New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

H. Ginsburg

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

H. Ginsburg
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Psychlogy

This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 4391 at Texas State University taught by H. Ginsburg in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/212836/psy-4391-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

Similar to PSY 4391 at Texas State


Reviews for HISTORY & THEORY (WI)


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/15
4391 EXAM 2 POSSIBLE EXAM QUESTIONS 4 EARLY SCHOOLS 1 For the early psychology schools of Structuralism Functionalism and Gestalt be able to describe a Basic assumptions b Primary methodology c Problemscritique d Lasting contributions A Functionalism The Adaptation Model 1 Darwin s theory a Describe the ideas and events that shaped Darwin s theory from Lamarck through arti cial selectionpigeon breeding SEE TRACS RESOURCE DOCUMENT and text John Baptiste Lamark 17441829 75 years before Darwin Theory of Acquired characteristics eX Giraffes necks stretching Got only 12 the theory right because acquired characteristics are not passed on But his theory had a major impact on Darwin Cuvier 17921832 makes lSt discovery of dinosaur Simple argument can tell how closely related species are by studying their bones Continuity of species Lyell 17971875 founder of modern geology Realizes that the Earth s features are formed gradually over time eX Grand Canyon limestone mountains in Texas are both indicators of water At this time this was a novel idea people thought the earth didn t change that much Strata of the earth shows evolution of species over time species appear disappear and morph Mathus 17661834 economist wrote On Population As long as there are more resources than population the population will rise exponentially when resources run out population drops and resources get replenished PopulationResources battle in an endless cycle Mathus was talking about humans but his theory in uenced Darwin because it can be applied to all species Wallace 1857 is a naturalist similar to Darwin Sends Darwin a 3 page letter with same idea of natural selection forced Darwin to publish his theory even though he felt the fossil record did not support it at that time Pigeon Breeders Society Darwin becomes a member in the 1830 s working with the pigeons and seeing the drastic changes after about only 6 years of artificial breeding leads him to the idea of evolutionary changes occurring natural in species Captain Fitzroy Was the captain of the Beagle When Darwin failed to note where his fossils came from Fitzroy gave Darwin his collection which he had noted where he found them all at and thus saving Darwin s theory b Explain the basic assumptions ofDarWin39s theory of speciation by natural selection Darwin s theory proposed that individual members of every species vary from each other that some variations are more favorable in the struggle for eXistence than others enabling the organism to adapt to the environment and that nature selects natural selection those with the most favorable variations for survival Over time species change as a function of differential rates of reproduction Differential reproduction is an outcome of l Mutation 2 Natural selection surviving environment and 3 Mate selection reproductive fitness Since 1859 Darwin s theory has been modified in two major ways 1 Natural cataclysms can produce relatively rapid species change and 2 Survival of the fittest occurs at the level of genes in a population not always the individual survival of the fittest c What was so important about the concluding paragraphs of quotOrigin of Species and how this is one element separating his science theory from scienti c creationism Darwin ended his book by saying that he presented all the evidence that could be presented for that time period but admitted the fossil record was incomplete and that he could be wrong By saying this Darwin made his theory falsifiable and a scientific theory This is different from creationism because scientific creationism is not falsifiable and therefore not a scientific theory d Contrast the differences between Darwin s Tree of Life metaphor and Aristotle s and the 3 monotheist religions Scala N aturae Pyramid of Life Darwin s metaphor Tree of Life shows life beginning with simple organisms at the base of the tree it represents all life forms changing and morphing slowly over time including humans Humans are only one species among other species and as we have evolved into existence we will go out of eXistence This contrasts Aristotle s Scala Naturae Pyramid of Life metaphor in which humans are viewed as the pinnacle of the universe lnanimates are at the bottom and all other life forms are just steps on the way up to humans e How is Darwin s Tree of Life metaphor related to What is referred to as the Copernican Revolution Human s place in Nature Humans havehad the assumption that we are the center of the universe That we were created in God s image and we never change Copernicus idea of the universe is very different that earth is not the center and the rest of the universe does not revolve around it but that earth is merely a part of a bigger network and that other planets have moons orbiting them and that the earth in fact is orbiting the sun After the Copernican revolution thought was that humans were still special bc we were created in the image of God however Darwin s theory describes humans as being part of the f Describe Darwin s evidence supporting his theory SEE TRACS I Embryological Development and Vestigal morphology Darwin considered this his strongest evidence in the mid1800 s this was based on Ernst Haeckel s theory that embryonal development of an individual organism followed the same path as the evolutionary history of its species its phylogeny In huma development we see evidence of lower life forms Examples fish gill slits in the early human embryo H Fossil Record founder of modern geology Lyell showed that the fossils in the Earth s strata did not appear all at one as unchanging forms as written in the Bible but that fossils appeared in layers coming into existence at different geologic times and most becoming extinct and disappearing This was Darwin s strongest fossil evidence in 1859 The best evidence Archeopteryx evidence of transitional forms was found 2 years after the book Origin of Species was published in 1861 III Behaviors Darwin looks at behaviors in humans and nonhuman primates Human infants show the same patterns of genetically determined behaviors as closely related nonhuman primates Humans have more expressive behaviors in common with chimps than other species Darwin considered human speciesspecific behaviors as distinct but having evolved from ancestral primate forms IV DNA not around in Darwin s time Modern science s DNA sequencing is evidence for Darwin s theory Unlocks the age of modem human form to be about 50000 years old Also humans with the exception of Africans from Africa have up to 4 Neanderthal DNA 2 Describe the work of George Romannes and his Search for llind w Darwin Romannes was focused primarily on the mind amp mental evolution He provided extensive descriptions of the behavior of many species He relied on anecdotal observations and was too anthropomorphic in his interpretations of the behaviors he described His was of thinking was more in line with the pyramid of life and not the tree of life Describe the work of J acgue Loeb Contrast the two approaches to the study of animal learning capacities Loeb also studied animals but focused more on their behaviors vs their minds Loeb s approach Theory of Animal Tropism Loeb manipulated the behaviors of primitive organisms without brains by using stimulus control He believed neither animals nor humans have free will but are only reacting to stimulus How did these approaches in uence 20th century American Psychology These approaches lead to comparative psychology the study of the similarities and differences among species and Cognitive Psychology What is Morgan s Canon and how would it apply to the two approaches Morgan s Canon says that 1 Do not anthropomorphize and 2 Always try to explain things at the simplest level unless that level does not explain For example some behaviors of animals are more parsimoniously explained as being examples of trialanderror leaming than rational thought 3 What is social Darwinism Contrast it with the Social Engineering view of John Dewey Social Darwinism is the viewpoint that natural selection that Darwin s theory works in social situations It s the belief in a Laisse Faire Hand s off approach to government involvement that things will fall into place good companies will win and bad companies will go under John Dewey was a socialist his Social Engineering View was the belief that government should act on behalf of the public He also firmly believed that psychologist not politicians should be writing policy These two viewpoints form the current Right amp Left views on government 4 How was American Functional Psychology an outgrowth of the James philosophy of Pragmatism and Darwin s theory of natural selection by adaptation Names James Dewey Baldwin Munsterberg Thorndike 3 women pioneers Calkins Ladd Hollingsworth 5 A central problem of 20th century American psychology was what How do these issues exemplify this debate It is the extent to which you can treat humans as predictable machines OR do you buy into the idea of Free Will Determinism mechanistic psychology vs Free Will humanistic psychology a What was the automatic sweetheart debate Singer vs James and how does it exemplify what will become the central problem of 20th century American psychology In the Automatic sweetheart debate James poses the question whether anyone could consider a soulless automatic sweetheart e g robot to be the equal of a spiritually animated human sweetheart James argues no bc a person needs to believe that any expression of love received from a sweetheart was the result of the manifestation of an underlying human consciousness In contrast proponents of mechanism argue if an automatic sweetheart behaved like a real human then one would treat it like a real human sweetheart It is related to the central problem of the 20th century Free Will vs Determinism Humanistic psychologists value the subjective inner world of consciousness arguing that free will in people may limit psychology s ability to predict behavior In contrast mechanistic psychologists endow humans with machinelike qualities emphasizing determinism and argue for an objective scienti c psychology that can predict lawful human behavior b Explain the motor theory of consciousness and how if being a mere simulacrum matters not is related to the next great centrist phase of American psychology Behaviorism Motor theory of consciousness The brain is nothing more than a relay station between stimulus amp response does not process just routes stimulus to response Actions come before thought based on actions you make up what you are thinking JamesLan e theory of emotions behavior occurs 1 which leads to emotion 2n Example you feel afraid because you are running away Interesting theory but wrong c Explain Dewey s re ex arc and its significance Dating from Bell and Magendie s separation of the re ex into separate sensory and motor pathways physiologist thought of the re ex arc in terms of thress separate elementary components the stimulus producing sensation central processing producing an idea and the act or motor response Dewey believed that dividing the re ex into these elements was artificial however resulting in a re ex concept that was not a comprehensive or organic unity but a patchwork of disjointed parts i W Also it is more like a continuous circuit than an arc The origins of functionalism are often traced to the aper on the re exive arc b John Dewe 39 d Why do I describe Thomdike as the bridge between functionalism and what was to come the dominant school of Behaviorism Hint What made his approach so different from most others in the functional school 6 William James created the twoheaded dog of modern American psychology eg modern national professional organizations re ect this APA American Psychological Association compared to APS American Psychological Society Explain this metaphor and how James helped create the metaphor s meaning The two heads of the dog are 1 Science and 2 Phenomenology Under Science psychology should be treated like a natural science and applied science observe describe and predict Under Phenomenology psychology is thought to be a more subjective experience and represent the experience of individuals James thought of modern American psychology as a two headed dog because even though he felt that the emphasis should be on the individual experience he knew that it should be based on science and also felt it needed to be scientific to move ahead 7 What is teleology In Principles ofPsychology James admits that teleology is a fundamental part of his scheme What is the modern science critique of teleology Teleology the belief in a preordained plan Religion amp developmental psychology erikson s stages are teleological 8 What was the single greatest difference between US amp German psychology at the turn of the last century Describe the emergence of applied practical psychology use and illustrate the advent of mental testing the intelligence men and the industrial men as examples IQ Names Galton Binet Simon Stern Goddard Yerkes Hollingsworth 9 Another aspect ofthe functional approach was psychology in the workplace and everyday life How did these psychologists pioneer these endeavors Scott Munsterberg amp Gilbreth Hugo Munsterberg 18631916 Author of Efficiency in the Work Place topics included ways to increase productivity through motivation amp social interaction Personal selection through use of psychological testing and also ManagementEmployee relations Munsterberg also was the author of on the Witness Stand introducing forensic psychology In this book he focused mostly on eyewitness testimony and its reliability He was an advocate for the use of fingerprint evidence and wrote about voire dire jury selection B Structuralism 1 How did Titchener s American Psychology that he called Structuralism differ from Wundt s assumption about mental elements eg the fundamental element of perception mental imagery 2 How did Titchener s Introspection Method clearly differ from Wundt s Titchener expanded the scope of Wundt s method from reaction times to physical stimuli to also include extensive self reports about the qualities of the sequence of mental events and word associations Wundt desired his participants to use as little language as possible Titchener incorporated word associations into his introspection research 3 Names TITCHENER KULPE EBBINGHAUS amp HALL 4 What was the imageless thought controversy and the intemal and external issues surrounding the problem that led to the demise of Structuralism TitchenerKulpe debate James amp Baldwin s critiques C Gestalt 1 What philosopher guided the Gestalt movement How 2 Names Machvon Ehrenfels Wertheimer Kohler Ko lta Lewin Zeigarnik 3 Describe 3 major Gestalt Principles of Perceptual Organization D Behaviorism See PART II Questions for exam 2


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.