CULTRL ANTHROPLGY ANTH 1312
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Dwight Turner on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1312 at Texas State University taught by E. Brunson in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see /class/212824/anth-1312-texas-state-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Cultural Anthropology Review Sheet Exam 1 People to Know Edward Burnett Tylor 1855 23 became ill so was advised to travel He went to Central America Started to learn about religion Everything had to do with learning and culture not biology Lewis Henry Morgan trained as a lawyer interested in lndians Kinship great advocate for Eraquate tribe Franz Boas lmmigrated to US trained in math and physics Went to artic to study ice but was interested in anthropology Father of American Anthropology developed cultural relativism Concepts to Know Introduction to Anthropology Anthropology study of all humankind In all contexts cultural biological etc In all times today 1000 years ago 1mya Study of humanity including its prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversityquot Miller Four Distinctive Characteristics of Anthropology o Holism wholism study of a whole 0 Comparison need to compare groups to better understand humanse study from diverse cultures 0 Fieldbased Discipline study with what they are studying people animals etc o Evolutionary Focus physical and cultural evolution Four Subfields of Anthropology Cultural Anthropology Focus is culture learned and shared behavior Ex Marriages in Africa Archaeology Material remains of past societies Biological AnthropologyBiological evolution human variation Linguistic Anthropology language how it s used evolved etc Culture learned and shared ways of behaving and thinking Six Characteristics of Culture 1 Culture is learned and shared ways of behaving and thinking Enculturation process of learning a culture daily practical learning growing up and learning 2 Culture is sharedsomething learned and taught through others It is achieved when humans are in contact with each other ndividuals do not have culture Does not mean all cultures are homoguous variation occurs with cultures 0 Culture is patternedrepeated ex Children once they are born have their own room Individuals are expected to do things on your own and not accept handouts Culture pattern helps us differentiate cultures 4 Culture is symbolic ex stop sign 9 stop your car 5 Culture is historical based in human evolution Humans are the only biological species to have culture ex when a woman gets married she changes her last name 6 Culture is adaptive Does not always stay the same it can change through time space ndividuals can learn different cultures How does culture compare to microcultures societies and ethnicities Microcultures subcultures a distinct pattern of learned and shaped behavior and thinking found within a larger culture Societies an organized group of individuals with specific boundaries or criteria of membership Ethnicity can be used as a synonym for culture but it is also a euphemism for race Ethnocentrism The opinion that one s own way of life is natural or correct Bound in every culture Good ethnocentrism produces cohesion identity and a sense of belonging it allows culture to work Bad can lead to fear prejudice hate and sometimes genocide Ex complaints about kalus are going in groups Cultural Relativism Understanding another culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living Developing Cultural Relativism 0 Learn about other cultures Directly 0 Traveling and experiencing cultures for yourself ndirectly 0 Classes 0 Movies 0 Friends families others 0 Esp important in the global world we live in Research in Anthropology 0 Anthropology is a fieldbased discipline 0 Research in cultural anthropology is conducted with only a few exceptions among living peoples Field work research in the field which is any place where people and culture are found Five General Steps 1Developing a research project 2 Prepare for the field 3 Go and do work at the field 4 Data Analysis 5 Share with other people Deductive vs Inductive o Deductive a research method that involves posing a research question or hypothesis gathering data related to the question and then assessing the findings in relation to the original hypothesis generally associated with quantitative data lnductive research approach that avoids hypothesis formation in advance of the research and instead takes its lead from the culture being studied 9 research in cultural anthropology is mostly inductivequalitative Participant observation method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying Effective participant observation entails lmmersing self in field setting Considerable time 1 year minimum in the field Building rapport with people being studied Gaining an emic perspective 0 Emic insider s perspective meaning 0 Etic outsider s perspective measurement Careful note taking Culture Shock persistent feelings of uneasiness loneliness and anxiety that often occur when a person has shifted from one culture to a different one History of Anthropology Al Biruni 11th century Marco Polo when he was in jail he wrote about the Chinese society The Renaissance cultural movement 1417th century began in Italy and spread out A Interest in ancient times N Studies of social life Thomas More Niccolo Machiavelli F Voyages of geographical discovery and conquest Interest in science science being an objective view of the world 4 0 Two particular areas of interest Classification of living beings Theories of evolution Early Anthropology 0 Mid 1800searly 1900s 0 Armchair approach then verandah approach they weren t in the field but they would bring the natives o Linked very strongly to colonialism Natives peoplesquot lacked histories Cultures of colonized peoples were doomed to disappear Unilineal cultural evolution Human existence consisted of 3 major stages 1 Savagery 9 level of technology fire bows amp arrows pottery 2 Barbarism 9 domesticated animals agriculture metal working 3 Civilization writing British Anthropology General Characteristics 0 Tied to British Colonialism Needed to understand subjects in order to govern them Supported by the British government 0 Fieldwork o Shift to classification based on social structure Two Social Structure Primary categories Uncentralized governments amp centralized governments Uncentralized gt Bands foragershuntergathers small groups usually 50 or fewer Membership is flexible and social relations are highly egalitarian V Tribes Generally larger than a band Usually farm or herd for a living Social relations are largely egalitarian might be a chief who speaks for the group or organization activities Centralized gt Chiefdoms monarchies leader a chief and his close relatives are set apart from the rest of society and allowed privileged access to wealth power and prestige V States a stratified society that possesses a territory that is defended from outside enemies with an army and from internal disorder with police A state has a separate set of government institutions designed to enforce laws and collect taxes and tributes American Anthropology General Characteristics 0 Tied to study of indigenous people Louis Henry Morgan 0 Like their British counterparts American anthropologists also Became dissatisfied with Unilineal cultural evolution Began FRANZ BOAS FATHER OF AMERICAN ANTHROPOLOGIST o Developed cultural relativism o lmmigrated to US trained in math physics 0 Went to artic to study ice but was interested in anthropology Cultural and Personality School 0 Linked to Boas and his students 0 Characterized by Fieldwork Studied of indigenous people Arguments that personality traits are culturally based not a product of biological evolution Antiracist Anthropology after WWII Positivist Approach 0 Characterized anthropology through the 1950s 0 Positivism Attempts to explain how the world works Etic perspective Goal to produce objective knowledge knowledge about reality that is true for all peoples in all times and in all places ex body ritual among the Narirema Three Major Changes in the Discipline Since the Events of the 1960s and 70s 1 Specialized Focuses 2 Innovative Methodologies o Communitybased preparticipatory research 0 Multisited Research 0 Ethnographies as 0 Films 0 Plays 0 Poetry 3 Theoretical Diversity 0 Cultural ecology cultural materialism interpretive anthro post modernism political economy Language form of communication that is based on a systematic set of learned symbols and signs shared among a group and passed on from generation to generation Speech vs Communication Speech spoken language Communication the transfer of information from one person to another Language is bio cultural Four Characteristics that make Human language is distinctive 1 N 0 4 Productivity People are able to communicate a potentially infinite number of messages efficiently New messages can be created and understood by others ex put this babel fish in your earquot from Star Treck Displacement People are able to talk about events in the past and future ex what did you have for breakfast Arbitrariness the sounds of words do not have any necessary relationship to what they mean ex cock a little do Prevarication Linguistic messages can be false and or they can be meaningless ex Your dress is beautiful I want onejust like it lt But in reality I wouldn t wear it out The Components of Language 1 Phonology sounds of a language 0 Phones individual sounds o Phonemes equivalent versions of the same sound ex In English f ph f gh ff 2 Morphology how words are put together 0 Morphemes the minimal units of meaning in a language ex B Book Bookworm ex un is a morpheme not 3 Syntax sentence structure 0 Subject object verb 0 SOV SVO V80 V08 OSV OVS 4 Semantics meaning 0 Formal how words in a language are linked in a language Dictionary Definitions 0 Informal how words are actually used Metaphor Fquot Pragmatics Language within context 0 Linguistic context the other words expressions and sentences that surround the expression whose meaning we are trying to determine ex Who is that I don t like that 5 Paralanguage o lntonations ex ltwas great o Pacing o Pauses 7 Non Verbal Language c Emblems o Illustrators 0 Speaking distance Linguistic vs Communicative Competence 1 Linguistic Competence Mastery of adult grammar 2 Communicative Competence Mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech Heteroglossia 0 Knowing and being able to use different discourse genera Pidgins and Creoles o Pidgin a contact language that blends elements of least two languages and emerges when people who speak different primary languages need to communicate example Hawaiian pidgin Pidgin is not a primary language 0 Creole a new primary language which results from the combination of two or more languages ex patois Jamaican creole Culture and Individuals 0 In some ways all people are the same 0 In some ways some people are the same 6 focus of anthropology o In some ways each person is unique 6 psychology Psychological anthro sub subfield of anthro with the interaction of culture and mental processes Psychology A bio cultural phenomenon language Basic Areas of human experience 0 According to book 1 Perception 2 Cognition 3 Motivation 1 Perception The process by which people organize and interpret information that is primarily of sensory origin 9 What do we humans perceive 5 senses Does everyone perceive these things in the same way No Problem with a positivist perspective Someone is not objective Lying to you Impaired somehow stupid Schemas Patterned repetitive experiences Schemas are often embedded in practical activities and labeled linguistically ex Christmas In the movie the kalu s didn t understand how Santa related to Jesus Prototypes Taking a schema to another level Use theme as framework to judge experiences Typical instances elements relations or experiences within a culturally relevant domain Prototypes often have fuzzy boundaries ex salads libraries families 2 Cognition How people think alternatively the mental process by which humans gain knowledge Cognitive style refers to a recurring pattern to Global field dependent Viewing the world holistically seeing a bundle of relationships and only later the bits and pieces that are related Traditionally associated with nonWestern societies Articulated field independent Viewing the world as smaller and smaller pieces which can then be organized into larger chunks Example 1 Intelligence Capacity of learning abstract thought understanding planning problem solving and so forth How is intelligence measured in the US IQ test ACT SAT GRE Example 2 Emotion 9 A state of learning 0 Motivation Enculturation the process by which human beings learn the ways of thinking and feeling that are considered appropriate in their respective cultures Socialization 9 the process by which human beings cope with the behavioral rules est by their respective societies