BIOLOGICAL ANTH ANTH 1
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Dwight Turner on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1 at Texas State University taught by K. Lewis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/212823/anth-1-texas-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
3 What is Evolution Evolution 0 Mechanism how 0 Population mates 0 Populations evolve o All life is related 0 Species change through time 0 Population is who is mating with who Evolution and natural selection 0 Two ideas 0 All levels of life have common ancestry 0 Species change through time 0 They were not new in darwins time o Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection Natural selection 0 Competition natural selection involves competition not just food but shelter and mates etc 0 Individual variation in groups each individual differs from one another no animal is exactly identical to the other one 0 Survival rates are low in any given species not every individual that is born will live to reproduce 80 of animals don t live long enough to reproduce offspring 0 Variations lead to advantages some contribute to adapt and some to survival 0 Offspring resemble their parents if you prodice offspring your genes go off to your offspring and your genes will carry on through generations Adavantageoustriats o The longer you live the better chance you can move on to the next generation 0 Populations change over time 0 Every population has varients Developing the idea recap o 1837 notebook o 1839 outline o 1842 35 page paper 0 1844 250 page essay 0 Darwin was a very sick man 0 And thought that he would would die young November 24 h 1859 Origin 0 Species change through time o All life is related by common ancestry o The reason his book became so popular was he was able to explain his series to all social classes 0 A book everyone could read and everyone could understand Selection 0 Everyone in England was very comfortable with artificial selection 0 Choose what kind of traits that the animal has 0 And breed that animal with another animal to get the traits that you want 0 Can artificial breed with plants or animals Origin and natural selection 0 Analogy fo domestic breeding 0 Apply to wild scenarios 0 Struggle for existence 0 Advantageous traits survive and reproduce o Offspring resemble their parents 0 Preservation of favorable variations 0 Distinct varieties species over time o If there is competition only those with advantageous traits will live long enough to have offspring and reproduce o In all sexually reproducing species offspring resemble their parents 0 The origin species is not about how life appeared but how you get new species from odler ones 0 The only difference from artificial selection and natural selection is the amount of time that it takes What exactly is evolution 0 How a population changes over time 0 Population is important 0 Individuals do not evolve biologically 0 Evolution does not happen to an individual 0 Evolution takes place over generations Competiton for survival 0 1838 Darwin reads Malthus 0 Population size increases more rapidly than food supplies 0 Natural selection operates on variations Individuals vary in traits o Varients often times creates an advantage Some variance creates advantage 0 Differentialreproduction Offspring resemble their parents Advantageous varients accumulate 0 There are variations of values with traits Examples of evoltution Anti bacterial resistance New generations evolve every 20 minutes in bacteria They reproduce very quickly E coli in most cases when mutation accures the bacteria or subject that is mutating dies peppered moths some are darker than the other moths fossil horses quot 60 million years ago Feet hooves Perfection o Populations cant exist with outvarioation 0 Variation survival 0 Have to be able to adapt to the changing world 0 Self reproducing molecules exist 0 Evolution is possible once you have a cell The first cell 0 12 billion years 0 Earliest life 35 billion years ago 0 Once you have a cell the diservication of evolution is rapid 0 Once you have a cell that is the mechanism for life 0 35 bya first bacteria 0 12 bya first eukaryote cells 0 1 bya first multicellular organisms Earths evolutionary timeline o 500 mya find the first invertebrate animals and the first fish 0 400 mya first land plants and fungi earth is covered in fern forest s o 350 mya first land reptiles and insects o 250 mya first mass extinction Mesozoic o 220 mya dinosaurs evolve o 200 mya first flowering plants are found 0 190 mya first mammals and birds 0 65 mya second mass extinction Cenozoic o 45 mya modern mammals o 35 mya first grasses o 3 mya first hominins o 200 kya first humans 0 100 kya humans are more widespread o 20 kyaneandertals die out o 15 kya agriculture begins