icrom 59pot5etical illustrations and opinions to Facts and statistics A Explain tl39lree wags to organize a presentation For tl39ie ears 01c others A preview 5elps to tell t5e audience wl1at goujre going to tell t5em ver5al and non ver5al transitions signal t5e audience t5at Bou are moving icrom one idea to t5e next and summaries provide a recap 01C U 0 l 00 what has ljoon said List and explain the six tunctions oi a presentation introduction An introduction should got tho audioncojs attontion introduco tho topic givo tho audionco a roason to liston ostaljlish rolovanco ostaljlish our crodiljilitu stato our contral idoa and proviow our main idoas Suggest at least icive strategies torgetting an audience s attention in a presentation introduction Opon with an illustration asllt a rhotorical quostion rolato a startling icact or statistic quoto an oxport or a litorarg toxt toll a humorous storu or roicor to a historical or rocont ovont List and explain the tourtunctions oi a Presentation conclusion Tho conclusion should summarizo tho prosontations roomphasizo tho contral idoa in a momoraljlo wag motivato tho audionco to rospond and provido closuro Define 3 Preparation outline and explain how a spealcer would use one A proparation outlino is a dotailod outlino oiC a prosontation that includos tho contral idoa main idoas supporting matorial and mag ovon includo tho spociicic purposo introduction and conclusion A spoalltor can uso this to onsuro that tho main idoas cloarlg rolato to tho contral idoa and aro logicallg and adoquatolu supported and can bo usod as an oarlg rohoarsal outlino Outline a presentation according to standard icor39mat Standard outlino tormat what wo usod in class is a convontional uso oiC numljorod and lottorod hoadings and suljhoadings to indicato tho rolationships among parts oiC a prosontations I First main idea A First subdivision of I B Second subdivision of I 1 First subdivision of B 2 Second subdivision of B a First subdivision of 2 b Second Subdivision of 2 H Second Main Idea 10 Explain how to create speaking notes Form a preparation outline Spoaking notcs should usc notc cards hccausc thou arc small cnough to hold in onc hand and dont rustlc as papcr docs Onlg usc onc sidcj and malltc surc writing can lac road casilg includc our introduction and conclusion in aljljrcviatcd Form includc supporting matcrial and signposts organizational cucs icorthc audicncc to hcar usc standard outlinc icorm and includc dolivcrg cucs Howcvcr thcsc notcs should not includc our purposc statcmcnt hccausc Bou will not actuallg sag that during our proscntation 1 J U A g haEter 1 5 List and describe the tour methods 01c deliverg and Provide suggestions tor egectivelg using each one Manuscript speaking reading a Presentation icrom a written text Memorized speaking delivering a presentation word For word icrom memoru without using notes lmpromptu speaking delivering a presentation without preparing in advance and Extemporaneous Speaking speaking icrom a written or memorized outline without having memorized the exact wording 01C the presentation List and explain icive criteria tor using words well Use speciicic words that reicer to an individual member 01C a general class and concrete words words that reicer to an object or action in the most speciicic wag possible unhiased words words that do no stereotgpe discriminate against or insult eithergender or ang racial cultural or religious group vivid words colortul words simple words short words that should he known lag most people who speak the language and correct words words that mean what the speaker intends and are grammaticallu correct in the phrase or sentence in which theu appear List and detine three types oi tigurative language that can he used to make a Presentation memorable Three tapes 01C Figurative language are metaphors an implied comparison between two things similes an overt comparison between two things that uses like or as and personiicication the attribute 01C human qualities to inanimate this or ideas Explain wags to create verbal drama and cadence in a presentation Verljal drama a characteristic 01C a speech created when something is phrased in a wag that diicicers icrom the wag the audience expects it can he created through the use 01C omission leaving out a word or phrase U 0 the audience expects to hear inversion reversing the normal word order oiC a phrase or sentence and suspension withholding a keg word or phrase until the 6nd oiC a sentence Cadence the rhuthm oC language can he created through H16 use oiC parallelism using the same grammatical structure For two or more clauses or sentences antithesis contrasting the meanings oiC two parts oiC a parallel structure repetition emphasizing a keg word or phrase ha using it more than once and alliteration the repitions oiC a consonant sound usuallg the icirst consonant several times in a phrase clause or sentence ldentitg and illustrate characteristics at eFFective nonverhal delivery The characteristics oiC eicicective nonverhal deliverg are 696 contact looking at an audience during the presentation phgsical deliver9 use oiC gestures movement and posture Facial expression the arrangement oiC the Facial muscles to communicate thoughts emotions and attitudes vocal deliver9 voice pitch rate and articulation and appearance the speaker s dress and grooming List eleven types at visual aids tram which the speaker might select and Provide suggestions tor using each tape eFFectivelg Visual aids can he ohjects he sure it can handled easilu and is not dangerous or illegal models he sure that the model or replica is large enough to he seen ha all audience memhers people he sure to rehearse with the person onl9 have the person next to uou when theu are heing used and don t let our aid steal the show drawings keep them large and simple consider using a prcjected photocopu and do not iceel that it is necessar9 For the drawing to he our own original artwork photographs have a copg center produce a post6rsize copu transicer our photograph to a slide or store the images as digital tiles and hring them up on a computer screen maps enlarge the map or 1 so transicer it to a slide and highlight the areas or routes Bou are talking about charts use an overhead transparencg or computer presentation so it is big enough to he viewed llteep the chart simple and print or tape an9 lettering graphs make the graph large enough to he viewed llteep it simple and consider using a computer rendered graph videos DVDs Videotapes and Streaming Video can he used but he certain the equipment required to show them will he in the room he sure the screen is large enough to he viewed lag all have the equipment set up and readg hetore Bou speallt and use onlg ljrieiC clips and excerpts audio tracllts he sure the MF5 or is amplitied so all can hear without straining and onl9 use sparinglg so the9 do not steal the show and computergenerated presentation aids don t let power point slides steal the show Otter tour guidelines tor Preparing egective presentation aids Select the right presentation aids mallte our presentation aids eas9 to see llteep our presentation aids simple polish our presentation aids List eight suggestions tor using Presentation aicls Kehearse with our presentation aids maintain e9e contact with our audience instead ot the aids explain our aids time the displag oiCBour aids to coincide with our discussion 01C them do not pass objects or pictures or other small items among audience members use handouts ehcectivelg use small children and animals with caution and use technolog thoughttullg i J U A U S baEter Hquot Explain tbe purpose at speaking to intorm Tbe PurPose oiC sPeaking to inicorm is to sbare intormation witb otbers to enbance tbeir knowledge or understanding oiC tbe intormation concePts and ideas Bou Present Describe and illustrate tive types at intormative presentations Tbe iciVC tgPes oiC intormative Presentations are Presentations about objects talking about cellos or digital cameras Presentations about Procedures bow to s and telling about bow sometbing is done or made Presentations about PeoPle biogranical Presentations Presentation about events talking about Pearl barbor or tbe world series and Presentations about ideas talking about treedom oiC sPeecb evolution or buddbism lclentitg and use appropriate strategies tor organizing intormative Presentations A presentation about an object sbould be organized toPicallB a Presentations about a Procedure sbould be organized cbronologicallu a Presentation about a Person can be organized cbronologicallg birtb imPortant events deatb or could be organized toPicall9 Tbe great tbings tbat Winston Cburcbill are X Y and Z a Presentation about an event will generallg be organized cbronologicallg bowever it it discussed tbe comPlex issues or causes bebind tbe even it could be organized toPicallg and a Presentation about an idea will be organized toPicallB lclentitg and use appropriate strategies tor making intormative presentations clear lntormative Presentations will be clear it tbe sPeaker simPliiCies tbe ideas Paces tbe intormation Flow and relates new intormation to old intormation Identity and use appropriate strategies tor making intormative presentations interesting lntormative Presentations will be interesting 0 iiC tl1e9 relate to tl1e listeners interests use attentioncatcl1ing supporting material establish a motive 1C0 our audience to listen to gou use word Pictures vivid words tl1at invite listeners to draw on tl1eir senses create interesting Presentation aids and use l1umor ldentitg and use appropriate strategies tor making intormative Presentations memorable lnicormative Presentations will lye memorable iiC tl1e9 ljuild in redundancg use adult learning Principles meaning tl1at it gives Practical useicul inicormation tl1at is relevant to tl1eir l3u59 lives reinicorce llte9 ideas verljallg and reinicorce llte9 ideas nonverljallg 1 U 4 U F3 Chapter I 1 Explain the Practical value at presentational speaking skills The language uou use when uou speak is less tormal and more conversational than the language uou use when uou write the speaker must verljallu cite sources and speaking is more redundant than writing List the nine components at the audiencecentered public speaking model Select topic narrow the topic identitu purpose develop central idea generate main ideas gather supporting material organize presentation rehearse presentation and deliver presentation Detine speaker anxietg explain what causes it and otter at least three suggestions tor managing it Speaker anxietu is anxietu ahout speaking in public that is maniicested in phgsiological sumptoms such as rapid heartljeat ljuttertlies in the stomach shaking knees and hands quivering voice and increased perspiration It is caused lag our ljrain signaling our ljodu to help with a challenging task and can he managed lag being prepared giving BourseliC a mental pep talk and using deep breathing techniques Suggest three questions and three strategies that can help a speaker discover a topic Who is the audience what is the occasion and what are m9 interests and experiences 7 Conduct silent brainstorming scanning welj directories and web pages and listening and reading For topic ideas List the three general purposes For presentations To intorm persuade or entertain Explain how to write an audiencecentered speci cpurpose statement Your statement should reiclect a topic in which the audience has a reason to be interested should provide some knowledge that theg do not alreadg have or make some claim about the topic that theu have not previouslg considered 7 List and Explain Four criteria tor a central idea A central idea 0 O should he audiencecentered reiclect a single topic he a complete declarative sentence and use direct speciicic language Explain how to generate main ideas From a central idea Think about it the central idea has logical divisions thinllt oiC several reasons the central idea is true and thinllt oiC how to support the central idea with a series oiC steps or a chronological sequence Describe three sources and tive types at supporting material tor a presentation and otter guidelines For using each type etFectively Sources can he muselic the internet and the liljrarg Tapes oiC supporting material can he illustrations a stor9 or anecdote that provides an example descriptions a word picture and explainations a statement that malltes clear how something is done or wh9 it exists in its present or past torm deicinitions a statement oiC what something means analogies a comparison between two ideas things or situations that demonstrates how something untamiliar is similar to something the audience alreadg understands and statistics numerica data that summarize examples List six tapes oi librarg resources books periodicals newspapers reterence FCSOUFCCS government documents and special SCWiCCS