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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

S. Friedman

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S. Friedman
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1300 at Texas State University taught by S. Friedman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/212833/psy-1300-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
V CHAPTER 7 cognition the way in which info is processed and manipulated in remembering thinking and knowing artificial intelligence focuses on creating machines capable of performing activities that require intelligence when they are done by people THINKINGthe mental process of manipulating info mentally by forming concepts solving problems making decisions and reflecting critically or creatively concept a mental category that is used to group objects events and characteristics prototype model emphasizes that when people evaluate whether a given item reflects a certain concept they compare the item with the most typical items in that category and look for a llfamily resemblance with that items properties problem solving the mental process of finding an appropriate way to attain a goal when the goal is not readily available steps find and frame problems develop good problemsolving strategies evaluate solutions rethink and redefine problems and solutions over time subgoaling involves setting intermediate goals or defining intermediate problems that put us in a better position for reaching the final goal or solution algorithms strategiesincluding formulas instructions and the testing of all possible solutions that guarantee a solution to the problem heuristics shortcut strategies or guidelines that suggest a solution to a problem but do not guarantee an answer fixation using a prior strategy and failing to look at a problem from a fresh new perspective functional fixedness failing to solve a problem as a result of fixation on a thing39s usual function reasoning the mental activity of transforming information to reach conclusions inductive reasoning reasoning from specific observations to make generalizations deductive reasoning reasoning from a general case that is known to be true to a specific instance decision making the mental activity of evaluating alternatives and choosing among them con rmation bias the tendency to search for and use info that supports our ideas rather than refutes them hindsight bias the tendency to report falsely after the fact that we accurately predicted an outcome availability heuristic a prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events base rate fallacy the tendency to ignore info about general principles in favor of very specific but vivid info representativeness heuristic the tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one39s stereotype of a group rather than on available base rate info mindfulness being alert and mentally present for ones everyday activities openmindedness being receptive to other ways of looking at things V creativity the ability to think about something in novel and unusual ways and to devise unconventional solutions to problems divergent thinking thinking that produces many solutions to the same problem convergent thinking thinking that produces the single best solution to a problem creative thinkers characteristics flexibility and playful thinking inner motivation willingness to face risk and objective evaluation of work INTELLIGENCE allpurpose ability to do well on cognitive tasks to solve problems and to learn from experience validity the extent to which a test measures what it is intended to measure reliability the extent to which a test yields a consistent reproducible measure of performance standardization involves developing uniform procedures for administering and scoring a test as well as creating norms or performing standards for the test mental age an individuals level of mental development relative to that of others alfredbinet constructed the first intelligence test intelligence quotient IQ an individual39s mental age divided by chronological aged multiplied by 100 normal distribution a symmetrical bellshaped curve with a majority of the scores falling in the middle of the possible range and few scores appearing toward the extremes of the range culturefair tes1s intelligence tests that are meant to be culturally unbiased heritability the proportion of observable differences in a group that can be explained by differences in the genes of the group39s membes gifted possessing high intelligence an IQ of 130 or higher andor superior talent in a particular area mental retardation intellectual disability a condition of limited mental ability in which an individual has a low IQ usually below 70 on a traditional intelligence test and has difficulty adapting to everyday life organicretardation is mental retardation caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage ex down syndrome IQ bw 0 and 50 culturalfamilial retardation a mental deficit with no evidence of organic brain damage IQ bw 55 and 70 emotional intelligence the ability to perceive emotions in ourselves and others accurately triarchic theory of intelligence sternberg39s theory that intelligence comes in three forms analytical creative and practical analytical intelligence the ability to analyze judge evaluate compare and contrast creative intelligence the ability to create design invent originate and imagine practical intelligence the ability to use apply implement and put ideas into practice V howardgardner suggests there are 9 types of intelligence or quotframes of mindquot verbal intelligence the ability to think in words and use language to express meaning occupations author journalist speaker mathematical intelligence the ability to carry out mathematical operations Occupations scientist engineer accountant spatial intelligence the ability to think threedimensionally occupations architect artist sailor bodilykinesthetic intelligence the ability to manipulate objects and to be physically adept occupations surgeon craftsperson dancer athlete musical intelligence the ability to be sensitive to pitch melody rhythm and tone composer musician naturalist intelligence the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand natural and humanmade systems occupations farmer botanist ecologist landscaper THE BASIC PROPERTIES OF LANGUAGE language a form of communication whether spoken written or signed that is based on a system of symbols infinite generativity the ability of language to produce an endless number of meaningful sentences phonology a language39s sound system morphology a language39s rules for words formation morpheme the smallest unit of language that carries meaning syntax a language39s rules for combining words to form acceptable phrases and sentences semantics the meaning of words and sentences in a particular language pragmatics the useful character of language and the ability of language to communicate even more meaning than is said V CHAPTER 5 TYPES OF LEARNING learning a relatively permanent change in an organism39s behavior due to experience behaviorism a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking wishing and hoping associativelearning learning that certain events occur together the events may be two stimuli as in classical conditioning or a response and its consequences as in operant conditioning observational learning a person observes and imitates another s behavior 0 the learner has to pay attention remember and reproduce what the model did V CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response 0 Baby cries at the sight of a bee stinging a flower Neutral stimulus flower becomes accociates with a meaningful stimulus pain of a bee sting and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response fear unconditionedresponse UR in classical conditioning the unlearned naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus such as salivation when food is in the mouth 0 dog sees food 9 dog salivates unconditioned stimulus US in classical conditioning a stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response 0 dog food conditioned response CR in classical conditioning the learned response to a previously neutral but now conditioned stimulus 0 Before bell rings dog food 9 dog salivates conditionedstimulus CS in classical conditioning an originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response 0 bell 0 After bell rings 9 dog salivates acquisition the initial stage in classical conditioning the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response in operant conditioning the strengthening of a reinforced response generalization 0 Classical conditioning the tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response I Before Police lights getting pulled over dread I After Police lights dread discrimination 0 Classical conditioning in classical conditioning the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus I Dog only receives food after bell rings NO OTHER SOUNDS extinction o classical conditioning the diminishing of a conditioned response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent neutral stimulus a stimulus that does not bring about a response of interest spontaneousrecovery the reappearance after a pause of an extinguished conditioned response renewal the recovery of the conditioned response when the organism is placed in a novel context counterconditioning classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response systematic desensitization a method of therapy that treats anxiety by teaching the client to associate deep relaxation with increasingly intense anxietyproducing situations aversive conditioninga form of treatment that consists of repeated pairings of a stimulus with a very unpleasant stimulus OPERANT CONDITIONING a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher o Operant emphasizes the point that an organism operates on its environment to produce desirable results Operant discrimination responding appropriately to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced Skinner Box operant chamber device used to study operant conditioning operantbehavior behavior that operates on the environment producing consequences Thorndike39slaw of effect Thorndike39s principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely shaping an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcements increase and guide behavior the closer the subject gets to completing the task of the desired behavior reinforcement in operant conditioning any event that strengthens the behavior it follows positive reinforcement increasing behaviors presented by presenting positive stimuli such as food any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens the response negative reinforcement increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli such as shock any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response primary reinforcer an innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need secondary reinforcer a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT specific patterns that determine when a behavior will be reinforced continuous reinforcement reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs partial reinforcement reinforcing a response only part of the time results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement fixedratio schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses high rate of response variableratio schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responseshigh rate of response fixedinterval schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed variableinterval schedule in operant conditioning a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals punishment an event that decreases the behavior that it follows positive punishment the presentation of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior negative punishment the removal of a positive stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior applied behavior analysis the use of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior cognitive map a mental representation of the layout of one39s environment latent learning learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it insight learning a form of problem solving in which the organism develops a sudden insight into or understanding of a problems solution instinctive drift the tendency of animals to revert to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning intrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake extrinsic motivation a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment observational learning learning by observing others modeling the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior mirror neurons frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so the brain39s mirroring of another39s action may enable imitation language learning and empathy prosocial behavior positive constructive helpful behavior the opposite of antisocial behavior preparedness the speciesspecific biological predisposition to learn in certain ways but not others memory The retention of information or experience over time as the result of three key processes encoding storage and retrieval encoding The first step in memory the process by which information gets into memory storage levels of processing A continuum of memory processing from shallow to intermediate to deep with deeper processing producing better memory elaboration The number of different connections that are made around a stimulus at a given level of memory encoding storage The retention of information overtime and how this information is represented in memory AtkinsonShiffrin theory Theory stating that memory storage involves three separate systems sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memory sensory memory Memory system that involves holding information from the world in its original sensory form for only an instant not much longerthan the brief time it is exposed to the visual auditory and other senses shortterm memory Limitedcapacity memory system in which information is usually retained for only as long as 30 seconds unless we use strategies to retain it longer working memory A threepart system that allows us to hold information temporarily as we perform cognitive tasks a kind of mental workbench on which the brain manipulates and assembles information to help us understand make decisions and solve problems longterm memory A relatively permanent type of memory that stores huge amounts of information for a long time explicit memory declarative memory The conscious recollection of information such as specific facts or events and at least in humans information that can be verbally communicated episodic memory The retention of information about the where when and what of life39s happenings that is how individuals remember life39s episodes semantic memory A person39s knowledge about the world implicit memory nondeclarative memory Memory in which behavior is affected by prior experience without a conscious recollection of that experience Priming The activation of information that people already have in storage to help them remember new information better and faster schema A preexisting mental concept or framework that helps people to organize and interpret information Schemas from prior encounters with the environment influence the way we encode make inferences about and retrieve information script A schema for an event often containing information about physical features people and typical occurrences connectionism parallel distributed processing PDP The theory that memory is stored throughout the brain in connections among neurons several of which may work together to process a single memory retrieval The memory process that occurs when information that was retained in memory comes out of storage serial position effect The tendency to recall the items at the beginning and end of a list more readily than those in the middle longterm potentiation concept states that if two neurons are activated at the same time the connection between them and thus the memory may be strengthened autobiographical memory A special form of episodic memory consisting of a person39s recollections of his or her life experiences flashbulb memory The memory of emotionally significant events that people often recall with more accuracy and vivid imagery than everyday events motivated forgetting Forgetting that occurs when something is so painful or anxiety laden that remembering it is intolerable interference theory The theory that people forget not because memories are lost from storage but because other information gets in the way of what they want to remember proactive interference Situation in which material that was learned earlier disrupts the recall of material that was learned later retroactive interference Situation in which material that was learned later disrupts the retrieval of information that was learned earlier decay theory Theory stating that when we learn something new a neurochemical memory trace forms but over time this trace disintegrates suggests that the passage of time always increases forgetting tipof thetongue TOT phenomenon A type of effortful retrieval that occurs when we are confident that we know something but cannot quite pull it out of memory retrospective memory Remembering information from the past prospective memory Remembering information about doing something in the future includes memory for intentions Amnesia The loss of memory anterograde amnesia A memory disorder that affects the retention of new information and events retrograde amnesia Memory loss for a segment of the past but not for new events Recognition tasks Eyewitness testimony in the legal system importance is placed on people being able to recount what they saw at a crime scene o 00 W Section 1 Sensation the process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy Perception the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense 39 7 taking information and trying to make sense of it ex The way you experience a song the 3934 mum you hear it Topdown processingiwe begin with some sense of what is happening and apply that framework to information from the world listening to your favorite song in your head 0 Only when we consider both what our ears hear bottomup and what the brain interprets topdown can we fully understand how we perceive sounds in the world Sensory receptors specialized cells that detect stimulus information and deliver it to sensory nerves and the brain 0 Photoreception detection of light sight 0 Mechanoreception detection of pressure vibration and movement touch hearing equilibrium 0 Chernoreception detection of chemical stimuli smell and taste Synaesthesi describes an experience in which once sense triggers an experience in another sense see music ste a color Certain areas of the cerebral cortex are specialized to handle different sensory functions 0 Hearing temporal lobes o o o touch and temperature imj ei rvr lobes threshold amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect Difference threshold the degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected Webbers m the principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different Mlirninal perception detection of information the level of conscious awareness Selective attention focusing on a one thing while ignoring all others Inattentional blindness failing to notice something because you re concentrating on something else Perceptual set a mindset to perceive something in a particular way Sensory adaptation the ability to visually adjust due to surrounding stimulation dark room Section 2 The Visual System Lim a form of electromagnetic energy that can be described in terms of wavelengths Height or amplitude determines the brightness of the stimulus o Puri of the wavelengthsiwhether they are all the same or a mix of wavesidetermines the perceived saturation ichness of a visual stimulus o Amplitude height of wavelength Sclera the white outer part of the eye that helps to maintain the shape of the eye and to protect it from injury contains muscles that control the size of the pupilgdetermines how much light is let in the colored part of the eye Cornea clear membrane just in front of the eye bends light Lens transparent and exible disklike structure netunes light Retina absorbs visuals for the brain to process lm o 126 million receptors 0 Rods sensitive to light 0 Cones Color perception QM m carries the visual information to the brain for further processing Optic chiasm the optic nerve bers divide and approx half of the nerve bers cross over the midline of the brain Visual cortex the part of the cerebral cortex involved in vision Feature detectors neurons in the brains visual system that respond to particular features of a stimulus Parallel processing simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways Binding combining multiple different observations to become a complete thought the shape of the eyes nose and mouth skin color to conclude that the person is smiling m psychology a school of thought interested in how people 391 according to certain patterns Binocular cues depth cues that depend on what the combination of the images in the left and right eyes and how they work together 0 Convergence when we use our two eyes to look at something that is near so our eyes converge o Disparity the difference between the images in the two eyes M w relying on only the image from an 1m Perceptual understanding that an object is in s39 ilor and shape no matter how far you are away from it Section 3 The Auditog System Freguen y determined by wavelength Pitch interpretation of the frequency of a sound Loudness perception of the sound wave s amplitude Timbre perpetual quality of a sound Auditog m carries neural impulses to the brains auditory areas M w the visible part of the ear and the canal m m channels the sound through the auditory receptors to the inner ear eardrum hammer anvil and stirrup easy names Inn er converts sound waves into neural impulses to send to the brain oval window cochlea and basilar membrane hard names Place theog states that each frequency produces vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane Freguency theory the perception of a sounds frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve res higherfrequency sounds cause the nerve to re more often o o 0 o 00 o 00 o 00 o 00 Section 4 The Skin Senses The skin is our largest sensory system It has 3 sensory receptors for touch temperature and aneous senses Thermoreceptors sensory nerve endings under the skin respond to changes in temperature changes at or near the skin to provide information to keep the body s temperature at 98 degrees Pain warns us of damage to our bodies Papilla contain taste buds Olfactog epithelium the lining of the roof of the nasal cavity containing receptors for smell 0 the only sense that does not pass through the thalamus Kinesthetic senses provide information about movement posture and orientation sense provides information about and movement Semicircular canals Three uid lled circular tubes in the innerear containing the sensory receptors that detect head motion cause when we tiltmove our headbody Frued Psychodynamic humanism o Believed most human behavior is caused by dark unpleasant unconscious impulses pressing for expression Willaim James Functionalism Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism Natural ow of thought father of psychology Watson amp Skinner Behavioral Charles Darwin Natural selection M Section 1 The Nervous System Central nervous system CNS made up of the brain and spinal cord Peripheral nervous system PNS the network of nerves that connects and the spinal cord to other parts of the body 0 Somatic nervous system sensory nerves whose function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS about conditions such as pain and temperature and motor nervestells muscles what to do 0 Momic nervous system delivers messages to and from the body s internal organs monitoring processes such as breathing digestion and heart rate I Sympathetic nervous system arouses the body to mobilize it for action stress I Parasympathetic nervous system calms the body stress Section 2 Neurons Neurons nerve cells that handle informationprocessing function Glial cells provide support nutritional benefits and other functions in the nervous system tree ike fibers projecting from a neuron receive information and carries it neurons cell body efferent neurons m the part of the neuron that carries information from the cell body and toward other cells Myelin sheath consisting of a layer of cells containing fat encases and insulates most axons Action potentia the brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon abides by the allornothing principle Allornothing principlei once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity called its threshold Synapse tiny spaces between neurons synaptic gap Section 3 Function ofthe brain Hindbrain cerebellum pons medulla Forebrain limbic system cerebral cortex thalamus Cerebral m where most complex mental functions such as thinking and planning take place hindbrain and midbrain structures Limbic System important in memory and emotion loosely connected network of structures under the cerebral cortex Emit lobes responds to Parietal lobes involved in registering spatial location attention and motor control topback of mammal back of head head lobes involved in in intelligence and voluntary muscles behind the forehead ral lobes involved in hearing language processing and located above ears Amygdala almond shaped structure at the base ofthe temporal lobe that determines objects that are necessary for survival food mates social rivals M special role in the 4 thalamus forebrain structure just below the thalamus that monitors the THREE 2 of memories eating drinking and sexias well as emotion stress and reward below thalamus Section 4 The Endocrine System The Endocrine System consists of a set of glands that regulate the activities of certain organs by releasing their chemical products into the bloodstream o Pituitary pancreas thyroid adrenal ovaries testes Hormones chemical messengers produced by the endocrine glands Glands organs or tissues in the body that create chemicals that control many of our bodily functions Section 5 Brain damage plasticity and repair Collateral sprouting the axons of some healthy neurons across from damaged cells grow new branches Substitution of function the damaged region is taken over by another part of the brain Neurogenesis new neurons are generated


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