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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

D. Carpenter

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D. Carpenter
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3313 at Texas State University taught by D. Carpenter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/212835/psy-3313-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Adult Development and Aging Study Guide Test 2 Chapters 4 5 and 6 Chapter 4 stressstressor refers to the responses of various biological and psycholoigcal systems to threatening events and situations 0 O eustress good stress distress bad stress homeostasis The body wants to keep homeostasis by maintaining temperature blood pressure etc allostatic load OOOOO AKA stress More demanding stuff Attempt to balance and juggle stress of everyday life Poor attempt but attempt none the less Extension of Selye s ResistanceAdaptation autonomic nervous system parts and function 0 O automatic Regulates temperature blood heartbeat and keeps homeostasis Sympathetic nervous system works with the endocrine system alerts us when we need something tuned in to whatever is going on in the present moment sympathetic to your needs Fight or flight Perisympathetic nervous system attempts to relax you helps you calm down Takes awhile quot ght or ightquot response body tells you to stay and fight the threat or run away from the threat flight Hans Selye The only relief from stress is death General adaptation syndrome 3 stages 0 Hans Selye o 3 stages 1 Alarm persons alarm goes off physical from hormones being released biological immune system kicking in 2 Resistance adaptations Selye s word 3 Exhaustion What are quotdiseases of adaptationquot o Ulcers caused by bacteria in the stomach 0 Stress suppresses the immune function allowing bacteria to eat a hole in the stomach Stress and the immune system stress hormones 0 stress weakens the immune system 0 cortisol and adrenaline are stress hormones Social Readjustment Rating Scale 0 Holmes and Rahe 1967 questionnaire for identifying major stressful life events 0 Each one of the 43 stressful life events was awarded a Life Change Unit depending on how traumatic it was felt to be by a large sample of participants Richard Lazarus 0 Cognitive psychologist 0 Stress does not lay out in the environment stressors are in the environment o Primarysecondary appraisal primarysecondary appraisal o primaryFirstinitial reaction after hearingdiscovering bad newsbad situation 0 secondaryEither become depressedstay on initial path Decide to fight empowered about situationnews try to gain control daily hassles the signi cance of how we handle them 0 Little irritations ancl annoyances that sometimes punctuate our daytoday existence 0 Good examples of a persons ability to deal with stress upli s Positive experiences that are encountered each day counterbalance daily hassles Neugarten and Neugarten social clock 0 Things that happen with the socials clock are less stressful than event that don t go along with the social clock problemfocused copingemotionfocused coping o problemfocused coping the individual continues to consider all external variables and attempts to solve the problem or handle it in the best possible manner based on the reality of the situation 0 emotion focused coping the individual looks inward and brings fourth his emotional energy and internal strategies to deal with the problem gender consistency model states that generally the caregiving role is assumed by a child of the same gender Thus most caregivers are women since most surviving elderly are women caregiver burden objectivesubjective 0 financialamp filial responsibility and protecting the autonomy rights and dignity of the individual objective refers to the actual disruption and difficulty that takes place in the life of the caregiver Examples loss of time it takes to take care of someone financial cost associated with taking care of someone subjective refers to the stress and emotional difficulty experienced by the caregiver and hisher family 0 0 Chapter 5 mental health What is it o varying degreessevere mental disorderlow functioning optimal mental health high functioning o a person who copes well and is functional and happy has good mental health DSM IV the bible for diagnosing mental disorders 0 the latest diagnostic manual for symptoms and diagnosing mental disorders monozygotic twin studies studies twins to find out the genetic inheritence of something such as a disease 0 for example when one twin gets Bipolar disorder or depression the other twin has a 76 chance of also getting it showing that bipolar disorder is highly genetic diathesisstress theory Meehl nature and nurture o diathesis genetic predisposition vulnerablity 0 stress reaction to environmental stress unipolar disorders types 0 dysthymia mild depression in order to be diagnosed must be this way for 2 years without more than 2 months of relief major depression and symptoms deep depression may have some suicidal ideation maybe suicide attempts may have psychotic episodes hallucinations delusions andor paranoid delusions hallucinations are mood congruent Not everyone gets psychotic some just get very deeply depressed and become stuporous non responsive Comes in cycles unlike dysthymsia O bipolar disorders types 0 cyclothymia mild bipolar disorder Includes hypomaniamild elevated mood cycles w mild depression sometimes more than mild o bipolar disorder and symptoms 2 types type 1 includes mania no impulse control too high to be functional May become psychotic it is mood congruent and grandiose type 2 hypomania and major depression genetic predisposition of bipolar disorder bipolar is highly geneticinherited age of onset of bipolar disorders 1725 medication treatment of unipolar and bipolar disorders 0 bipolar disorder is hard to treat Patients dislike medication because it takes away the high of mania Lithium antimanic mood stabalizer has a lot of bad side effects weight gain cotton mouth stomach problems etc and people don t like to take it anti depressants helps depression but may trigger mania Anti convulsant pills to limit involvement of brain to protect the body from having seizures 0 O O biggest problem in treating bipolar disorder 0 It s hard to convince patients to take their medication because it mellows them out and takes away their high anti manic 0 Patients often throw away their medication psychosis accompanying mania and depression 0 mood congruent psychotic episodes 0 depression suicidal tendencies stupor hallucinations delusions etc o mania grandiose delusions complications of accurate diagnosis of depression in the elderly 0 depression is not a normal or necessary part of aging They may assume you have good reason to be down or that depression is just part of aging They may be isolated which in itself can lead to depression with few around to notice your distress they may not realize that your physical complaints are signs of depression they may be reluctant to talk about your feelings or ask for help risk factors for depression in the elderly 0 widowhood physical problems and alcohol abuse substance related disorders abuse vs dependency o abuse over use not taking correctly binging o dependency tolerance withdrawal obsession about obtainingusing drug alcohol dependence and withdrawal insidious as in a person could use alcohol and may not have a problem is the person using when they are unhappy using to feel numb using to deal with difficulties if yes its probably a problem for it to be a dependence it must be apart of hisher life for a long time o Delerium tremens part of withdrawal as well as sweats nausea etc 0 O O Delerium tremens DT39s part of withdrawal of everything but opiates disoriented delrius convulsions 0 Could die from withdrawals the central nervous system shuts down 0 Delirious can t talk convulsions Barbiturates valium Xanax relief from anxiety and very addictive Benzodiazepines downers people CAN die from withdrawals from barbituates and benzodiazepines minor tranquilizers Steps in treatment of drug dependence detoxification maintenance drugs used in treatment of alcohol dependence What is alcoholics anonymous step 1detoxification step 2 maintenance without the drug antabuse after taking this pill if you drink alcohol you become sick trexan naltrexone blocks opioid receptors in the brain used with alcoholics to curb cravings 0 000 Chapter 6 Best predictor of adjusting to aging o staying active and exercising environ mental design way of finding such as exit signs or color coding How a place is set up built Is it easy to maneuver around or is the design a mess Environmental design factors of nursing homes hospitals 0 need to have a good way of finding so patients with for example Alzheimer s may remember their way around better 0 need structured walking environments such as outdoor areas and pathways as well as indoor walkways o privacy room set up beds bathrooms etc set up in a way that allows privacy types and bene ts of exercise in the aging process 0 strength exercise helps build muscles back up if on suffers from sarcopenia sp muscleatropy or shrinking of the muscles cancer one of the top 3 killers in the US 0 major types carcinoma cancer in the skin or organs may kill you but doesnt spread very fast Usually on the face and treatable sarcomas cancer in the muscles and connective tissues lymphomas in the lymph system your immune system ex Hodgkin s disease Colon cancer common in men and women most readily avoidable cancer a colonoscopy can detect it Prostate cancer most common cancer in men treat with female hormones if it has spread if not radiation or surgery to have it removed PSA Prostate Specific Antigen blood test done to check for prostate cancer Breast Cancer most common cancer in women 0 frequency of occurance of most common types colon cancer estimated new cases 101340 estimated deaths 49380 breast cancer estimated new cases232620 estimated deaths39970 men2140women230480 prostate cancer estimated new cases240890 estimated deaths33720 lymphoma estimated new cases75190 deaths20620 0 risk factors poor diet high fat obesity no exercise smoking drinking obesity and health risks 0 cancer likes fat poor diet and poor exercise is a risk heart disease 0 congestive heart failure heart unable to meet demands of body in terms of blood flow 0 myocardial infarction heart attack vessel narrows blood doesnt get through or a blood clot plaque builds up and blocks blood starves the heart of blood 0 atherosclerosisHardening of the arteries is a common disorder It occurs when fat cholesterol and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques Type A and B personality types valid What do we know about them 0 type A is the hard worker always going type whereas type B would be the opposite o if a person is Type A and hostile they are more at risk for heart disease The USDA Food Guide what should we eat the most of The least 0 The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describe a healthy diet as one that Emphasizes fruits vegetables whole grains and fatfree or lowfat milk and milk products Includes lean meats poultry fish beans eggs and nuts and Is low in saturated fats trans fats cholesterol salt sodium and added sugars strength training helps build muscles back up when we age our muscles shrink o vestibular sense is also helped by strength training the liquid in your ears that help maintain balance exibility range of motion 0 The bone structure of a particular joint places very noticeable limits on flexibility This is a common way in which age can be a factor limiting flexibility since older joints tend not to be as healthy as younger ones 0 In general the older you are the longer it will take to develop the desired level of flexibility sarcopenia 0 One of the most predictable consequences of aging o Atrophy of skeletal muscle mass balance and stability Kinesthetic and vestibular senses o Vestibular sense keeps you balanced helps you catch yourself when you fall 0 Kinesthetic sense ability to know where hisher body arts are as he or she moves though space EX being able to touch your nose with your eyes closed consequences of falls could put an elderly person in hospital wheelchair and they may never fully recover 0 broken bones concussions bruises etc


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