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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

C. Oberle

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C. Oberle
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4322 at Texas State University taught by C. Oberle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/212830/psy-4322-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
PS Y 4322 Cumulative Exam Study Guide As mentioned during class a cumulative exam covering the information that is identified below will be given on both April 18 and May 9 Although that brings our grand total of exams to five rather than four you will be able to drop your lowest exam score Thus this extra exam on April 18 serves as a second chance exam the score on which may essentially be used to replace your lowest exam score Also note that for both versions of the cumulative exam you may use one 812 x 11quot page of typed or hand written notes during the exam Introduction to the Course gt Nature vs nurture pp 9 15 0 Genetic code I Chromosomes know how many chromosomes are in body cells amp sex cells I Deoxyribonucleic acid know the structure amp function of DNA Genes know the structure amp function of genes Phenotype know what this refers to Genotype know what the following genotypes refer to I Homozygous genotype I Heterozygous genotype Alleles know how combinations of the following alleles affect the phenotype I Recessive alleles I Dominant alleles I Codominant alleles S exlinked characteristics know the relative prevalence of these characteristics in men amp women amp the reason for the disparity F within the Nervous Svstem gt Cells in the nervous system pp24 33 0 Structures of neurons know the structure amp function of the following structures I S oma I Dendrites I Axon I Myelin sheath I Axon terminals 0 Electrochemical potentials know what happens to the ions amp relative potential during the following phases of neural inactivityactivity I Resting potential I Action potential depolarization I Refractory period repolarization also know the difference between the following refractory periods amp their implications regarding action potentials I Absolute refractory period I Relative refractory period 0 Glial cells know the function of the following cells I Oligodendrocytes Schwann cells Microglia Astrocytes V Neural communication pp 34 43 0 Chemical transmission at synapse know the function of the following components involved in synaptic transmission I Vesicles Synaptic cleft Neurotransmitters Ionotropic receptors M etabotropic receptors 0 Excitation amp inhibition know what the following states of activity refer to I Hypopolarization excitatory postsynaptic potential I Hyperpolarization inhibitory postsynaptic potential Functions of the Nervous System gt Central nervous system pp 52 67 0 Forebrain structures know the location amp function of the following structures I Frontal lobe Motor cortex Premotor cortex Prefrontal cortex Association areas Broca s area I Parietal lobe S omatosensory cortex Association areas I Temporal lobe Auditory cortex Wernicke s area Inferior temporal cortex Association areas I 0ccipital lobe Visual cortex Association areas I Fissures ampsulci I longitudinal ssure I lateral fissure I Central sulcus I Hemispheres I Righthemisphere I left hemisphere I Corpus callosum I Subcortical structures Thalamus Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Amygdala Hippocampus o Midbrain structures know the location amp function of the following structures I Pineal gland Superior colliculi Inferior colliculi Ventral tegmental area I Substantia nigra o Hindbrain structures know the location amp function of the following structures I Pons I Reticular formation I Medulla I Cerebellum gt Peripheral nervous system pp 68 70 know the functions of the following PNS divisions o Somatic nervous system 0 Autonomic nervous system I Sympathetic nervous system I Parasympathetic nervous system The Methods and Ethics of Research gt Research techniques pp 91 108 know what the following techniques entail amp their purpose 0 Electrical recordings I Stereotaxic recording I Electroencephalogram EEG I Evoked potential event related potential ERP o Stimulating neurons I Stereotaxic stimulation I Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS o Intentional brain damage I Lesioning I Ablation 0 Brain imaging I Computed tomography CT I Magnetic resonance imaging MRI I Positron emission tomography PET Functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI Drugs Addiction and Reward gt Psychoactive drugs pp 124 135 0 General mechanisms of action know how the following types of drugs work I Agonists I Antagonists 0 Particular drugs know the psychological effects relative addiction potential amp specific mechanisms of action for the following drugs I Opiates I Stimulants I Depressants I Psychedelics I Marijuana gt Addiction pp 124125 136148 0 Mesolimbocortical dopamine system know the following components of this system how the system is related to addiction amp what factors affect activity in the system I Ventral tegmental area I Medial forebrain bundle Nucleus accumbens Prefrontal cortex Motivation and the Regulation of Internal States gt Hunger pp 161 173 0 Digestion amp metabolism I Nutrient conversions know the following conversions of food into usable forms I Carbohydrates a glucose I Proteins aamino acids I Fats afatty acids I Diabetes know the causes amp characteristics of the following types of diabetes I Type I diabetes I Type 2 diabetes 0 Eating behaviors I Eating initiation amp termination know the role of the following structures during both the initiation amp termination of eating meals I Stomach I Arcuate nucleus I Liver I Lateral hypothalamus I Vagus nerve I Paraventricular nucleus I Nucleus of the solitary tract gt Eating disorders pp 173 183 0 Obesity know how obesity is defined I Basal metabolism rate know what this rate refers to amp how it changes with short term weight gain by normal amp obese prone individuals I BMI set point know what this point refers to amp how it changes with prolonged weight gain by normal amp obese prone individuals The Biology of Sex and Gender gt Sex as a form of motivation pp 191 199 0 Neurological correlates of sexual activity I Brain structures know the function of the following structures amp whether they are activated or deactivated during orgasm I Cerebellum I Ventromedial nucleus I Basal ganglia Paraventricular nucleus I Amygdala Ventral tegmental area I Anterior cingulate I Nucleus accumbens I Preoptic area I Prefrontal cortex I Neurotransmitters know the function of the following transmitters amp when they are released I Testosterone I Serotonin I Dopamine I Oxytocin gt Sexual anomalies pp 206 211 0 Intersex anomalies know the causes amp characteristics of the following anomalies I XY intersex male pseudohermaphroditism I XX intersex female pseudohermaphroditism o Chromosome anomalies know the causes amp characteristics of the following anomalies I XXX syndrome I XYY syndrome I XXYKlinefeltersyndrome I X0 Turner syndrome gt Sexual orientation pp 211 218 0 Biological factors know how the following factors relate to homosexuality I Genetics I Testosterone I Androgen protein antibodies I Brain structures I Preoptic area I Suprachiasmatic nucleus I Ventromedial nucleus I Anterior commissure I Third interstitial nucleus Emotion and Health gt Emotion amp the nervous system pp 226 236 0 Emotion theories know the tenets of the following theories I Jameslange theory I SchachterSinger cognitive theory 0 Biological correlates know the functions of the following brain structures I Limbic system I Anterior cingulate cortex I Hypothalamus I Septal nuclei I Amygdala I Prefrontal cortex also know how the right amp left hemispheres differ I Ventromedial cortex I Dorsolateral cortex gt Stress immunity amp health pp 236 240 0 Biological correlates know the function of the following structures amp substances I Brain structures I Hypothalamus I Adrenal gland I Pituitary gland I Hormones amp neurotransmitters I Norepinephrine I Cortisol I Epinephrine Hearing and Language gt Hearing pp 257 272 0 Structures of the ear know the function of the following structures I Pinna I Eustachian tube I Auditory canal I Semicircular canals I Tympanic membrane I C ochlea I Ossicles malleus incus amp stapes I Auditory nerve 0 Structures of the cochlea know the function of the following structures I Oval window I Organ of Corti I Round window I Tectorial membrane I Cochlear canal I Basilar membrane I Vestibular canal I Inner hair cells I Tympanic canal I Outer hair cells 0 Pitch perception know how the following theories explain pitch perception I Frequency theory also know what volleying refers to I Place theory also know what a tonotopic map refers to o Cochlear implants know how implants work amp how they relate to place theory 0 Cortical processing know the location amp function of the following regionspathways I Primary auditory cortex I Dorsal stream I Secondary auditory cortex I Ventral stream gt Language pp 272 282 0 Language disorders know the causes amp symptoms of the following disorders I Broca s expressive non uent aphasia I Wernicke s receptive uent aplmsia I Dyslexia o Hemispheric specialization know how hemisphere dominance varies with sex handedness amp brain damage Vision and Visual Perception gt Light amp the eye pp 294297 301307 0 Structures of the eye know the functions of the following structures I Conjunctiva I Pupil I Ciliary body I S clera I Cornea I Retina I Iris I Lens I Fovea 0 Cells in the retina know the location amp function of the following cells I Rods I Bipolar cells I Horizontal cells I Cones I Ganglion cells I Amacrine cells 0 Convergence amp receptive fields I Neural convergence know what this refers to how it differs for rods amp cones amp how those differences relate to the differences in sensitivity amp acuity I Centersurround receptive elds know what these fields refer to amp how the firing rate is determined by the areas of the receptive fields that are stimulated 0 Color vision theories know the tenets of the following theories of color vision I Trichromatic theory I Opponent process theory I Combined theory gt To the visual cortex amp beyond pp 298 299 308 323 0 Retinotopic map know how the visual field maps onto the primary visual cortex 0 Visual cortex cell specialization know to what stimuli the following cells respond I Simple cells I Complex cells 0 Pathways from the visual cortex know the structures along the following pathways I Dorsal stream I Ventral stream 0 Visual disorders know the causes amp symptoms of the following disorders I Object agnosia I Color agnosia I Ataxia I Prosopagnosia I Motion agnosia I Visual neglect The Body Senses and Movement gt Body senses pp 330 342 0 Touch system I Mechanoreceptors for the following know the relative size of their receptive fields the relative rate of adaptation amp to what stimuli they are most responsive I Merkel receptor I Ru ini cylinder I Meissner corpuscle I Pacinian corpuscle I Brain structures know the function of the following structures I Primary somatosensory cortex I Secondary somatosensory cortex I Specialized cells know the function of the following cells I Simple cells I Complex cells 0 Pain system I Brain structures know the function of the following structures I Somatosensory cortex I Periaqueductal gray I Anterior cingulate cortex I Pain modulation know the tenets of the following theory amp what factors cause release of endorphins in the periaqueductal gray amp subsequent pain reduction I Gate control theory gt Movement pp 342 356 0 Brain control of movement I Cortical areas know the function of the following cortical areas I Posterior parietal cortex I Supplementary motor area I Primary somatosensory cortex I Premotor cortex I Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex I Primary motor cortex I Basal ganglia know the function of the following basal ganglia I Caudate nucleus I Globus pallidus I Putamen I Cerebellum know the function of this structure 0 Movement disorders know the causes amp symptoms of the following I Parkinson s disease I Huntington s disease I Multiple sclerosis Learning and Memory gt Memory deficits pp 365 371 379 388 0 Brain structures relevant to the causes of the memory deficits identified below know the function of the following brain structures I Frontal lobe I Mammillary bodies I Temporal lobe I Basal forebrain I Hippocampus I Amygdala I Entorhinal cortex I Basal ganglia I Medial thalamus I Cerebellum 0 Memory loss know the causes amp symptoms of the following types of memory loss I Declarative memory loss I Nondeclarative memory loss I Anterograde amnesia I Emotional memory loss I Retrograde amnesia I Procedural memory loss I Conditioning memory loss 0 Memory disorders know the causes amp symptoms of the following disorders I Korsako s syndrome I Alzheimer s disease also know how the following treatments work I Acetylcholine agonists I Estrogen supplements I Glutamate antagonists I Amyloid vaccine I Antiin ammatory drugs I Nerve growth factor 0 Memory in old age know the problems encountered by the elderly amp their causes gt Brain changes in learning pp 371 378 0 Potentiation amp depression know the causes amp effects of the following processes I Longterm potentiation LTP I Associative LTP I Longterm depression LTD I Associative LTD 0 LTP mechanisms know the role of the following glutamate receptors amp proteins in learning forgetting amp relearning information I Receptors I Proteins I AMPA I Calmodulin kinase II CaMKII I NMDA I Protein kinase M zeta PKMQ I Protein phosphatase 1 PPI


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