AnSci260 9/15-9/19 Notes
AnSci260 9/15-9/19 Notes 73349
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Leslie on Friday September 19, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 73349 at University of Massachusetts taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Physiology and Anatomy of Domesticated Animals in Science at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 09/19/14
AnSci 220 9 159 19 Skeletal System Anatomy Axial Skeleton skull vertebrae gt cervical C thoraxic T lumbar L sacral S coccyx Cy sternum gt sternebrae manubrium xyphoid process ribs gt true ribs false ribs oating ribs Skull visible gt temporal acoustic meatus hole occipital foramen meatus frontal parietal invisible gt ethmoid sphenoid facial bones gt maxilla mandible auditory bones gt malleus incus stapes Sutures joints that link the bones together Ex F rorztoparietal C0rza yZes protuberance sbumps on bones Ex 0ccz39pz39taZ condyle Meatus hole in the bones to let nerves and other things through Ex aecoustic meatus F oramerzs holes in the bones to let nerves and blood vessels through Ex mental foramen Zygomatic arch composed the the extension of two bones the zygomatic and the temporal The mandibular condyle sit on it when the mouth is closed Deer T urbirzates aka concha meat to increase the surface of the nasal epithelium that contact the air inhaled gt increases its moisture content before going to lungs Vertebrae the foramina holes gt vertebralforamerzs where the spinal cord comes through z39rztervertebraZf0ramen Where the spinal nerves come through transverse foramen only on the C Where major nerves and blood vessels come through cervical vertebrae gt 7 in mammals 12 in birds C1 is called the atlas C2 is called the axis only vertebrae with transverse foramen which form a canal for the vertebral artery thoracic vertebrae 18 T in horse 12 in humans only vertebrae that connects with the ribs typically have long spinous process and short transverse process arzticlinal vertebrae vertebrae whose spinous process is aligned with the rest of the vertebrae lumbar vertebrae 5 L in human and 8 L in mammals long transverse processes in quadrupeds thick body in bipeds they support most of the weight orientation of the facets allow the exion side bending and extension spinous process directed backward and downward from the junction of the laminae and serves for the attachment of muscles and ligaments transverse process small bony projection off the left and right side of the vertebrae Function as a site of attachment for muscles and ligaments as well as the point of articulation for ribs vertebral foramen natural openingpassage intervertebral foramen where spinal nerves exit the spinal chord per se stops at Ll gt after that they re just a collection of nerves which are very important for controlling the lower body part functions Sacrum group of vertebrae fused together at top of tail Coccygeal vertebrae the tail Rib Articulation 1 Transverse process of the vertebrae 2 Facet that articulate with the tubercle of the rib 3 Tubercle of the rib at the top with the head 4 Angle or neck of the rib 5 Head of the rib 6 Facet that articulate with the head of the rib superior facet a thoracic vertebrae b rib the body is most of the rib on exam Appendicular Skeleton apes of locomotion plantigrade gt using your full foot digitigrad gt never put tarsalsmetatarsals on the ground only the phalanges touch the ground urzguZate unguligraa gt walk on the last section of the digit distal phalange Anterior limbs forelimb humerus radius ulna Carpus Metacarpus and Phalanges where animals differ greatly depending on their locamotion habits Plantigrades the human hand from tips to palm distal phalanges gt intermediate phalanges gt proximal phalanges gt metacarpals gt carpals Plantigrade to ungulate the progressive loss of toes Equines the 2 splint bones are the remnants of the 2nd and 3rd metacarpalsmetatarsals the cannon bone is the 3rd metacarpalmetatarsal phalanx is P3 aka 3rd digit proximal phalanx gt long pastern middle phalanx gt short pastem distal phalanx gt coffin bone Canine digitigrad gt canine front leg Hindlegs pelvis gt illium hip bone in humans ischium pointy bones that hurt when you bike too long in humans pubis most Ventral in quadrupeds tarsals gt aka the heels in humans metatarsal phalanx gt proximal middle distal tibia bula femur Sesamoid Bone small round bones found at the junction of 2 longer bones imbedded in ligaments protect the ligamentstendons from being pinch at the articulation also act as a pulley increasing the power of muscles by pure mechanical advantage Visceral Bone Visceral skeleton bones formed in soft organs viscera ex gt os penis in the penises of dogs os cordis in the hearts of cattle NEED TO KNOW recognize the bones of the axial and appendicular system the main features of the bigger bones know how many and on which digits some animals walk on