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by: Keely Moen


Keely Moen
Texas State
GPA 3.93

T. Prabhakaran

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T. Prabhakaran
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Moen on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 2430 at Texas State University taught by T. Prabhakaran in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see /class/212804/bio-2430-texas-state-university in Biology at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Review for Final ll l Tuesday December 06 2011 300 PM I The internal environment ofa multicelled organism 0 Means the interstitial fluid 0 Changes all the time but the changes are kept within narrow limits 0 Major component is water 0 All organ systems help maintain a relatively stable internal enviorment Continuously dividing cells in the skin are found in the O Basal layer In homeostatic control mechanisms what is the role of receptors 0 To detect changes in the internal enviorment 0 To send information to the control center Release of insulin from pancreas 0 Is a response to increasing blood sugar content Tracheal rings are made of O Hyaline cartilage Keratin and glycolipid found in the corneous layer of epidermis O Prevent the entry or loss of body fluid through the skin surface Which of the following connective tissues is highly cellular and has very little ECM extra cellular matrix 0 Adipose A tissue 0 Consists of similar cells with a common origin and function 0 Has extra cellular matric with cell glue that holds the cells together Goblet cells 0 Produce mucus and are formed by modified epithelial cells Adipose tissue under the skin 0 Stores fat and provides a hear insulation for the body 0 Is a type of dense connective tissue I A tissue which is highly vascular and has plenty of calcium phosphate in its matrix is likely to be 0 Bone tissue I One of the many areas where you will find non keratinized stratified squamous epithelium is O Lining of the mouth In a bone tissue 0 The inorganic matrix mainly made of hydroxyapatite crystals 0 Collagen fibers provide resistance to stretching and pulling Collagen fibers 0 Are also called white fibers 0 Provide tensile strength to the connective tissue Sweat acts as a chemical barrier to microbial growth because 0 Sweat is mainly water with some salts such as sodium chloride common salt 0 Sweat is slightly acidic and has a pH of 45 Corneous layer of epidermis 0 Is made of stratified squamous epithelium with keratinized anucleate cells 0 Peels off the body periodically Areolar connective tissue 0 Makes up the packing material within the body Hypodermis 0 Has adipose and areolar connective tissue 0 Is the food lipid storage layer under the skin Spongy bone tissues 0 Have bone cells trabeculae and red bone marrow Longitudinal growth of a long bone 0 Is primarily controlled by the growth hormone GH Tendon connects muscle to bone Osteons 0 Are the units of compact bone tissue 0 Have an interconnected system of canaliculi through which oxygen and nutrients reach the bone cells located in the lacunae Squamous epithelial cells are thin and flat with a disk like nucleusm while cuboidal epithelium consists of cube like cells with very large round nucleus PTH parathyroid hormone stimulates osteoclasts Intervertebral disks can withstand high compressional forces and at the same time it is flexible This is because of O Fibroca rtilage When the body temperature increases swear is mainly released to the skin surface by O Eccrine sweat glands What makes human skin quotwrinkle proofquot coat around the body O Stratified squamous epithelium in the corneous layer Which of the following structures has elastic cartilage 0 External ear Periosteum 0 Is anchored to the diaphysis by Sharpey39s fibers 0 Has an inner osteogenic layer with osteoblasts and osteoclasts Endosteum 0 Lines the spongy bone tissue that faces the medullary cavity of a long bone 0 Has osteoclasts and osteoblasts Organic components in a bone tissue 0 Are produced by the osteoblasts Epiphyseal line in a long bone is made of cartilage cells that bring about longitudinal growth in an adult body Flat bones 0 Are membrane bones 0 Have a diploe where there is active blood cell production Appositional growth or growth in the thickness of the long bones O Occurs along the endosteal and periosteal surfaces of the long bone 0 Takes place during the entire life of a indicidual The optimum blood calcium level is 911 mg100 ml of blood the hormonal feed back in bone homeostasis is primarily directed towards maintaining this optimum blood calcium level Cartilage bones such as humerus 0 Are formed by endochondral ossification during embryonic development 0 Have a medullary cavity 0 Develop from hyaline cartilages of the embryo Wolffs law of bone remodeling states that a bone becomes heavier or a bones area gets thicker when it is subjected to greater stress 0 Heavy use of bones leads to heavy bones and disuse of bones leads to bone wasting or bone atrophy n bone remodeling calcium ion are 39 resorbed 39 39 Ior 39 39 39 and redeposited according to the stresses or forces acting on the bone or bone area When a long bone bends due to pressure or stress the area of compressional force 0 Develop electrical charges that promote osteoblast activity Mineralization of bone tissue 0 Is regulated by the enzyme called alkaline phosphate 0 Is the process by which inorganic matrix is laid down on organic matrix during bone formation Flat bones such as the parietals and the frontals 0 Are formed by intra membranous ossification 0 Are membrane bones Hardness or rigidity of bones is due to O Hydroxya patite Osteoid of bone tissue 0 Resists stretching and twisting O Consists of proteoglycans collagen cell guem and glycoproteins n bone repair the broken bones are first joined by fibrocartilage Vitamin D is synthesized by the skin from cholesterol when skin is exposed to sunlight and it is essential for calcium absorption and use by the body A synovial joint 0 Is freely movable joint 0 Has a fluid filled joint cavity surrounded by synovial membrane and a firbous capsule Cartilage cells of the epiphyseal plate in a long bone are stimulated to divide and grow by O Somatomedin Bone remodeling units are the packets of osteoblasts and osteoclasts seen in the endosteum and the inner layer of the periostem Exam 1 A tissue 0 Consists of cells of the same kind 0 Held together by an extra cellular matrix A tissue type that is likely to allow diffusion of gases 0 Simple squamous epithelium In the homeostatic control mechanism the receptor detects the stimulus while the effector shows the response to the stimulus The epithelium will have a basement membrane GAG glycoaminoglycan is an important component of the ground substance of connective tissue it acts like a sponge and soaks up water Fibrocartilage is found in the O Intervertebral disks Internal enviorment of a living body 0 Changes all the timem but these changes are kept within an optimal range through self regulation 0 Is the insterstitial fluid that surrounds the cells in a multicelled organism Where in the epidermis are keratohyalin and glycolipid produced 0 Granular later Which will you see the keratin filled a nucleate epithelial cells 0 Corneous layer What is the packing material in the body 0 Areolar connective tissue All connective tissue cells are derived from embryonic mesenchyme Dense irregular connective tissue can be seen in O Dermis The most abundant fibers in a tendon are 0 Collagen Inorganic bone matrix in a bone tissue 0 Consists mainly of crystals of calcium phosphate 0 Provides hardness and rigidity to bone tissue 0 Makes up 65 of the bone tissue The most common sweat glands in skin are the eccrine swear glands The tracheal glands are made of O Hyaline cartilage Collagen fibers 0 Provide tensile strength to bone tissue 0 Are called white fibers Spongy bone tissue 0 Has red bone marrow 0 Has interweaving bone spicules called trabeculae Shows the highest level of regeneration of old damaged cells 0 Epithelial tissue Appositional growth or growth of thickness in long bone 0 Takes place during the entire life of an individual Tendon connects a muscle to bone the type of connective tissue is O Dense regular connective tissue The outer skin are new cells produced continuously O Basal layer Calcitonin O Promotes bone formation by stimulating osteroblasts Longitudinal growth of a long bone 0 Is primarily regulated by growth hormone O Occurs along the epiphyseal plate in the epiphysis Flat bones such as frontals and parietals 0 Are membrane bones 0 Have more spongy bone tissue than compact bone tissue Periosteum 0 Has an outer tough later of fibrous connective tissue 0 Has an inner soft osteogenic layer with osteoblasts and osteoclasts 0 Forms the fibrous capsule of the synovial joint Electric current appears to speed up bone repair as it is shown to stimulate osteoblasts Organic bone matric osteoid 0 Makes up approximately 35 of bone tissue 0 Is produced by bone cells 0 Provides tensile strength to bone tissue In the knee joint the medial meniscus is attached to the tibial collateral ligament Bone remodeling consists of selective resorption and deposition of bone material according to the stresses or forces acting on a bone or bone area Vitamin D 0 Is essential for bone growth and remodeling 0 Is necessary for calcium absorption and utilization 0 Is produced by skin when the skin is exposed to sunlight Fibrocartilage callus O Joins up the fractured bone 0 Consists of fibrous tissue and cartilage VOCAB Hypodermis layers of adipose and some areolar connective tissue under dermis Corneous layer keratinized stratified squamous epithelium many rows of dead cells filled with keratin in the skin Red bone marrow fluid matrix of spongy bone tissue RBC production Hydroxyapatite crystals of calcium phosphate in the inorganic matrix of bone tissue Diploe thick layer of spongy bone tissue of a flat bone like Parietal bone Sharpeys fibers anchors periosteum to the compact bone tissue of diaphysis Mucous membrane moist inner lining of tubular organs with goblet cells Articular cartilage hyaline cartilage act as springy pad in a joint a cap of hyaline cartilage at end of epiphysis Yellow bone marrow fat storage in long bones Basal layer a single row of dividing cells of epidermis Trabeculae small bony spicules surrounded by red bone marrow in spongy bone Mesenchyme embryonic stem cells of all connective tissues Melanocytes part of the chemical barrier in skin melanin against UV radiation Osteoblastsbone forming cells organic matrix of bone tissue Langerhans cells part of the biological barrier in skin modified white blood cells defense against microbes in skin Fibroblasts produce the connective tissue proper produce collagen fibers Osteoclasts bone digesting cells Hemocytoblasts become the blood cells Keratinocytes produce keratin physical barrier against microbial growth Chondroblasts produce the cartilage tissue Merkel cell sensory cell in the basal layer of epidermis


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