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by: Kylie Jakubowski


Kylie Jakubowski
Texas State
GPA 3.78

C. Opheim

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C. Opheim
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Jakubowski on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSI 2310 at Texas State University taught by C. Opheim in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/212788/posi-2310-texas-state-university in Political Science at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE I Classical Liberalism a Ideological basis for the merchantmiddle class b Church and state separated c Individualism d LEAST GOVERNMENT IS BEST e Market Place 2 Three Strains of Classical Liberalism a Jeffersonian Democrats before 1932 b Hamiltonian Republicans c ReformWelfare Democrats after 1932 s Great Depression 5 deals of Democracy and how they conflict a Liberty conflicts with Order and Stability b Equality c Order and Stability d Majority RuleMinority Rights e Participation 4 How did the framers of the Constitution deal with two quotirreconcilablequot problems a Need of Centralized Power i Single Independent Executive ii Expressed Powers iii Implied Powers b Fear of Centralized Power i Separation of power permitted checks and balances ii Federalism iii 10th amendment reserve clause c Need for Democracy i House of Representatives popularly elected d Fear of Democracy i Separation of PowerFederalism ii Limited Suffrage right to vote 5 Expressed vs Implied Powers a Expressed powers are those clearly written in the US Constitution b Implied powers are those that are not written in the Constitution and are suggested by the expressed powers ex technology laws 6 Federal Vs Unitary System a Federal systems divide authority between national governments and sub national units as such states b Unitary System a centralized government system which local or sub divisional governments exercise only those powers given to them by the central government 7 Single Member vs Proportional Representation Electoral Systems a SM Winner takes all b P seats in legislature are awarded in proportion to the percentage of votes a party receives 9 Voting Rights Act of 1965 a signed by LBJ and assured equal access to voting b Put 15th Amendment into effect which gave blacks the right to vote 9 Jim Crow Laws a Segregated blacks and whites 10 Characteristics and Consequences of Responsible Party Systems a Characteristics i Clear and contrasting positions ii Party members support positions iii Majority party program becomes law b Consequences i representatives address the national policy goals oftheir respective parties 11 Activities of a Lobbyist a Private meetings b Testifying before congressional committees c Testify before executive agencies d Entertain 12 Grassroots Lobbying Shotgun vs Rifle a Shotgun 9 quotTargeted Lobbyingquot b Rifle 9 quotZeroesquot in on a few important people 13 Direct Primary Election a Party election to elect congressional state and local nominees Always held in the SPRING 14 Electoral College Characteristics and how it works a Each state has as many electors as Senators and Representatives Electors are chosen by state parties Winner take all winner of majority vote gets all the states electoral votes Candidate must receive majority 270 electoral votes If not president is selected by House 26 votes 9957 15 Selection of Presidential Nominees how are they selected a Delegates are chosen at the National Convention Presidential Preference Primaries ii Caucuses meetings iii Superdelegates important party members 16 Consequences of Proportional Representation vs Two Party System a Proportional Representation i Seats in legislature are awarded in proportion the percentage of votes a party receives 9 Encourages multi party system b Two Party System i Party coalitions are FUZZY so they will hold together need to be vague on issues to be elected 17 25 amendment provides for presidential disability 18 22nd amendment President can only serve 2 four year terms but not more than 10 years 19 President s appointment power and limits to that power a President appoints high level executive officials ambassadors and federal judges b Limits i most appointments have to be approved by senate ii Growth of civil service permanent bureaucracy 20 War Powers Act a 1973 an attempt by congress to reassert its authority to make war 21 President39s diplomatic powers a Receives and appoints ambassadors Negotiates Treaties Executive Agreements no senate approval needed Officially recognizes foreign governments 9957 22 Examples of Agencies in the Executive Office of the President EOP a Small bureaucracies which are generally loyal that assist the President i OMB Office of Management and Budget ii CEA Council of Economic Advisors 23 Definition of the President s Cabinet a Least Loyal because oftheir dual roles i Consists of 15 executive department heads ii Presidential advisors vs heads of their own departments 24 Differences in the House of Representatives and Senate a HOR i Speaker of the House Minority Leader ii Majority party always wins iii Represent limited groups of citizens living in small defined districts within each state iv Must be at least 25 v 2 year terms i Majority Leader Minority Leader ii Less formal more individualistic iii Hard to be a leader everyone is powerful iv Represents whole state v Must be at least 30 vi 6 year terms 25 Reasons for the quotParadox of Congressquot a Public often disapproves of Congress because i Members of Congress worry about serving their districtstate ii Casework favors constituents iii Pork Barrel Legislation earmarks benefits a specific districtstate 26 Role of Standing Committees and Committee chairs in Congress a Committee Chairs are ALWAYS members of majority party because they control the committee agenda thus re election is important b Role i Public testimony ii Amending or quotmarking upquot the bill iii Voting out favorably iv Voting down v Pigeonholing the bill happens frequently 27 Judicial Review definition and origin advantagesdisadvantages a Federal courts review the constitutionality of congressional acts presidential actions or state laws i ADVANTAGES 1 Court protects quotfundamental rightsquot 2 Court not subject to political pressure 3 Court provides objective interpretation ii DISADVANTAGES 1 Undemocratic 2 Court is not elected 3 The will of the majority may be violated 28 Judicial Activism vs Judicial Restraint a Can be liberal or conservative i ACTIVISM judges should take an active role to check the activities of governmental bodies which exceed their authority ii RESTRAINT judges should defer to the decisions made by elected representatives 29 Types of Supreme Court Opinions a Majority explains the decision b Dissenting disagrees with the decision c Concurring agrees but for another reason LINKAGE INSTITUTIONS Political Parties Interest Groups Elections POLITICAL PARTIES De nition of Political Party A broadly based coalition that attempts to Win elections operate the government and determine public policy American Parties Unique Concepts of Party 0 Party in the Electorate Party Organization Party in Government Parties both Good and Bad 0 Good Help the 0 Bad Promote Voters t0 Factionalism Understand and Gridlock Issues and Make Decisions The Weak Structure of American Parties Parties are weak because 0 Little control over nominations 0 Little control over elected of cials Consequences of Weak Parties Representatives are free to address the interests of local and special interest constituencies Responsible Party Systems 0 Clear and contrasting positions 0 Party members support positions Majority party program becomes law 0 Example Great Britain Consequences of Responsible Party Systems Representatives address the national policy goals of their respective parties TWOPARTY SYSTEM IN AMERICA Why only two parties 0 Single member districts Winner takes all 0 State and federal laws favoring two parties Proportional Representation PR Seats in legislature are awarded in proportion to the percentage of votes a paIty receives Encourages multi party system Consequence of a two party system PaIty coalitions are FUZZY so they Will hold together Vague on issues History of Party Systems mm mm mm was 1900 Federalvsls Demazrals Mlmnnlaus Wh 3 Republvwnx Party Eras Periods in which one party dominates or competition is stable Example New Deal coalition of 1932 1968 Democrats dominant Example 1968 present era of diVided government Party eras begin and end With realignments Realignment Groups of voters switch party allegiance producing a long term change in the political landscape Is Realignment still possible One theory Not at present Parties identi ers are too cohesive Presidential Election 1896 Liaouu Von mun m s roman varz mu mum Mum WW 7 mom Inner Presidential Election 2000 nmom van Iowa 37 vaovwc 1 Republican 5 w 9mm Dmuxaxi Com Presidential Election 2004 on Yom m Republic a w Bush D Demnrralic Kerry 211d theory Dealignment A decline in party loyalties that reduces long term party commitment more independents Trends in Party Identi cation 1937 2004 How Parties are Organized National Chairperson and National Commmaa National Cunvemiun anu Delegales Slate ChairpersanCommitlsa County Chairpslscnlcnmmlnee Wam arTownship ChanpersonCommmaa Preclm ChalrpmsunCammmse Each iyer39 at an Amuviu Devilina my is mprcscnla ve av a lcvci 0V nmmmam rum lucaHa quotmom Ammung mm are nuxaaas nememmc layers my is raw 2nuuuenumux Inn mammom anmamina sumxoners namimuons m ptilfn39m Na one lcvnl mm my his rear nntml am any mu levev Party Organizations Committees National State and Local Party Organizations are semi independent of one another National Party Committees DNC and RNC 0 Composed of representatives from the state parties 0 Select a national chairperson spokesperson for the party 0 Raise and distribute campaign funds to party candidates National Party Conventions Held every four yeais in summer in major cities 0 Delegates are more ideologically extreme Why 0 Of cially nominates the party s presidential candidate majority needed 0 Approves the party s platform What Purpose do Conventions Serve 0 Simply a media 0 Help to Unify the event that With no party and educate real purpose the voters about the candidates State Party Organizations Over 100 state party organizations Each has a central committee and chairperson Exercise the unit rule over a state s presidential electoral Votes Local Party Organizations 0 The Grassroots 0 No longer exercise much patronage ie the rewarding of party supporters With gov t employment and contracts 0 Provide the foot soldiers of politics The Road to Politics is through your local party organization Helping Voters Decide Americans often possess a psychological identi cation PID with a political party 7 point measure of PID Strong Democrat Weak Democrat Independent Leaning Democrat Independent 0 Independent Leaning Republican Weak Republican 0 Strong Republican Tendencies In general Republicans favor tax cuts and lower federal spending While Democrats favor higher tax rates for the well to do and more federal spending for poor people HOW do you identify yourself Voting and Elections 21211 Participation helps to create legitimacy for American government Acceptability of System How much participation is necessary Voting Minimum Standard for Participation 21211 The Expansion of Suffrage Voting Rights the Franchise expanded States originally had the power to set rules for voting This power gradually reduced by Constitutional amendment and legislation 15th amendment 1870 Reconstruction Amendment Gave African Americans legal right to vote 21211 Jim Crow laws laws that segregated blacks and Whites and kept blacks from voting Example literacy tests Voting Rights Act VRA of 1965 Signed by LBJ Assured equal access to voting 0 Amended frequentlyExtended in 2006 Preclearance New voting practices must be approved by Dept of Justice Other Amendments 0 19th amendment Women s suffrage 24th amendment elimination of poll tax 26th amendment gave 18 yr olds the vote 21211 Voter Turnout Turnout in US is lower than in most industrialized democracies Why Average Turnout in Western Democracies 1991 2004 90 IIaJy Swe Ans Brit Ger US 21211 Possible Reasons for Lower Turnout Registration requirements Uninformed media coverage negative campaigning Nonvoters happy with status quo Rational Ignorance effect Who Votes Education leading in uence Higher SES income Middle aged and older people WhitesAfrican Americans Races with two party competition Voting in 2004 Pres Election 342 775 m 5quot Some college or assomate degree 9 High schnol gvaduale Advanced degree 21211 Voting by Age Group 2004 How the Voter Decides Party Identi cation PID long term in uence important in lower level races Candidate Appeal Policy or issue voting Elections 21211 Choosing Nominees Choosing congressional state and local nominees Direct Primary Party election to nominate party candidates Presidential nominees of cially chosen by delegates at national convention 21211 How National Convention delegates selected Presidential Preference Primaries Caucuses meetings of party members Superdelegates elected of cials General Elections held on the rst Tuesday after the rst Monday in November Special Elections held by state and local governments 21211 The Selection of the President The Electoral College How the Electoral College Works 0 Each state has as many electors as Senators and Representatives Electors chosen by state parties Winner take all winner of the popular vote gets all the state s electoral votes Candidate must receive majority 270 electoral votes If not president is selected by House Each state delegation in the House receives one vote Candidates must receive 26 votes to be elected 21211 Criticisms of the Electoral College 0 Winner of the popular vote may not be elected 0 Faithless Elector 0 Small states overrepresented Campaigns 21211 The Nature of Modern Campaigns Candidatecentered rather than party centered 0 Campaign consultants and other specialists now dominate campaigns 0 Use of tracking polls focus groups and the Internet 0 Incumbents had to defeat Financing Political Campaigns 0 The Federal Elections Campaign Act of 1971 0 The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act BCRA of 2002 Interest Groups 51 A 1N5 Alexis de Tocqueville 180571859 Democracy in America Interest Groups are protected by the 1st amendment to the Constitution 21211 De nitions 0 Interest Group Pressure Group Lobby 0 An organized group of people shan39ng common objectives that try to enter the policy process at several pressure points to in uence policymakers 0 More narrow focus than a political Party 21211 Madison and Federalist 10 How do we prevent one set of interests a faction from gaining control and ruling for its own aims and against the collective good Madison s solution Diffusion 1 A large and diverse country undercuts the power of any one faction group 2 Dividing power among several institutions no one group can control all parts Types of Interest Groups 21211 H 91599 Economic Interest Groups Business includes Trade Associations Agriculture Labor Public Employee Unions Groups of Professionals Growth of Public Employee Unions Fewenlage of Wolldorce Public Saclnr quot Total Wnrklarc Private Secrw A I l i quot mm man My mm vgau 13921 mm Types of Groups continued Public Int Groups tries to represent the broad collective good Example Nader s organizations ACLU Environmental Groups Ideological and Religious Groups Types of Interest Groups con t 0 Civil Rights Groups promote legal rights of those Who have suffered discrimination 0 Single issue groups often uncompromising 0 Foreign Governments Who joins interest groups Wealthier more highly educated individuals 21211 What makes an interest group powerful 0 Size and Resources 0 Leadership 0 Cohesiveness the strength of members beliefs 21211 Top 10 Interest Groups Table 71 1 NRA 2 AARP National Federation of Independent Business American Israel Public Affairs Committee AIPAC American Association of Justice Trial Lawyers 9 F kn Top 10 continued 6 AFL CIO Labor 7 Chamber of Commerce 8 National Beer Wholesalers Association 9 National Association of Realtors 10 National Association of Manufacturors Strategies of In uence for Interest Groups 21211 Direct Techniques Direct Lobbying Involves personal encounters between lobbyists and public of cials Types of Lobbyists 0 Volunteers 0 Salaried professionals consultants or members of law rms hired guns Activities of Lobbyists Private Meetings Testifying before congressional committees Testifying before executive agenc1es Entertaining 21211 Other Direct Techniques 1 Contribute money through Political Action Committees PACs 2 Campaign Assistance endorsements volunteers e c 3 Litigation ling lawsuits 4 Rating of ceholders Examples ADA ACU Indirect Grassroots Lobbying Techniques Mobilize and educate constituents to change public opinion and gain popular support Issue Advertising 0 Climate Control public relations efforts 0 Grassroots Lobbying Shotgun Approach 0 Grassroots Lobbying Ri e Technique 21211 Protest and Civil Disobedience 0 marches rallies boycotts sit ins 0 Goal is to in uence mass or elite opinion Advantages of Interest Group Participation Pluralism Allows for democratic expression Educates leaders and the public about issues 0 Provides for some degree of compromise and stability Problems with Interest Group Participation Pluralism Immobilism gridlock Govemment less able to achieve solutions Class biased participation and representation 21211 0 U1 PowerPoint Slides Review Name one of the features of a citizen legislature Low salaries Low staff support High turn over Limited sessions 99591 In recent years Texas economy has become more DIVERSE Identify one power of the Speaker and Lt Governor Assigns bills to committees Appoints most committee members and ALL chairs Control agenda through scheduling Appoint members to the Legislative Budget Board LBB mpcp List two reasons why Texas politics is now dominated by the Republican Party a Civil Rights Movement SOs60s i Started realignment with LBI s Voting Rights Act Regan 80s c Republicans moved in reenforced trend Longterm economic trends Probusinessindustrialized economy 9 P Brie y describe the alternative view of E Davis put forward by recent historians a Progressive because of equal rights and public works projects The Texas Legislature meets in biennial sessions in even years a FALSEmeets in ODD number years Name two reasons the Texas governor has little control over state administration a 1 Plural Executive executives are elected b The Senate approves all appointees 8 Describe at least two strategies the governor uses to in uence the legislature a Message power b Vetoitem veto c Visibility d Can call special sessions no limit 9 Identify the court of last resort for criminal cases in Texas a Texas Court of Criminal Appeals 10 Name one function performed by delegates to the state party convention a Establish platforms b Nominate electors Dr Opheim 2310 Study Guide for Final Exam The nal exam is over the entire course and Texas politics Read chapters 20 22 24 pp 832 856 25 Suggested reading chapter 26 pp921 934 1 Describe the context of today s Texas Politics population economy etc a Large land mass 9 ETHNICALLY DIVERSE i Majority minority state ii Almost 55 ethnic minorities Latinos are fastest growing iii Large senior population iv Unique in uences have shaped the state s politics b Economy was formally land and natural resources 9 industrialization and oil industry changed everything 39 Low tax Low services conservative political culture ii 79 of Texas workforce are undocumented immigrants ii39 Increasing global economy iv High poverty rate Lquot 2 What are some characteristics of the Texas Constitution and how is it different from the US Constitution a Speci c in nature b Very restrictive c Many amendments over 450 i 23 vote in each house of legislature to propose a bill majority vote of people to ratify 90000 words vs 8000 words in US Constitution e 456 amendments vs 27 in US a 3 How has history made an impact on the Texas Constitution a Reaction to Reconstruction i The south was occupied by Union troops in Texas b Reaction to Construction of 1869 and military rule c Reaction to centralized power and strong executive EJ Davis 4 Was Governor EJ Davis good or bad a BOTH i Corrupt and tyrannical centralization of power ii Progressive policies civil rights fighter 5 What are some characteristics of the Texas legislature a Bicameral i House 150 2 year terms ii Senate 41 4 year terms b Meet in biennial sessions in ODD number years c 7200 per year 128 per day diem 6 What are some duties of the Speaker and Lt Governor a Appoint most committee members and all chairs b Assign bills to committees c Control agenda through scheduling d Appoint members to the Legislative Budget Board 7 What are some characteristics of the of ce of the TX Governor a 4 year term no limits b 115000 per year plus expense account and mansion c Relies on large staff d Elects not appoints plural executives Lt Gov Attorney General Agriculture Commissioner Comptroller 8 What are some powers of the Governor a Message Power b Appointment Power c Veto Item Veto d Calls Special Sessions no limit 9 What are some reasons the Texas Governor has little control over state administration a Governor can elect executives but the Senate must approve appointees 10 What are the characteristics of the Texas budget process a Two budget proposals are submitted i Govemor s ii Legislative Budget Board LBB b Comptroller of Public Accounts is required to give a 2 year revenue estimateithe budget may NOT exceed this c Pay as you go 11 How are courts organized in the Texas judiciary a State court system is highly complex Different levels but some courts have overlapping jurisdictions i Local Trial Courts Oudge is appointed not elected 1 Municipal Courts violations of city ordinances ex speeding ticket 2 Justice of Peace Courts serve various functions ex marriagecommas ii County Courts 1 Constitutional County Court judge has administrative duties 2 County Courtsatlaw handle criminal and civil cases iii State Trial Courts Oudge must be a lawyer 1 District Courts chief trial courts of the state 444 judges very heavy caseload 2 90 of cases are plea bar gin iv Appellate Courts 1 l4 Courts of Appeal 2 Hear intermediate appeals in both civil and criminal cases 12 What are some characteristics of state district courts a Judge must be a lawyer b Very heavy caseload c Majority of cases are plea bar gin d 444 judges 13 What is the function of the Grand Jury in Texas a Grand juries are used to decide indictments true bills 14 How are the Texas judges selected a Partisan Election we vote judges according to their party b About 45 of judges first assume office through govemor s appointment c About 80 ofjudges run unopposed 15 What is the salary of Texas legislators and how can it be raised a 7200 per year 128 per diem b For it to be raised we the public must make a constitutional amendment and vote on it 16 What are some reasons that Texas palty politics are dominated by the Republican Party a 1984 Phil Gramm beat Lloyd Doggett b 1998 George W Bush wins statewide election no democrats occupied any executive or judicial of ce c Republican party appeals to i MiddleUpperMiddle class in urbansuburban communities ii Rural highincome ranchers iii White AngloSaxon Protestants WASPs iv German Americans whose ancestors were strong supporters of the Union during the Civil War V ActiveRetired military of cers Vi Traditional conservatives 17 What factors might allow the Democratic party to be competitive in Texas in the future a Growth of Ethnic Minorities i Minority leaders tend to vote Democratic ii Latinos fastest growing population tend to vote Democratic iii Large urban centers voting Democratic


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