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by: Kylie Jakubowski


Kylie Jakubowski
Texas State
GPA 3.78

W. Ruger

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W. Ruger
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kylie Jakubowski on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSI 3322 at Texas State University taught by W. Ruger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/212795/posi-3322-texas-state-university in Political Science at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
POSI 3322 Test One Introduction Power is relative to the other players Powerability of one actor to get another to do what the other would not have otherwise done Actor A exerts force against B Politicsthe share of power or share of distribution of power among groups of individuals Weber who gets what when and howquot Lasswell Normative poli sci what should or ought to be Positive poli sciwhat is de facto Mao quotpower grows out of the barrel of a gun Pareto optimal the peak in curve X where everyone benefits from the transaction Zerosum game what politics tend to be vs Positivesum game what economics tends to be Nationimagined selfconscious community State a human community that successfully claikms the monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a given territory see Weber pg 78 quotinstiution of violence quotWar makes the states and the states make warquot reciprocal relationship Make the distinction between the state and the society State is a component within society IBM Catholic Church Red Sox all fit description of states territory bureaucracy ect except the right to assert violence quotStrong will do what they will the weak do what they mustquot Anarchy doesn t equal chaos but they coincide often enough that we realize it s a bad idea International Politics the competition for and exercise of authority between states Four categories of political science 1 International politics 2 Comparative politics 3 American politics 4 Political theory International politics is anarchical which is why it s studied independently Anarchyeach actor is responsible for its own security Security Dilemma if you don t you re at a disadvantage if you do you re no more secure but you ve wasted resources trying to be Hans Morgenthau anarchy tends to suboptimal results The alternative is that we overcome the states system and create a world power Primary Actors in World Politics 1 States primary 2 IGO Intergovernmental organizations UN OPEC NATO NAFTA 3 NGO NonGovernmental Organizations Should we also consider businessescorporations and terrorist organizations Also do contract mercenaries constitute a state or NGO Levels of Analysis 1 SystemicStructural 2 DomisteicUnit 3 Individual Independent Variables gtDependent Variable Systemic level llblackboxquot llbilliard boxquot you don t look at the composition of the balls just how they interact on the billiard table You can also combine arguments human nature plus structural arguments Sumer Mesopotamian hegemony with a citytemple religious foundation RealismIdealism is semantically biased Hegemons may or may not be benevolent no states are truly altruistic The religionculture of Sumer promoted the existence of a dominant state Resources of a hegemony get drained sooner a natural entropy 1700 BC 0 Babylon used client rulers not imposed direct rule so it s not a true empire 0 Egypt was a dominant empire unnaturally for the time centralized and even developed relations as far as modern Syria Turkey Created the idea of diplomatic immunity to encourage peacefully and open discourse Massive Persian empire was foced to rule rather loosely because of their size The provinces were quasi autonomous Greek city states tried to rebel leading to the Persian Wars Poleis of Greece defeated Persia a major upset in the balance of power The two great powers bipolarity 431404 BC Peloponnesian War A systemic level argument was that it was the decline of Sparta and the rise of Athens Scorpion and Spider Diversionary Theory ofWar states go to war to avoid domestic scandles Military Industrial Complex Halliburton Private contractors Aristophanes quotCenter of Gravity beat the military but lose the war examples being Carthage and Rome Vietnam War During the middle ages power was very decentralized and individuals filled the power vacuum over local area There was general anarchy since there was no largescale governing body similar to Somalia Church tried to limit violence by imposing social norms An example would be the codes of chivalry to maintain a semblance of order Two types of government emerged 1 Commercial city states particularly in Italy 13001500AD relatively decentralized independent 2 Territorial Monarchies quotragione di statoquot reason of state shrewd calculations and expedient decision making The Italians were much more conscious of the balance of power than Greeks Antihegemoialismquot attempted to cut down emerging states but not absorb them Wars were less fanatical and much more calculated and utilized private mercenaries Marked the beginning of permanent residence of abroad representatives An embassy was a grandiose entourage of traveling families and rulers Extraterritoriality detached piece of the realm that maintained immunity Rational selfinterest Territorial Monarchic States Tilly Mansbach had to compete internally and externally nobles managed the resources and resources justified war created a bureaucracy similar to organized crime What s the difference between Somalian warlords and kings It happened a long time ago and there are paintings of them in museums The Protestant Reformation helped create nascent states Legitimate notion that you can be politically separate from Roman Christendom 16181648 lThirty Years War 13 of Christendom was killed the reason why fervor of ideals is dangerous but was really selfinterested they used the ideals to motivate citizens Results of Westphalia 1 Concept of Sovereignty Jean Bodin The leader of the state is supreme within its territory and equal to its counterpart in other states ccurius religio eius religiusquot who rules the state determines religion 2 Collective Security when one aggressor state threatens weaker states multiple smaller states need to work together to recover status quo Korea War First Gulf War auspices of UN agreement which doesn t prevent external aggression since most states won t get involved without national interest 3 Legitimizes the concept of the nationstate Gave states further control domestically 4 European system expands to become an international system The overall systems are still pretty decentralized however 5These states aided by financial and industrial innovations tried to expand outward for security money and glory 6 Monarchs had great domestic power they mostly spoke French were Christian except Ottoman Turks interrelated common mores and conduct 7 Warfare was fairly limited compared to the next century Great Power economically and militarily strong state that is independent and exerts influence over other states Typically have large population and territory with a relatively strong economy Guns and butter Power Projection capability exert influence outside your own territory Amateurs think of tactics experts think of logistics Three Ma39or Wars 1 War of Spanish Succession 17011714 AustriaEnglandNetherlands vs France France tried to dominate Spain 2 War of Austrian Succession 17401748 FranceSpain vs Austria 3 Seven Years War European fight spilled into Americas FrenchIndian War AustriaFranceRussia vs EnglandPrussia Alliances continually shift Seven Years War debts were expensive gt American Revolution Imperialism llprocess of extending a state s authority by territorial acquisition establish the political and economic dominion over the other states Colonialism can be a result of imperialism llpolicy by which a state maintains or extends dominion over foreign areas 1 Settler immigrants become dominant group as they seize or purchase land from indigenous groups indigenous population are often displaced 2 Elite indigenous population remains but their rulers are replaced by foreign elites Created global empires Spanish and Portuguese got head start others followed Germany and Japan came in late created tensions with existing territories Technology made it possible politics made it desirable Mercantilism gain area for trade and natural resources protect existing trade routes llif we don t they willquot con t Rise and spread of nationalism Big World Wars weakened great powers so that colonial resistance movements were more successful Us was antiimperialism after WWII Empires are costly and often counterproductive Why buy the cow when milk is market price Conseguences of Imperialism social structures especially creation of an elite economics vary by area infrastructure healthcare education temporarily stabilized colonies became dependent on trade with the colonies lines on map not reflective upon ethnic groupins exacerbated sense of nationalism diffusion curried chicken example imperialism led to security scares race to territory French Revolution promoted the idea of loyalty to nation not monarch made monarchic states worried that liberal ideas would spread the new republic was worried about it s own security despite it being strong and populous Levee en masse unified draft consolidation of resources under state control Literally lnation in arms mobalized for war effort When Napolean came to power it was well set up Napoleonic Wars Napolean abandoned former way of limiting warfare demanded surrender He spread an efficient bureaucratic system throughout Europe Continental System banned the importation of British goods as a protectionist measure bad economics Britain Russia Sweden formed coalition Russia Austria Prussia joined to balance against France Success for napoleon was fleeting and problematic The continental system raised prices and created resentment in Frenchcontrolled areas Poor decision to invade Russia also fighting on the Iberian peninsula 500000 troops to Russia returned with 40000 troops intact Battle of Waterloo ended his reign and sent him to exile A coalition met at the llCongress of Vienna and created the llTreaty of Vienna Treaty of Vienna estabished quadruple alliance of Britain Russia Prussia and Austria Concert of Europe created collective security agreement to maintain group safety Were supposed to meet and discuss how to manage great powers Buffer states like Belgiu Felms and Walloons within Belgium it was not an organic state Estabished right of states to intervene in other states affairs if it threatened status quo Sovereignty Restores monarchies Also territorial changes happen Principle of collective security is determined by individual state s interest Another weakness didn t have mechanism to enforce ruling However the next century was relatively secure 1848 Revolutions inspired by liberalism Monarchs felt threatened and many were crushed France gets a new republic briefly Monarchs tried to reassert control Prussia adopted a sense of nationalism that they tied with conservatism to counter this 185356 Crimean War Russia vs the Ottoman Empire They tried to take advantage of the waning power of the Turks The concert of Europe failed when state interest wasn t present Austria and Prussia declined to intervene and France tried to push a sense of nationalism in Austria knowing it was a multination Risogimento Italian which doesn t exist in the contemporary sense yet nationalism movement Wars of Italian Unification which helped establish a weak state Also it weakened Austria helping France Revanchism desire to avenge defeat and recover lost territory German Unification 1871 Otto von Bismarck was a an aristocratic landowner in Prussia He took smaller weaker states in central and northern Germania leaving out Austria because it he wanted a Prussian ruler and Austria was too strong of a nation It took three wars to create this country Bismarck kept France isolated through alliances with Austria and Russia Austria had to accept its loss of power in central Europe This balance of power benefited Britain because it served as a counterbalance to Russia and France Lowlands were independent and were strategic for the British Channel Auxiliary clashes did occur between the powers in the colonies Underlying standing condition that had been present for a long period of time and was prior to the explanandum dependent variable mmediate event localized in time whose occurrence at time t brought about the event at time t World War Franz Ferdinand shot by Serbian nationalists Rise of Germany militarily politically economically Series of tight alliances Russia 61gt France England 61gt Japan British 61gt French Germany 61gt Austria Hungary Nationalism becomes a factor particularly in the Balkans mperial competition at the time Germany enters the game Domestic politics created a rough time for monarchs in Russia and Austria JapoRussian war created a sense of disrespect for monarchs Kaiser Wilhelm came to power and wanted to create a lrisk fleet to create a security dilemma with Britain Cult of the Offensive domestic level argument the first mover advantage in war The battles occur on foreign territory Irrational attachment to the idea of offense Military creates the conditions that politics can t ignore Vs Strategic Interest Model rational strategic interest France wants territory and doesn t want Russia to fall and Germany turn and attack France Politics demand that military give them conditions Russia had to protect and didn t want France to fall 1 Germany s plan was to hit France hard then move to Russia Cult of the Offense created atmosphere of war that spiraled BritianRussiaSerbiaFrance vs GermanyAustriaBulgariaOttoman Battle of Somme took five months with one million casualties The total damage count was 9 million combatants killed 7 million disabled 5 million civilians killed Unrestricted submarine warfare was used by the Germans Germany had expected to strangle Britain and Russia before the US got involved Armistice not a peace treaty was signed Nov 11 h 1918 Paris Peace Conference doesn t invite Germany victors decided how to deal with the situation Each had their own motives France wanted to punish Italy and Britian wanted territory the US had an idealistic plan Part vengeance part idealism Wimar Republic signed the treaty even though it was a poor deal for them The Treaty of Versailles Germany returned Lorrain and Moraine to France Poland was recreated from E Germany Saar basin was occupied by French and British troops Rhineland was demiitarized disarmed Germany Forbid the use of conscription AustriaHungary were divided into smaller states and forbidden to unite with Germany Czechoslovakia and Hungary created All foreign German territory was surrendered became British mandates Forced to pay reperations to allies a steep price Article 231 made them accept a war guilt While Germany was weakened it was not destroyed most of the fighting was abroad not domestic but their sense of nationality was embarrassed League of Nations was created nterwar EuropeZRise of WWII Revolution and Civil War in Russia 1922 the Soviet Union declared Japan invasion of Manchuria the League of Nations failed to respond as collective security US tried to help finance Germany to pay back its war debt Growing radical nationalism sentiment in Italy and Germany Hyperinflation impoverished conditions lead to a rise in extremism 1933 Adolf was voted Chancellor waited to regain former success Analogy to riverboat gambler on a hot streak 1935 the conscription was reinstates they built an airforce openly defying the treaty Japan becomes heavily militarized aggressive In 1937 they invade China While the Rhineland remilitarized pacifism was strong even in France Austria absorbed League of Nations still didn t respond 1938 Czechoslovakia was pressured to cede Sudetenland Munich conference Czechoslovakia wasn t invited Part of their territory was given over to appease Germany where we get the Munich Analogy from 1939 Germany invaded Czechoslovakia the first time he invaded a nonGermanic land Was an important part of AustriaHungary economicallymilitarily so it was strategic Soviets bandwagon with Germany MoltovRibbentrop Pact that agreed to carve Poland Finland while Russia takes the Baltics Blitzkreig on PolandFrance and Britain declare war but it s not really geologically savvy to try and help Poland Denmark amp Norway are defeated and SU fought in Poland Defeat France in 5 weeks taly joins the war Conflicts in Yugoslavia and Greece delays start of operation Barbarossa which happened in 1941 when Germany invaded nearly making it to Moscow SU joins allies 1931 US put pressure on Japan to denounce it s expansionism US cuts oil supply which was necessary There were efforts to convince the US to fight a short war breaks sentiments of isolationism in US Results 4050 million people died in global warfare Old empires were destroyed Divided Germany into 4 Germany Britain France Russia Europe became center of international relations US and SU become dominant players UN was created to replace League of Nations Russians did the majority of the dying and fighting Analysis of Causes nvasion of Poland immediate cause ndividuals Tide of Italian German and Japanese expansionist aggressive militaristic fascist regimes Treaty of Versailles was too harsh or not harsh enough Rise of pacifism prevented intervention Failure of collective security and League of Nations Cold War First time nonEuropeans were in power 1 Conflict between two great powers is inevitable bipolarity systemic 2 The Soviet s Fault Aggressive and expansionist by nature Containment was proper and justified Stalin was pure evil Domestic and Individual level 3 America s Fault US exacerbated Soviet security fears after Japan bombings USSRRussia had a history of being invaded US took soviet arms building in wrong light Systemic balance of power domestic because of US economic policies Truman may be irrelevant 4 Ideology capitalism democracy vs communist authoritarianism would cause conflict inevitably related to Napoleonic wars monarchs vs liberals nterest vs Ideals vs Regime type domestic level 5 Poor Leadership Truman was inexperienced with diplomacy Stalin was paranoid 6 Misperception of Intentions ndividual and systemic if mutual bad info in the system True intentions were misperceived and each thought the other was more aggressive Realists say it was true not a misperception Irrationality or a failure to communicate con t 19451953 tensions rise until Stalin s death Problems in East Europe and USSR spreads influence The US backed coups in Latin America Iran war in Egypt Cuban Missal Crisis Keep building arsenal clashes in the third world Tried to create notion of normalization status quo SALT Jewish immigration The countries had different views of how to proceed Tensions reemerged when USSR invaded Afghanistan Reagan Doctrinesupported thugs and rebels that countered Soviets in third world countries 1989 communist governments failed soviet satellite states and by 1991 they collapsed Nonsuccessful economic system that is communism Too much of the economy was going to military the economic opportunity cost of creating wealth Did Gorbachev prevent a hot war like Sparta and Athens Transnational ideas spread of democratic ideals around the world became the dominant though No major international ideological tensions no philosophical argument for being like Zimbabwe Theory Data needed to make theories theories need to have data for validity House on fire analogy it s not the individual just the circumstances that determine how they behave n anarchy they are rational and behave in response to situation Hot house rational actor Every actor has different reaction to stimuli Preferences of the state Systemic Level Theory attempt to explain international politics using factors arising from structural level analysis Waltzrealist explain why different units behave similaryly and despite their variations produce outcomes within expected ranges Father of neorealism Utilize factors external of the states Classic Realism Goes back to Thucydides pessimistic view of human nature Relies on two variables of analysis 1 Structure of the System balance of power anarchy 2 Pessimistic View of Humanity actions are selfinterested moral development is stagnant Structural Realism Takes out the variable of human nature since it s constant Does strong power create peace or war 1 Neorealist international system would be stable with a balance of power 2 Hegemonic Stability Theorists preponderance theory that having a unipolar or hegemony creates a more stable world Basic 39 for structural realism 1 International system is inherently anarchic 2 States behave as rational unitary actors have to treat states as tangible costbenefits analysis 3 States seek to survive at minimum Structures are defined by 1 Ordering Principle gt anarchic or hierarchic 2 3 Differentiate between units specify function Distribution of capabilities across units Results of Anarchy 1 9 J 9 5 9 Selfhelp system protect their own safety sense of selfpreservation and has to act self interestedly without regard to other actors Those with high levels of power can afford to be altruistic Security Dilemma Force is the key currency the strong do what they will yields the final verdict This makes states moderate their demands unless there is a great discrepancy it will make states avoid conflict Relative Gains focus on shortterm relative position as opposed to longterm absolute position Socializes Actors and Homogenizes Behavior states mimic successful practices of other states SelfReplicating All other factors create anarchy cause behaviors that prevent the getting rid of anarchy Creation of LikeUnit try to avoid specialization Cooperation fear of losing concerned about relative position and fear of getting cheated External Balancing 1 2 3 4 Are your allies reliable Speed of formation Buckpassing the responsibilities Changganging into ally s war


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