ADOLES GRWTH & DEV
ADOLES GRWTH & DEV CI 3325
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jerome Kuhic on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CI 3325 at Texas State University taught by D. Roaten in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see /class/212826/ci-3325-texas-state-university in Education and Teacher Studies at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
1 What is this saying about adolescence Reading between the linesthe insecurities related to nding oneself 2 How did you identify yourself As you can see identity is a multifaceted complex phenomena Today we re going to look at identity particularly as an adolescent issue Occupation ideology values amp beliefs interpersonal relations ethnicity religion age gender Who are you What is your identity Create a concept map with your name in the middle Describe yourself in the shapes surrounding your name 4 Acc to the 8stage psychosocial model of human development proposed by Erikson 1980 identity formation is the preeminent task of adolescence Identity development involves the formation of a consistent sense of self and is defined as the ability to explore choices amp then select important commitments to individuals amp institutions maintain loyalty to these commitments and arrive at a relatively stable self perception 5 The search for identity is typified by the questions such as Who am I Where am I going What will I become 6 Use table Most in uential theorist in area of identity is Erik Erikson 19021994 You should know about his theory for the TExEs competencies Erikson was a student of Freud s amp his theory looks at psychosocial stages not psychosexual as Freud believed Psychodynamic perspective He viewed the developing person as moving through a series of 8 psychosociall crises over the course of the life span Each crisis although present in one form or another at all levels takes on special significance at a given period of the life cycle because biological amp social forces interact to bring the crisis into prominence Development changes occur through lifespan whereas Freud believed our basic personality is formed before the age of 5 Each stage is filled with a developmental task that must be faced The more an individual resolves this crisis task the healthier that individual s development will be 7 Erik Erikson 19021994 Each crisis is a sort of challenge that the individual must resolve and crises are normal in that they are an inevitable part of being alive and growing older Erikson believed that the establishment of a coherent sense of identity is the chief psychosocial crisis of adolescence Erikson believed each of the crises as a continuum with positive amp negative poles The crisis of infancy for example is trust v mistrust The child must be able to establish a feeling of trust or security with his or her caregivers According to Erikson each crisis builds on the previous ones The successful resolution of each challenge depends on the healthy resolution of the challenges that have preceded it An infant who has not successfully resolved the crisis of trust v mistrust will have a difficult time wthe crises encountered through the rest of the life cycle Such individuals may always be hesitant about becoming close with other people because deep down inside they fear that others will let them down So the successful resolution of the crisis of identity V identity diffusion depends on how the individual has resolved the previous crises of childhood Without a healthy sense of trust autonomy initiative amp industry it is difficult to establish a coherent sense of identity Moreover the way in which the adol resolves this crisis of identity will have an impact on his or her struggle with the crises of adulthood Look at preimminent tasks for each stage 8 Acc To Erikson from among all possible amp imaginable relations the young person must make a series of evernarrowing selections of personal occupational sexual amp ideological commitments The maturational amp social forces that converge at adolescence force young people to rellect on their place in society on the ways that others view them and on their options for the future It is not until adol that one even has the mental or emotional capacity to tackly this task The key to resolving the crisis lies in the adol s interactions w others The responses of important others shape amp in uence the adol s developing sense of identity Forging an identity is social as well as a mental process 9 According to Erikson the complications inherent in identity development in modern society have created the need for a psychosocial moratoriuma time out during adolescence During the psychosocial moratorium the adolescent can experiment w different roles amp identities in a context that permits amp encourages this sort of exploration The experimentation involves trying on different postures personalities amp ways of behaving Role experimentation can take place only in an environment that allows amp encourages it The moratorium Erikson is an idealsome might even consider it to be a luxury of the af uent Many young people do not have the economic freedom to enjoy a long delay before taking on the responsibilities of adult life Acc To Erikson the absence of a pschol moratorium in some adol s liveseither because of restrictions them place on themselves restrictions placed on them by others or their life circumstancesis truly lamentable The price these youngsters pay is not in failing to develop a sense of identity but in lost potential 10 Let s look at part of an article on the stigma of poverty Please read the article and create a list of the main ideas gleaned from the article in the form of a concept map 12 Poverty is associated wa broad array of undesirable life experiences amp outcomes Research shows that poverty operates through multiple mechanisms moving poor children amp adolescents on paths distinctly different than those followed by their nonpoor age mates The experiences amp outcomes associated with poverty may be grouped into 3 broad categories derogatory selfrelevant information limitations in opportunity structure amp excessive stress 13 An individual s structural position in society has important implications for the benefits amp opportunities received by the individual SES in uences development and life decisions by opening and closing opportunities Although people function as independent actors the possibilities they face amp the decisions they make are inevitably constrained by the positions they occupy in the social order Can you think of some opportunities that you ve had that someone with less money would not have had People from different SES backgrounds have different experiences and face discrepant opportunity structures that can culminate in quite divergent outcomes Research shows that poverty is assoc wlimitations in opportunity structures and life chances In turn limited opportunity may have a stullifying effect on identity exploration 14 For instance pove1ty status is negatively related to both career aspirations and educational aspirations among adolescents Lowered aspirations among poor youth may result from realistic appraisals of available opportunities and experiential recognition of the limited lives of the adults around them but at the same time lowered aspirations may result in selfimposed limitations that further reduce opportunities Therefore not only do poor adolescents 15 The course of identity development will vary in different cultures among different subcultures within the same society and over different historical eras For example in the past young women assumed their adult identity would be exclusively tied to marriage amp family life But today many more alternative identities are open to women The rapid rate of social change in most of the industrialized world has raised new amp more complicated sets of questions for young people to considerquestions not only about values lifestyles amp commitments to other people 16 Individuals consciously confront their ethnicity for the rst time in adolescence Unlike children adol have ability to interpret ethnic amp cultural information This is Jean Phinney s 1996 definition of ethnic identity Adol from ethnic minority groups the process of identity formation has an added dimension the choice between 2 or more sources of identificationtheir own ethnic group and the mainstream or dominant culture Researchers have found that ethnic identity increases with age and that higher levels of ethnic identity are linked to more positive attitudes not only towards one s own ethnic group but also toward members of other ethnic groups Researchers are also finding that positive ratings of ethnic identity are related to more positive school engagement and fewer problem behaviors in African American and Latino adolescents l7 ETHNIC MINORITIES EXPERIENCE IDENTITY CHALLENGES AS A RESULT OF PREJUDICE amp DISCRIMINATION Janet HELM S MODEL OF ETHNIC IDENTITY consists of 4 STAGES In stage lPREENCOUNTERethnic minority indiv prefer the dominant society s cultural values to those of their own culture They draw their role models lifestyles amp value systems from the dominant group viewing the physical or cultural characteristics that single them out as ethnic minorities as a source of pain or stress The move to stage 2 ENCOUNTER is usually a gradual one Indiv may reach this state after an event that makes them realize they will never belong to the mainstream Either a monumental event such as the assassination of MLK Jr or a more personal identity shattering event may serve as a trigger Con icting attitudes about self minority group culture amp dominant culture characterize this stage The recognition that an ethnic identity must be developed rather than found leads to the third stage immersionemersion At the beg of stage 3 IMMERSIONEMERSION ethnic minority indiv immerse thmselves completely in the minority culture amp reject the dominant society Movement into this stage likely occurs when indiv begin to resolve some of the previous con icts from previous stage amp develop a better understanding of societal forces such as racism amp discrimination They begin to ask themselves Why should I be ashamed of who I am The other part of this stage is emersionthat is emergence allows them to vent the anger they developed at the beginning of the stage through rap groups cultural explorations discussions of racialethnic issues Individ at this stage have the autonomy to evaluate the strengths amp weaknesses of both their subculture and the mainstream culture and to decide which parts of it will become part of their own identity In stage 4 INTERNALIZATIONCOMMITMENTindiv experience a sense of ful llment that arises from the integration of their personal amp cultural identities They have resolved the con icts amp discomforts of the immersionemersion stage They can examine the cultural values of other ethnic groups more objectively The term commitment in the name refers to the enactment of the indiv s newly realized identity Indiv in this stage take action to eliminate discrimination whether through largescale political or social activism or through small everyday activities that are consistent with their ethnic identities 18 According to psychologist Jean Phinney and her colleagues minority youth have 4 possibiities open to them for dealing with their ethnicity Assimilation trying to adopt the majority culture s norms amp standards while rejecting those of one s own groupi Marginality living within the majority culture but feeling estranged and outcast Separation associating only with members of one s own culture amp rejecting the majority culture Biculturalism maintaining ties to both the majority amp the minority cultures In the past minority youth were encouraged by majority society to assimilate as much as possible Assimilation however has not proven to be as simple as many nonminority indiv imagine First although minority youth are told to assimilate they may be tacitly excluded from majority society on the basis of their physical appearance or language This leads to a situation of marginality in which the minority youth is on the edge of majority society but is never really accepted as a fullstatus member Second minority youth who do attempt to assimilate are often scorned by their own communities for trying to act white as captured by the array of pejorative terms minority youth have for their friends who have tried too hard to assimilate Asian Americans who act white are bananas Hispanic Americans are coconuts and African Americans are oreos Partly in reaction to this many minority youth adopt a strategy of separation Some argue that a more viable amp psychologically healthier alternative to assimilation or separation is biculturalism Bicultural adol shuttle successfully between their primary or familial culture and the dominant culture This is a exibility model in which minority youth have open to them the norms of both cultures and select between them depending on the situation a process called code switching At a maj oritycontrolled school for example it may be more adaptive to acti white when being evaluated by white teachers but also more adaptive to conform with the minority group s own norms and standards when in one s neighborhood Positive mental health among ethnic minority adol is assoc whaving strong positive feelings about one s own ethnic group but not with separation from the mainstream culture 19 The term identity status refers to the point in the identity development process that characterizes an adolescent at a given time In order to determine an indiv s identity status most researchers have used an approach developed by James Marcia which focuses on identity exploration in 3 areas Occupation ideology amp interpersonal relations Based on responses to an interview or questioonnaire indiv are rated on 2 dimensions 1 Degree to which they ve made commitments 2 The degree to which they engaged in a sustained search in the process On the basis ofthese ratings the researchers assign young people to 1 of4 categories 20 Identity achievementthe indiv has established a coherent sense of identityhas made commitments after a period of crisis amp experimentation Moratorium the indiv is in the midst of a period of crisis amp experimentation Identity foreclosure the indiv has made commitments but without a period of crisis or experimentation Identity diffusion role confusion arises when the individual is unable to commit to definite life choices the indiv does not have rm commitments amp is not currently trying to make them 21 Identity moratorium 22 Identity achievement 23 Identity diffusion 24 Identity foreclosure 25 What does it feel like to establish a sense of identity Is it a consciously felt achievement Acc To Erikson it is It is experienced as a sense of wellbeing a feeling of being at home in one s body a sense of knowing where one is going amp an inner assuredness of recognition from those who count Establishing a coherent sense of identity is a lengthy process Erikson wrote A sense of identity is never gained nor maintained once and for all but instead it culminates in a series of basic life commitments occupational ideological social religious ethical amp sexual 26 Contemporary explanations of identity include l Identity is a lengthy process l Identity formation begins w attachment amp is reviewed periodically until old age l Identity formation depends on establishing a balance between autonomy amp connectedness l Identity formation decisions are small everyday events that are revisited time and again Slide 2 Moral development is a multifaceted aspect of individual growth involving cognition behavior motivation and selfassessment based on personal interpretations of right amp wrong The study of moral development involves both reasoning how individuals think about moral dilemmas amp behavior how they behave in situations that call for moral judgments How do adolescents reason or think about rules for ethical conduct How do adolescents actually behave in moral circumstances How do adolescents feel about moral matters Slide 3 Values are reflected in one s beliefs in politics religion money friends career amp selfrespect Values change with time and the current trend is toward concern for self over those for others Good personal adjustment depends on selffulfillment and strong commitment to others Slide 7 Psychoanalytical Freud Oedipal complex electra complex young child incorporates the parents Child works in morally correct ways to avoid guilt Guilt is not only motivator Parents play key role in emotional intelligence early experiences 0 Moral feelings are based on experienced childrearing strategies empathetic nature and emotions in moral development 0 Psychoanalytic theory focuses on the superego the moral branch of the personality influenced by components of the superego called the ego ideal amp conscience Acc to Freud parents influence moral 39 39 r by r39 39 glove Iand powerassertion These punitive strategies have not been found to be as effective as induction explaining responsibility as it relates to consequences for others Slide 9 Critics argue that history refute thisatrocities such as holocaust genocide gang warfare etc Altruism Unselfish interest in helping another person Forgiveness Occurs when an injured person releases the injurer from possible retaliation Altruism seems to develop from reciprocity in personal experiences having experienced help care amp forgiveness from others Slide 12 The dominant theoretical viewpoint in the study of moral reasoning has been a perspective that is grounded in Piaget s theory of cognitive development The focus is on changes in the structure amp organization of thought rather than on changes in its content Theories of morality that stem from the cognitivedevelopmental viewpoint similarly emphasize shifls in the type of reasoning that individuals use in making moral decisions rather than changes in context of the decisions they reach or the actions they take as a result 0 Morality develops alongside the capacity to reason before age 5 kids aren t cognitively capable of following universal rules Let s look at a clip oftoddler Slide 14 Child isn t biologically cognitively capable of making moral decisionsstill developing basic cognitive skillsjust doesn t know better Let s look at some older children Slide 15 0 Around age 5 rules become important Children apply rules only at face value intention is not considered investigator asks child which is worsechild who breaks 6 cups or the child who breaks 1 while disobeying parent Sense of absoluteness What s wrong is wrong 0 Between 510 thinking becomes less egocentric amp are better able to deal wgray areas Age 10 consider intention of act in deciding morality of event Punishment is to suit the crime subjective moralityrules are more flexible and are made by people Rules amp fairness becomes important intentionality Development is Slide 16 0 According to Piaget the development of more sophisticated thinking at adolescence results from development of advanced logical abilities Piaget believed that adol marks the transition into a qualitatively different way of reasoninga stage of thinking based on formal operations In contrast to the concreteoperational child the formaloperational adol is able to use an abstract system of logic in a variety of social amp scientific situations Slide 17 Although the initial 39 39 of the cognitive 39 39 I 39r r 39 on morality was presented by Piaget himself the theory was subsequently expanded by Lawrence Kohlberg and its Kohlberg s work that is more relevant to the study of moral development during adolescence Kohlberg theorized that individuals reasoning about moral issues becomes more sophisticated with development Morality develops in universally defined stages ea stage forming the foundation for the next 0 Kohlberg hypothesized that the moral orientation of youngsters evolves in conjunction wcognitive dvlpmtamp external factors such as cognitive conflict peer relations and roletaking opportunities 0 Preconventional reasoningreasoning is based on external rewqrdsamp punishment 0 Stage 1 Heteronomous moralitybased on avoidance of punishment Children obey because adults tell them to obey People base their moral decisions on fear of punishment 0 Stage 2 mutual pursuit of own interests individuals pursue their own interests but let others do the same What is right involves equal exchange 0 individual has no internalization of moral value Preconventional child sense or morality is based on system of rewards amp punishment Stage 1 indiv behaves morally because fears consequences behaves morally might makes rightquot Stage 2 person does what is right if rewarded I ll be good if you get me something Slide18 0 Research based on adol interviews amp young adult malesresponses to dilemmas Slide 19 Kohlberg hypothesized that the moral orientation of youngsters evolves in conjunction wcognitive dvlpmtamp external factors such as cognitive conflict peer relations and roletaking opportunities 0 Preconventional moral reasoning is not based on society s standards rules or conventions hence the name pre 0 In pre children approach moral dilemmas in ways that focus on rewards amp punishments assoc wva rious courses of action 0 A precon child may say that Heinz shouldn t have stolen the drug because he would have gotten caught amp sent to jail Another might say he was right to steal the drug because people would have been angry with him if he let his wife die 0 The chief concern in both cases is what would happen to Heinz as a result of his choice 0 individual has no internalization of moral value Slide 20 Conventional reasoning about moral issues focuses not so much on tangible rewards amp punishments but on how an indiv will be judged by others for behaving in a certain way Social importance is given to the roles people are expected to play amp to society s rules social institutions amp conventions One behaves properly to receive the approval of others amp help maintain social order A conventional thinker might say that Heinz should not have stolen the drug because stealing is against the law But another might say that Heinz was right to steal the drug because it is what a good husband is expected to do Acc To most studies of moral reasoning most adolamp adults think primarily in conventional termsthey evaluate moral decisions in terms of a set of rules that people are supposed to abide by Conventional Level Intermediate Internalization Slide 21 Postconventional reasoning is relatively rare At this level of reasoning society s rules amp conventions are seen as relative amp subjective rather than as absolute amp definitive One may have a moral duty to abid by society s standards for behaviorbut only insofar as those standards support amp serve moral ends Thus occasions arise in which conventions ought to be questioned and when more important principlessuch as justice fairness amp the sanctity of human lifetake precedence over established social norms 0 A postconreponse might be that Heinz should not have stolen the drug because in doing so he violated an implicit agreement among members of societyan agreement that gives each person the freedom to pursue his or her livelihood However another principled thinker might respond that Heinz was right to steal the drug because someone s life was at stake and because preserving human life is more imp than preserving indiv freedoms 0 Whereas conventional thinking is oriented toward society s rules post conve thinking is founded on more broadly based abstract principles 0 Morality is completely internalized ndiv moves to level in which morality is defined abstractly 5efforts to change laws in order to further a cause activist stage 6universal ethical principle orientation ethical principles of conscience have a higher value than law Mahatma Gandhi MLK Very few people reach Stage 5 even fewer reach 6 Critics say Males judge based on just Females what is caring Gilliganfeminist perspective Kohlberg study doesn t hold well wyoung children Variance between thinking morally amp acting morally Didn t consider roles of religious values only looked at rational thought not decisions based on religion Children progress in moral development like they learn in other ways Slide 23 Kohlberg s critics argue that he places too much emphasis on thought versus behavior Kohlberg s theory does not show respect for cultural traditions found in eastern or third world countries For examplevalues related to communal equity amp collective happiness in Israel the unity amp sacredness of all lifeforms in India amp the relational of the individual to the community in New Guinea 0 Psychologist Carol Gilligan argued that Kohlberg s view of morality places too much emphasis on a type of moral orientation characteristically used by men Gilligan proposes that Kohlberg underemphasized conceptions that are more likely to be viewed by females which emphasizes care Slide 24 In Richard Sweder s 1991 view of culture amp moral development 3 ethical orientations or worldviews appear 1 an Ethic of autonomy dominant in Western cultures p 280 Santrock 2 Ethic of community prominent in cultures that emphasize communitarian values amp tradition 3 Ethic of divinity characteristic of cultures in which morality is mainly derived from religious prescriptions n understanding the role of culture on individual development Shweder 1991 hypothesizes three primary sociocultural worldviews namely i an Autonomy worldview in which the self is the primary referent the normative ideal is an independent person who seeks to be unique and actualize their quotinnerquot self and the primary moral value is individual freedom of choice constrained by concerns over impinging on the rights of others or inflicting harm on others ii a Community worldview wherein relationships and social context are the primary referent the normative ideals are to maintain interdependence adjust oneself to attendant relationships be sympathetic to the needs of others and fulfill one s roles and responsibilities and the primary moral goal is the wellbeing and harmony of the social group and iii a Divinity worldview wherein the transcendent realm is the primary referent and the developmental ideal and primary moral value are the actualization of transcendent values in lived experience accomplished through encounter with the Divine and surrender and obedience to divine will u I II I I39 z xInnnn 1 u u I revealed in sacred texts httpww Slide 25 Parents of moral children amp adolescents tend to use an authoritative style of parenting as opposed to authoritarian indulgent or indifferent We ll be looking at these parenting styles more closely when we look at families Inductive discipline parent uses reason amp explanation of the consequences for others of a child s actions Slide 26 Hidden Curriculum creates an atmosphere covertly teaching ethical amp unethical behavior Character Education is a direct approach that teaches moral behavior amp avoidance of behavior that harms self or others 0 Values clarification helps students identify purpose amp merit in their lives 0 Cognitive moral education develops democratic values such as cooperation trust amp responsibility 0 Service learningstudeis of service learning nonpaid programs sometimes connected wschool that place adol in volunteer positions in the community indicate that some volunteer experiences may enhance adol s selfesteem amp feelings of efficacy impart academic amp career skills enhance community involvement improve mental health amp deter problem behavior
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