ENT IT & BUS INTEL
ENT IT & BUS INTEL CIS 3380
Popular in Course
Popular in Computer Information Systems
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ayana Ebert on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CIS 3380 at Texas State University taught by K. Ploeger in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see /class/212800/cis-3380-texas-state-university in Computer Information Systems at Texas State University.
Reviews for ENT IT & BUS INTEL
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/23/15
CIS 3380 Exam 1 Review I Iquot S P Equot 6 The penalty for submitting assignments past the late deadline is 10 off on the due date and then another 10 off every day until the grade reaches 0 Assignments are late if it is submitted after Ploeger leaves the room Major policies from the syllabus Students must attend specific section for which they are registered The Honor Code for TXST will be enforced Graded assignments and materials must be retained ifa grade is questioned Office phone is not too useful she is often in class or meetings when she is on campus She creates her own test questions for the most part Wiley test bank is not a source Missed exams earn a zero until the final exam grade is substituted for one exam grade if your absence is considered excused To miss an exam and be excused legitimate documentation for the absence must but provided to Ploeger Limited technology in many areas worldwide are people really more connected than ever Not really many people in underdeveloped countries or in low income areas are not well connected An informed automobile user is analogous to an informed computer user you should know certain things to keep up with your system and understand that basic processes changing a tire but you probably don t need to know the exact complex processes for things in the background that can be accessed by IT professionals individual specialized bolts in your car Brainstorming very important for the generation of ideas I Silence is a good thing means people are thinking nontrivial questions I Communication let people be free to say what they want WRITE IT DOWN as the facilitator you write down the idea exactly how it was stated and avoid putting any input into the idea This builds the credibility of the group as a whole and makes it possible to give the group credit later instead ofjust the facilitator There is NO criticism in brainstorming Characteristics of quotUSERSquot and quotMISquot Users Deal with application issues that integrate into their job They are concerned with personal decisions I choose between phone tablet laptop desktop I how many monitors N 9 5 I what kind of keyboard touch standard etc MIS Deal with technical issues and design of technology for effective use I CPU vs APU vs GPU I SSD tape HD cloud I i5i7Kaveri Informationthat which is perceived to be useful by the recipient It exists ONLY in the human mind Which of these best illustrates the concept of info 0 Today is Monday Jan 21 2010 o The article was in the Times 0 The correct answer to this question is C o The temperature is higher After only 1 year of use why did the Associates for Information Data Systems change their title abruptly Because the abbreviation for the title AIDS was culturally insensitive by referencing a very serious disease It was originally Data Processing Management Association in 1962 DPMA and then changed to AIDS in l995after they realized what they had done a year later 1996 they changed the name to Association for Information Technology Professionals AITP Computing in the 1950 s consisted of a One computer in a basement ofa building cooler safer b Terminals for individual employees screen amp keyboard c The only computer was a repository access via request could take up to 2 days Computing today is pervasive interactive collaborative and uses a wide variety of tools The Chief Information Officer CIO is a relatively autonomous position People actually have to listen The CIO says quotIf you want to do business here is what you ve got to doquot The CIO has the knowledge not just opinions In contrast the CEO is not autonomous and is opinionated Cognitive Hierarchy Levels I Knowledge things that you know without thought of fingers you have your age weight etc Comprehension understanding the issues Application what you do with the knowledge that you understand Analysis looking at the components individually Evaluation placing value Synthesis bringing it all together P P PP I J When is Bloom s Taxonomy applicable Discussions between you and your supervisors Learning in educational and training activity The nature of discussions between you and your friends Recognizing issues associated with exam questions What is the value in managers and team leaders understanding issues associated with cognitive levels Interacting at or near the cognitive level of the recipient facilitates communication 12 The different areas of business are depicted by quotsilosquot which work independently while IT is working in the background of them as a whole T facilitates communication so people begin to break down the barriers of the individual silos The Business Success triangle How does information get into the Central triangle t enters into the process by people who bring in Business information that exists only in their minds Success PEOPLE information 13 quot39 39 Processing Svstems TPSl began in the 1950 s it is the oldest system OUTPUT Receipt It is the most extensively used Management Information Systems lMlS 1970 s OUTPUT Reports used by managers scheduled adhoc and exception Decision Support System DSS The first one created by Dan Bicklan in 1979 VisiCaIc the first spreadsheet IBM used it when they went into business in 1981 D55 includes sensitivity analysis what if analysis solver goalseek spreadsheet etc Executive Information System ElS 1990 s OUTPUT Digital dashboards Expert Systems ES 1990 s OUTPUT Fuzzy set reasoning path and perscriptives An example is a physician consulting a system to assist in medical diagnosis he puts all the information he has in symptoms and the system comes back with a quotfuzzy set 40 chance of this disease 10 etc Arti cial Intelligence Al 1951 Alan Turing World War 2 OUTPUT Reasoning and logic machines It can learn based on its own experiences the only system that does this solve problems etc Neural networks genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic and all techniques used to accomplish functions in EIS ES and AI 14 The DSS Mortgage Assignment helps us understand the tools available to us to help make decisions about buying vs renting homes The final decision making responsibility lies with PEOPLE 15 What is the most important component of all computer information systems 16 Decision Making Pyramid 1 Operationalthe decisions you make on a daily basis ex We need more printer ink 2 Tacticaldecisions that materially affect the business there are lots of supporting decisions ex switching the finance and marketing department between floors Data to make decisions comes from internal and external sources the impact number of and term of the decisions are moderate 3 Strategicdecisions that affect the firm in a BIG way ex Expanding to another state there are MANY decisions underneath these that have to be made in support Precariously placed on the top of the pyramid is the business If you make too many operational or even tactical mistakes the pyramid is unstable and the business may fail One strategic decision mistake can cause the business to fail all together The stability of the business is directly dependent upon people making quality decisions 17 Most questions in education and training are lowlevel questions Why low level The avg wait time is less than 15 seconds but more wait time is actually desirable 710 seconds When the H H N H Iquot facilitator waits the longer period of time performance increases retention is improved higher level and longer responses are contributed What role do flow charts play in today s computer information systems world They are used as illustrations in books pamphlets and other visual material In the past IT used them to program computers but that technique is outdated and no longer used Real time vs Interrupt Driven Real time at computer speed an example would be powerplant monitoring oil production and chemical plants Things are computed instantaneously Interrupt Driven not real time when computer processes are available to send data in human quotreadablequot form It works in the background Business Process Reengineering BPR rearranging the firm people being replaced letting people go It is significant to job seeking business school graduates because a Employment possibilities are the result of significant upheaval within the target firm b Job security will be tentative because job titles and descriptions have been rewritten c The target firm has significantly altered the manner in which their processes occur d Both employees and mgt will be closely monitoring new hire skillsperformance NEWLY HIRED employee is similar to a fish in a bowl they will be watched intensly Business Activity Monitoring BAM functions in BPI to measure business performance Business Process Improvement BPI somewhat ofa circular process a bottom up change Define Measure Analyze Improve Apply Controls and then back around again If you violate informal policy the formal policy will be used to figure out a way to fire you Typically people who violate the informal culture or norms will be fired via formal culture or policy Price Waterhouse v Hopkins this case illustrates that violating cultural norms can result in formal business process discrimination Hopkins was nominated for a promotion to partnership in 1982 as a top performing employee Thomas Beyer her boss told her she needed to be more feminine she was denied the promotion and sued the firm Porter s Competitive Forces Model threats of substitute products and services and threats to new entrants An example of a company creating a barrier to customers substituting products or services is having Nikon lenses and buying a Cannon camerathey will not connect They create brand loyalty by making it expensive to switch Threats to new entrants going into competition with UPS these barriers are established on purpose Threat of new entrants is perceptual and can often be circumvented by using creative thinking The ability to think creatively and contribute unique and innovative alternative solutions is the most valuable asset a McCoy graduate can provide a new employer 23 The limitation in benefits realized from llcutting edge computing technology The equipment is 34000 dollars to get Performance has gone up and prices have stayed pretty much the same Do you really need the new features How much does it really help productivity It can cause frustration you need to measure the actual increase in productivity 24 Supercomputers used by oil companies NASA for weather simulations scientific research etc The most powerful computers created They will stay around because they all use the same technology as every other computer microprocessor chips Claims that they are too cumbersomeunnecessary are FALSE Mainframeused in business can be hooked into a supercomputer to solve complex problems Many businesses don t need the capabilities of mainframe computers Minicomputersused at TXST to handle registration and transcripts They are really routing devices Client print file and communication servers can focus on a single type of routing task thus improving efficiency Microcomputersdesktop PC laptops tablets phones etc 25 The components of modern computer systems include a Processor Data Buses c Address Bus d Memory e Peripheral What is used to represent and transfer data among the components on the main board of a computer electrical voltages 26 Why are devices such as hard drives modems keyboards printers and touch screens more correctly referred to as peripherals and IO devices rather than simply as llinput storage or output devices Because most computer devices accomplish all three of these tasks as shown in the example in class What is used to identify the location of data in memory by the main processing unit CPUAPU Unidirectional address bus 27 Major eras events and people associated with the history of computing William Shankstook 28 years to come up with 707 places of pi The computer took 28 seconds Charles Babbagewas obsessed with getting the tables correct he created a calculating machine called a Difference Engine The original Difference Engine was supposed calculate and then print but before he got as far as making it print he got a better idea Anal ical Engine1850 s the better idea that Babbage had he had trouble getting funding though because he didn t know what exactly it would be used for It was a mechanical programmable device with a quotmillquot CPU and a quotstorequot memory He saw Joseph Marie Jacquard in the silk industry using punch cards to create patterns and used that idea Lady Ada was a silver spoon girl who had a relationship with Babbage She figured out how to write the programs to make the machines run She was dubbed the first programmer Babbage died without every getting proper funding to finish his analytical engine and the idea was left alone for a long time Def of Computer Pre 1935 A person employed to make calculations Post 1945 A machinedevice for performing simple or complex calculations Konrad Zuse young engineering student in Berlin said he was too lazy to do calculations so he invented the computer In 1939 he was the world s leading computer designer by 1941 he had created 3 computers Helmut Schrier suggested using vacuum tubes to speed up calculations Herman Goldstine was trying to make the computing go by much quicker John Mauchlyused 18000 vacuum tubes in a military project to build the computer ENIAC decided to create replacement sections to fix problems more efficiently an insanely complex system for its time Electronic Numerical Integrator and Compute created myths added the bright lights that really didn t serve too much function Wasn t completed before the end of the war Couldn t store its programs inside had to be reprogrammed by hand by switching wires and flipping switches The machine would be idle when programs were being inputted just sitting there The future computers would need to have programs in their memory instead of having to do it manually quotWe could do this a lot better a different wayquot they knew how they SHOULD have done itbut Eckert and Mauchly left because they didn t want to do something that they knew that could do better and created the first commercial computer company on their own Freddie Williams British radar engineer who created the first computer with a stored program Manchester University Maurice Wilkes Tried to make scientistfriendly computer called EDSAC Cambridge University Alan Turing Came up with Artificial Intelligence in 1951 In 1936 he wrote a paper implying that computing machines would be able to do everything that humans could do Turing was recruited to the headquarters of British code breaking during WWII Bletchley Park Top secret we didn t even know about it until the 70s Lorenz has rotating wheels so that when a letter comes into the machine it encodes them all differently in a continuously changing manner what the Germans were using Turing figured out how to break this code he created an electronic machine that was logical and codebreaking called Colossus that began operating in 1943 basically Turing deserves much of the credit for ending the war Only recently been recognized Know the percentage penalty assessed per day on late assignments in this class An assignment is judged to be late after class is dismissed and Dr Ploeger leaves the room 10 when she leaves the room 10 every day after that until the grade is reduced to a zero Recognize the issues associated with silence and brainstorming A period of silence should typically be expected following a nontrivial question Silence is important and longer llthink time results in enhanced performance greater retention higher level responses and longer answers Identify various business processes A business process is an ongoing collection of related activities that create a product or service of value to the organization its business partners andor customers Differentiate between USERS and MIS Users are concerned with application issues and things that they need to integrate into their jobs Phone tablet laptop desktop how many monitors what kind of keyboard MIS is concerned with technical issues and consider design for effective use CPU vs APU vs GPU SSD tape cloud i5i7 etc Understand the issue concerning autonomy in higher level management Chief Information Officers are more autonomous because their positions are not a matter of opinion but a matter of fact and expertise A CEO and hisher decisions can be judged as llright or wrong by anyone but a CIOs decisions are a matter of fact If you want to do business you will listen to the CIO Memorize and know the correct definition of information That which is perceived to be useful by the recipient Understand and identify the characteristics of cognitive hierarchy known as Blooms Taxonomy What determines the cognitive level of a question or interaction The recipient Synthesis Evaluation Analysis quotI I quot 39 C r 39 39 39 39 390 How does the evaluation level differ from the analysis level in Bloom s Taxonomy Analysis identifies the components while evaluation places value on them Comprehend the issues associated with functional business silos There are different functional silos finance marketing accounting etc and underlying all of them is the IT department IT is the oil that makes the business machine run Understand the issues associated with the business success triangle The Business Success triangle information get into the Centr enters into the process by pe information that exists only Business Success PEOPLE information Identify the characteristics of TPS MIS DSS ES EIS and Al quot39 quot Processing Svstems TPS began in the 1950 s it is the oldest system OUTPUT Receipt It is the most extensively used Management Information Systems MIS 1970 s OUTPUT Reports used by managers scheduled adhoc and exception Decision Support System DSS The first one created by Dan Bicklan in l979 VisiCalc the first spreadsheet IBM used it when they went into business in 1981 DSS includes sensitivity analysis what if analysis solver goalseek spreadsheet etc sensitivity analysis whatifanalysis goalseek spreadsheet Executive Information System EIS 1990 s OUTPUT Digital dashboards Expert Systems ES 1990 s OUTPUT Fuzzy set reasoning path and perscriptives An example is a physician consulting a system to assist in medical diagnosis he puts all the information he has in symptoms and the system comes back with a quotfuzzy set 40 chance of this disease 10 etc Arti cial Intelligence AD 1951 Alan Turing World War 2 OUTPUT Reasoning and logic machines It can learn based on its own experiences the only system that does this solve problems etc It is designed as a computer program that learns from its own experiences Neural networks genetic algorithms and fuzzy logic and all techniques used to accomplish functions in EIS ES and Al Differentiate between BPI BAM and BPR Business Process Improvement BPI is a circular process DEFINE MEASURE ANALYZE IMPROVE CONTROL Business Process Reengineering BPR includes things like letting people go rearranging the company When new employees come in to replace ones that have been let go due to BPR they are watched and judged intently by everyone in the company as if they were in a quotfishbowlquot Business Activity Monitoring BAM functions in BPI to measure business performance Know the classification of computer the 4 categories of computer systems Supercomputers used by oil companies NASA for weather simulations scientific research etc The most powerful computers created They will stay around because they all use the same technology as every other computer microprocessor chips Claims that they are too cumbersomeunnecessary are FALSE Mainframeused in business can be hooked into a supercomputer to solve complex problems Many businesses don t need the capabilities of mainframe computers Minicomputersused at TXST to handle registration and transcripts They are really routing devices Client print file and communication servers can focus on a single type of routing task thus improving efficiency Microcomputersdesktop PC laptops tablets phones etc Recognize how data is handled on the computer system board The components of modern computer systems include a Processor b Data Buses c Address Bus d Memory e Peripheral Identify how data is represented by humans and computers What is used to represent and transfer data among the components on the main board of a computer electrical voltages What is used by people in order to verbally communicate how data is manipulated by computers binary ones and zeroes Comprehend the value in understanding the issues associated with the binary numbering system Identify the differentiation between ASCII and EBCDIC ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange 7 bit uses 7 columns to represent 128 characters Even though a byte has 8 bits 7bit ASCII gets its name because the 128 characters are represented by 7 bits EBCIDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code is a code used to identify letters numbers symbols etc to a computer It is IBM s 8 bit extension of the 4 h bit binary coded decimal encoding of decimals 09 Associate EBCIDIC with the issues created by hexadecimal Why are there so many blank spaces in the IBM code based upon ASCII extension of 09 The remaining 6 alternatives in hexadecimal are not used to represent characters Identify the impact of the voltage scheme representing binary 1s amp 0s Voltage between 4amp5 is interpreted as a binary zero between 1amp2 is a binary one Between 2 and 4 is undefined and results on a fatal computer error Understand the determinant of the max amount of memory that can be addressed The number of wires on the address bus determines how many locations of memory you can address Recognize the purpose of wafers and the fab process of microprocessor chips A wafer is a thin slice of semiconductor used in the fab process Differentiate between the exact values of increasingly larger powers of 2 up to terabytes Byte2quot8 265 3 digits Kilobyte2quot10 1024 4 digits Megabyte2quot20 1048576 7 digits Gigabyte20430 1073741824 10 digits Terabyte2quot40 1099511627776 13 digits Differentiate between personal computer CPU s and that of main frames Mainframes are built to handle true multitasking while a personal computer is built to handle one user with only several tasks at a time Understand the rudimentary steps of fab Know the appreciate size of the wafers shown in class Identify the history in naming the semiconductor process Identify the number of wires on the data and address bus The number of wires on the address bus determines how many locations of memory you can address Differentiate between the representations of binary used by people and by computers Computers electrical voltages People 1s and 0s Identify the historic computer hardware presented in class Recognize how data is stored on various mass storage devices Solid state drive advantages The data transfer rate is faster than the typical fragmented magnetic hard disk drive there is no startup quotlagquot time as there is with a hard disk beginning to rotate data will remain intact correct and accessible for a period as long as 20 years and defragmentation on these drives is unnecessary as this will prematurely wear the drive Recognize how data is transferred between peripheral devices and the computer Data is transferred between the peripherals and the computer through wires in the bidirectional data bus Recognize the issues associated with storing data on hard disk drives DASD direct access storage device backed up with direct access utilized for personal use and daily transactions Data is random like a grocery checkout How are binary data stored on hard disk drives and tape drives A magnetic polarity is stored in the metal particles on the surface How is llflux rotation involved in recording data on hard disk drives and tape drives Each bit of data must be represented by 2 very specific magnetic polarity field changes Why are an odd number of sectors used to store data in the tracks on a hard disk drive This approach forces adjacent sectors to be skipped and provides time to arrange data in memory To what are magnetic flux rotations on the hard disk drive converted to move data read by the readwrite head in order to transfer the data to the computer memory Electrical voltages Why does the data on a hard disk drive occupy only 005 of an inch when 010 inch is allocated per track Data tracks need extra space to prevent magnetic degradation What is absolutely guaranteed to happen to every hard disk drive It will fail or crash Recognize the issues associated with storing data on tape drives How long will data stored on magnetic media be retrievable 6 to 8 years it s the shortest valid time frame for securely storing data The parity error detection is only accurate 50 of the time so it is not particularly helpful Identify various representation of packing density on magnetic media 6250 bits per inch 6250 bytes per inch 6250 characters per inch 6250 letters per inch Identify the errors in naming optical media It is called a CDROM compact disk read only memory should just be called a compact disk because a CD doesn t have memory Understand the features and standards used in storing data in optical media How is it possible to store data into multiple layers on optical media The laser light can be focused directly onto the specific layer for accessing data How is data recorded on commercially prepared optical devices Dimples are punched into the polycarbonate layer Why can BluRay record more data onto a standard optical media that can other optical recording devices BlueRay uses a shorter wavelength of light which allows storage of more data in the available space What is the best estimate of how long data stored on an optical media using gold will be retrievable In excess of 20 yea rs How is data stored on WORM and on an erasable optical media The dielectric crystal layer is physically melted preventing light transmission Understand the issues limiting the longevity of data stored on optical media What negatively impacts the accessibility of data stored on optical media Having excessive scratches on the surface storing in a temperature above 125 degrees exposing media to direct sunlight and using an aluminum or silver reflective layer Differentiate between O peripherals and computer memory Input output and storage devices are more properly called peripherals because most computer devices accomplish all three of these tasks Differentiate between RAM ROM PROM EPROM EEPROM ROMRead only memory The data is hardcoded into the chip itself once it is made it cannot be changed How is data stored on a ROM device The engineer designs wiring that is photographically imaged on the surface and baked to fix it in place PROMProgrammable Read Only Memory The same as ROM but you can program it once After you program it it cannot be changed EPROMErasable Programmable Read Only Memory PROM that you can erase and reprogram by putting it under UV light Used for configuration and calibration of measuring devices EEPROMElectrically Erasable Programmable Read Only MemoryPROM that doesn t require the fancy UV light to erase the data What is a more appropriate correctly descriptive name for RAM Readwrite memory What is most similar in structure design and features to solid state drives EEPROM flash memory units What does llwear leveling accomplish or provide for the end user of a solid state drive The transistor usage is uniformly distributed assuring usefulness over a longer time Understand the liability associated with different CD reflective media
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'