MODERN BIOLOGY II
MODERN BIOLOGY II BIO 1421
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keely Moen on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1421 at Texas State University taught by C. Rast in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/212808/bio-1421-texas-state-university in Biology at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Biology Exam 1 Chapter One Inductive reasoning making a generalization after observations Deductive reasoning generating a hypothesis after a theory Evolution process in which modern organisms descend Natural Selection organisms with specific traits reproduce more Mutations Mistakes in DNA Adaptions behaviors that aid in reproduction or survival Characteristics of Life 1 Complex organized structure Maintain structure Respond to stimuli Use energy Reproduce P EnPPEquot Grow N Evolve Domains Bacteria Archaea and Eukarya Kingdoms Fungi Plantae and Animalia Three Natural Processes that effect evolution 1 Genetic Variation 2 Inheritance 3 Natural selection How we categorize life 1 Cell Type 2 Number of cells 3 Energy acquisition Eukaraea Fungi Plantae animalia protists Prokaryotic Bacteria and Archaea Chapter Fourteen Convergent Evolution natural selection causes non similar structures that have similar functions to resemble one another produced similar wings in birds and insects Structures 1 Homologous Same origin despite function and appearance Bones in a dog leg and bones in a horse leg 2 Vestigial No use Evolutionary baggage Pelvis bone in a snake 3 Analogous Same function but different origin and appearance Insect wings and bird wings Evolution is the theme for all biology Georges Cuvier Catastrophism a vast amount of species was created and killed off leaving survivors Charles Lyell Uniformatarianism earth s present landscape was produced by past action of the same gradual geological processes today earth is older Lamarck inheritance of acquired traits Darwin and Wallace proposed natural selection Postulates about population 1 Individuals of a population differ from one another 2 Some of the differences are passed from parent to offspring 3 In each generation some survive and reproduce and some do not 4 Natural selection Similarities at the molecular level Embryology 1 All cells have DNA as carrier for genetic information 2 All cells use RNA ribosomes and similar genetic code to translate 3 Same 20 amino acids to build 4 ATP as cellular energy Controlled Breeding and Artificial Selection create a wide variety of species Chapter Sixteen Premating Isolation 1 Geographic physical boundary 2 Ecological same area diff rescources 3 Temporal time related 4 Behavioral mating calls 5 Mechanicalorgans Postmating Isolation 1 Gametic Incompability cant fertilize the egg 2 Hybrid Inviability can t survive 3 Hybrid Infertility can t reproduce Speciation 1 Allopatric separated 2 Sypatric same area 3 Adaptive radiation species arise in a very short time period due to a change in habitat Extinction death ofthe last members of a species Species must have reproductive isolation it is not always possible to tell if it is possible for members to interbreed Factors that contribute to Speciation 1 Isolation to block interbreeding 2 Genetic Divergence during isolation they must evolve sufficiently and result in an isolating mechanism Adaptive Radiation populations of a species evolve due to a change in habitat Chapter Seventeen Protocell Structurally similar to a living cell but not living Endosymbiont hypothesis early eukaryotes engulfed bacteria and mitochondria and chloroplasts Arthropods first animals on land insects and spiders Mass extinction sudden disappearance of a wide variety of species over a large part of the earth Hominim humans and their fossil relatives Spontaneous generation new members of species spring up out of nonliving matter and other related forms of life Experiments refuted Spontaneous Generation Oparin and Haldane Prebiotic chemical evolution gave rise to progressively more complex molecules and eventually living organisms Prebiotic Atmosphere NO Oxygen RNA may have been the first self reproducing molecule acted as a catalyst carried its own genes served as a cell s DNA Nanobes grow reproduce have DNA membrane can t respond to Stimuli Membrane bound vesicles ultimately a cell membrane may have enclosed ribosomes Earliest organisms membranes with RNA and DNA anaerobic prokaryotes Photosynthesis developed as a synthesis of breaking down high energy molecules from simpler ones released 02 into the atmosphere aerobic respiration was developed anaerobic cells died the sky changed color Eukaryotes plasma membrane folds inward and created the plasma membrane Endosymbiosis mitochondria and chloroplasts may have arisen from engulfed bacteria Early organisms large size slow metabolic rate then turned into multicellular organisms Algae Animal diversity arose in the Precambrian era Cambrian Explosion created diversity Plants move to the land difficulties 1 Obtaining and conserving water 2 Staying upright 3 Reproduction out of the water Seed plants encased sperm in pollen animals would carry pollen Amphibians evolve from lobefish fins and lungs Reptiles evolve from amphibians with shelled eggs water resistant skin and lungs for oxygen Birds evolve feathers from scales reptiles give rise to mammals Mammals develop live birth and can feed young with secretions hair for insulation Mass extinction climate change is the number one cause and catastrophic events Chapter Eighteen Taxonomy naming and classifying organisms Scientific name 1 Genus Groups of related species 2 Species populations of organisms that can potentially interbreed under natural conditions Taxonomic Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus and Species Phylogeny evolutionary history Systematics reconstructing phylogeny Clades Species linked by descent from a common ancestor Biodiversity tota range of species diversity Biology Exam 2 Chapter 19 Bacteria and Archae are fundamentally different I Entirely prokaryotes I Biochemical features I Bacteria contains peptidoglycan in the cell wall I Archae have hydrocarbons in the cell wall I They also differ in the plasma membranes ribosomes and RNA polymerase Classification in Prokaryotes I Small and simple I Classified by shape locomotion pigments nutrient requirements appearance of colonies and staining properties I Comparative DNA and RNA nucleotide sequences Prokaryotes differ in size and in shape I Bacteria are larger and cell walls change shape Spherical rodlike and corkscrew Survival and reproduction I Motile prokaryotes have flagella long hairlike structures that help movement I Wheel like in membrane thin protein I Many bacteria form film on surfaces I Sporulation creates and endospore genetic material and enzymes encased in a protective coat for survival in harsh conditions I Can form a protective slime made of polysacharridesprotein to protect cells and helps them stick I Bio lm aggregate in colonies to form communities ex plaque I Some prokaryotes are anaerobic live without oxygen I Reproduce by binary ssion process in which a single celled organism divides in half producing two identical offspring I Conjugation transfer of DNA from one cell to another via a temporary connection Impact on humans and other organisms I Play important roles in animal nutrition digestive tracts I Nitrogen fixing bacteria remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and combine it with hydrogen to produce ammonium capture nitrogen needed by plants I Some threaten human health I Pathogenic disease causing I some produce poisin I humans constantly battle new and old bacteria I common bacteria can be harmful Viruses Viroids and Prions I Virus consists of a molecule of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat multiply within a host I Viruses are parasites I Host specific I Infectious difficult to treat I Bacetriophage virus that only infects bacteria I Viroids a particle of RNA that is capable of infecting a cell and directing the production of more viroids plant diseasesand Prions a protein that in mutated forms acts as an infectious agent that causes certain neurodegenerative disease Kuru and Scrapieare smaller than viruses Chapter 20 Protists I Single celled not an animal plant or fungi Modes of Nutrition I free living or parasitic I Heterotrphic use of psuedopds finger like extensions to engulf prey I Food vacuoles I Either ingest absorb or use photosynthesis Reproduction I Sexual and Asexual mitoticmethods I Micronuclei and Conjugation Affect on humans and other organisms I Make energy available to others I Cause disease and release toxins Major groups of protists 1 Excavates gt Lack mitochondria and nuclei gt Feeding groove a Diplomonads have two nuclei and move by flagella b Parabasalids mutualists and parasites anaerobic flagellated protists live inside animals 2 Egleozoans gt Distinctive mitochondria a Euglenids lack a rigid covering and swim by flagella single celled protists in fresh water b Kinetoplastids cause human disease mitochondria DNA is arranged in kinetoplasts stacks of disks 3 Stramenopiles gt Photosynthetic and non photosynthetic gt Genetically classified gt Hairlike flagella a Water Molds plant disease filamentous in shape b Diatoms photosynthetic encased in glassy walls c Brown alagae giant kelp 4 Alveolates 5 6 gt Parasites predators and phytoplankton gt Distinct cavities beneath their shells Dinoflagellates swim by means of two whiplike flagella and are photosynthetic 3 cause llred tidesquot Apicomplexans parasitic and have no means of locomotion E c Cilliates most complex and are the fastes Cercozoans gt Thin psuedopods and elaborate shells a Fossil foraminiferan marine protists shells form chalk b Radiolarians have glassy shells sillica Amoebozoans gt Inhabit aquatic and terrestrial environments gt Move by psuedopod and lack shells a Amoebas thick psuedopods and no shells b Slime Molds forest floor decomposers with cellular and acelluar forms 1 Red Algae multicellular photosynthetic seaweed 2 Green Algae unicellular colonial or multicellular photosynthetic protists live in ponds and lakes Chapter 21 Look at the chart on Page 390 Plants key Feautures O O O Multicellular dependent embryos Alternating haploid 1 Gametophyte multicellularand diploidporophyte multicellular asexual meiosis produces haploid generations spores egg and sperm to form zygotes Adapted to life on land and affect other organisms I Capture energy I Maintain the atmosphere Build soil Keep ecosystems moist Provide humans with shelter food medicine fuel coal and pleasure Evolutionary origin of plants were aquatic and had to adapt to land 0 Bodies must resist drying and gravity I Roots anchor and absorb I Waxy cuticle limits evaporation I Stomata open and close to conserve water I Upwards transportation of water I Lignin stiffening for maximum sunlight embedded into the cell wall I Reprodcution 0 Seeds that have protection and nutrients for embryos o Windborne pollen allow sperm to be easily transported 0 Flowers and fruit for disperse seeds Major Groups of Plants 1 Nonvascularbryophytes V Small land plants Lack conducting structure Require water to disperse sperm Include Hornwarts Liverworts and Moss Small and Short VVVV Reproductive Structures are protected a Archegonia Eggs are produced b Antheridia Sperm producedformed 2 Vascular gt Lignin infused conducting vessels allows them to grow larger 1Seedess I Club mosses and horsetails are small and 4nconspicuous I Ferns are broad leaved and more diverse use Sporangia to produce spores I Require water for dispersal motile sperm swim to egg 2Seed Plant I Have pollen and seeds 3 Gymnosperms nonflowering i Gingkgos cycads gnetophytes and conifers ii Have naked seeds b Angiosperms flowering 39 Hidden seeds Flowers and fruits help seed dispersal Broad leaves more sunlight iv Dominant from Pollen male gametophyte ofa seed plant pollen grain Seeds reproductive part of a seed plant protected by a seed coat contains an embryonic plant and supply of food I Ovule a structure within the ovary of a flower inside which the female parts develop after fertilization develops into seed Flower reproductive structure of angiosperm Fruit in flowering plants the ripened ovary Chapter 22 Key features of fungi o Composed of Hyphaefilamentous threads multicellular or multinucleated that forms and interwoven mass mycelium O Chitin cell wall and are haploid O Heterotrophic secrete enzymes to break down nutrients decomposers parasites predators and mutualistic o Propogate by Sporeshaploid reproductive cells capable of developing into adults I Sexually meiotic I 1 Asexually Mitotic Major Groups 1 Chytrids a Live in water required for reproduction b Haploid or diploid flagellated spores c Septa are absent d Decline of frog populations Zygomycetes a Soil or decaying material b Diploid sexual zygospores c Black bread mold and soft fruit rot Glomeromycetes a Roots of plants b Haploid asexual spores clusters c Septa are absent d Form mycorrhizaeplant root Basidiomycetes a Underground b Reproduce sexually produce club shaped reproductive structures called basidia c Septa are present d Mushrooms smuts and rusts on crops Ascomycetes a Largest group b Haploid sexual acospores in saclike ascus c Septa are present d Molds yeasts and can live in decaying forest vegetation Interactions with other species 0 Lichens symbiotic between fungus and algae protects algae and lichens receive sugars o Michorrhizae symbiotic between fungi and plant rootshelps feed plants and invade land and fungi receives sugars o Endophytes symbiotic between the inside of plant stems and leaveskeep herbivores away and feeds fungi o Saphrophytes decompose dead organisms o Affect on humans 0 Attacks plants important to humans Cause human disease and produce toxins Atibiotics from fungi Gastronomy OOO Yeast beer wine and bread rise Chapter 23 0 Key Features ofanimals 1 Multicellular Lack cell walls Heterotrophic Sexual reproduction Motile 6 Respond to stimuli 9159quot 0 Anatomical Features 0 Lack of tissues in sponges separate them from all other animals 0 Symmetry 1 Bilateral 3 embryonic germ layers endoderm ectoderm and mesoderm 0 Typically have cephalization and some type of body cavity have heads 0 Protostome develop a body cavity within the body wall annelids mollusks and arthropods I Have two distinct evolutionary lines 1 Ecdysozoans 2 iophotrochozoans o Duterostome develop a body cavity as an outgrowth of the digestive cavity echinoderms and chordates 2 Radial 2 embryonic germ layers 0 Major Animal Phyla 1 Sponges 0 Simple body plan 0 Reproduce by budding and sexually 0 Lack tissues 0 Specialized cells for diff functions 2 Cnidarians jellyfish sea anemones corals and hydrozoans o Polyp and Medusa forms 0 Possess tissues with radial symmetry 0 Stinging cnidocytes 0 Simple nervous system 0 Central gastrovascular cavity 0 Many corals secrete hard skeletons 3 Platyhelminthes flatworms o Parasitic or free living 0 Cephalization bilateral symmetry 0 Lack a body cavity respitory and circulatory too flat 0 Gas exchange by diffusion 4 Annelids U 39 worm 39U 39 r 39 39 and leeches 0 Coelmates and have organ systems 0 A coelom is filled with fluid and provides a hydrostatic skeleton 0 Closed circulatory system 0 Nephridia excretory organs filter and remove wastes 5 Mollusks snails clams and squid 0 Soft bodies protected by some kind of shell 0 Gills and annelid like nervous system 0 Open circulatory system 0 Gastropods bivalvesfilter feeders and cephalopods 6 Arthropods most diverse 0 Have appendages and external skeleton o Specialized segments and adaptions o Gills trachea or lungs for gas exchange 0 Open circulatory system 0 Some insects can fly 0 Arachnids are predatory meat eaters o Myriapods have many legs 50 70 90 o Crustaceans are aquatic 7 Nematoda or Roundworms abundant and mostly tiny 0 Pseudocoelmates with a simplified body plan 0 Reproduce sexually 0 Lack circulatory and respitory systems 8 Echinodermata calcium carbonateskeleton 0 Bilaterally symmetrical as larvae 0 Radial symmetry as adults 0 Water vascular system 9 Chordates include vertebrates Chapter 24 o Chordates have four distinct structures 1 Dorsal nerve chord 2 Notochord 3 Pharyngeal 4 PostAnal tail 0 Vertebrates have a backbone 1 Craniates have a skull made of bone or cartilage o Invertevrates are composed of 1 2 Tunicates sea squirts and salps small immobile Lancelets marine filter feeders Major groups of Vertebrates 1 Jawless eel shaped o Hagfish lack backbone but have cartilage and brain case 0 Lamprey spinal chord parasites Jawfish wider range of food sources 0 Cartilaginous made of cartilage no skeleton rough skin use gills for breathing they sink have teeth sharks skates and rays 0 Bony fish everywhere Ray finned and lobefinned gave rise to amphibians rod shaped bones Amphibians o Respiration lungs and moist skin 0 Aquatic environments 0 External fertilization aquatic eggs and larvae 0 Have four limbs and 3 chambered heart Amniotes reptiles o Tough scaly waterproof 0 Shelled amniotic eggs internal fertilization o Uric acid cloaca o 3 chambered heart Mammals 0 High metabolism 0 4 chambered heart 0 Hair protects and insulates o Legs for running 0 Sweat scent sebaceous oil glands 0 Mammory glands 0 Highly developed brain 0 Parental care after birth 0 3 groups 0 Monotremes low body temp no nipples leathery eggs 0 Marsupials post birth development embryos develop in uterus o Placental highly diverse
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