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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

A. Meeks

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A. Meeks
Class Notes
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This 51 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 3300 at Texas State University taught by A. Meeks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see /class/212839/psy-3300-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
CHAPTER 17 EARLY ADULTHOOD BIOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT Chapter 17 Chapter Contents I Growth Strength and Health Emotional Problems in Early Adulthood This time is considered the grime of life in regards to health Many body systems begin to decline in the 20 s but go unnoticed due to organ and muscle reserve Chapter 17 Two body systems which can remain at relatively high levels are 1 athletic performance 2 sexual reproduction The first depends on the person s lifestyle and the second depends on their age Age is the maior factor of sexual responsiveness in men Chapter 17 Early adulthood is more likely to see the development of 1 eating disorders 2 drug abuse 3 psychopathology 4 violence than at any other time of life because of a change or shift in roles Chapter 17 Full height in females is reached at 16 and in males full height at 18 Both males and females continue to accumulate fat and have muscle growth into their 20 s Men are typically stronger due to more muscle mass Physical strength peaks about age Q for both Chapter 17 Early adulthood is optimum functioning time for 1 digestive system 2 respiratory system 3 circulatory system 4 sexual reproductive system Doctor visits usually for m not diseases m is only 1 in 10000 for death at this age Violence is leading cause of death for men Chapter 17 Senescence is age related thsical decline Factors which affect rate of senescence are a genes b environment C personalchoices First noticeable signs of aging are seen in the skin during the Q Chapter 17 Hair begins to grey around age Body systems decline at different rates kidneys at 5 per decade lungs at 5 per decade Every body systems declines Senses also affected nearsightedness increases starting in amp Hearing loss noticeable in People in lower SES decline more quickly Chapter 17 Adult females are healthier have fewer fatal diseases Women live on average 5 years longer than men Two disadvantages of being female 1 undernourished 2 reproductive system problems Chapter 17 3 Theories as to why more elderly women 1 Biological women need to survive to reproduce and care for their young 2 Cognitive men take more risks than women 3 Psychosocial marriage engage in family life and friends more likely to participate in health seeking activities Chapter 17 Homeostasis the adjustments ofthe body s systems to keep the physiological functions in a state of equilibrium balance The older you get the harder it is to recover from physical stress Chapter 17 Set Point homeostaticbalance point for weight Organ Reserve extra capacity each organ has for responding to stressful events Muscle Capacity declines at age 40 but change is gradual and everyday life is not effected Chapter 17 Heart Rate Maximum heart rate declines with age Resting heart rate remains stable Sports those require strength and large motor skills peak earlier than those requiring fine motor skills Example Football vs Golf Chapter 17 Sexual activity sequence is similar for males and females Arousal Peak excitement orgasm refraction and recovery Males need more time and more effort at each stage as they age Chapter 17 Changes in women not as clear Women are more likely to experience orgasm as they age Why 1 stimulation is prolonged bc man takes longer as he gets older too 2 experience helps menwomen know what to focus on 3 culture when young they are judged for being too sexual 4 women feels more free less likely to get pregnant Chapter 17 0 Many women can still have a child as late as 50 and men can father a child into late aduhhood Infertility of US couples are infertile 0 Men s sperm affected by a aging b of sperm decreases c shape changes motility is slower Chapter 17 0 Men 40 years and over take 3 times as long to conceive as men under 40 Infertility in Women for various reasons a overweight or underweight b failure to ovulate c age related Pelvic Inflamatory Disease blocked fallopian tubes More sexually active more likely to get an STI Chapter 17 Assisted Reproductive Technology ART helps couples conceive In Vitro Fertilization IVF conception in petri dish and inserted into the uterus Emotional Problems in Early Adulthood Generally healthy yet do have some problems Females diet eating disorders Males violence Chapter 17 Body M355 IHdEX asses whether someone is too thin or fat body weight divided by height Females and BMI believe they need to lose 8 pounds Males and BMI want to gain 5 pounds Anorexia Nervosa eat too little calories Bulimia Nervosa eat too much and then pruge Chapter 17 Anorexia diagnosed by four symptoms a refusal to maintain body weight b intense fear of gaining weight C disturbed body perception d lack of menstruation Anorexia was rare before 1950 so thought of as a disease of the social context Chapter 17 Bulimia Nervosa can damage the gastrointestinal system and cause cardiac arrest Five theories explain eating disorders Psychoa na IthCI an eating disorder represents a conflict with the mother who gave them their first nourishment Chapter 17 Behaviorism disorder sets up a stimulus response chain where selfstarvation relieves emotional stress and tension Cognitive Th 90 ry due to women trying to enter the workplace and project a strong selfcontrolled masculine image Sociocultural cultural pressures to be very thin Epigenetic because eating disorders lead to stop of menstruation and decrease sex hormones prone to addiction and depression some may use eating disorders to escape pressure of getting married and having kids Chapter 17 Drug Abuse using a drug in a way that is harmful to individuals physical cognitive or psychological well being Drug Addiction need for more and more of a drug Abuse and Addiction withdrawal indicates someoneis addicted both are prevalent in early adult hood more men are affected by drugs Chapter 17 People who misuse drugs have a attraction to excitement low tolerance forfrustration C vulnerable to depression Reasons young people misuse drugs social settings encourage drug use many pressures finish school family establish career 3 young adults are least likely to have regular medical advice be married or have religious evolvement Chapter 17 Young Adult Users are more likely to a avoid fail or drop out of college lose or quit jobs C be employed below their potential be involved in uncommitted sexual relationships e die violently have eating disorders Chapter 17 Depression is leading cause of impairment and early death Major depression causes a more activity in right prefrontal cortex of the brain more activity in emotional part of the amygdala Schizophrenia a bizarre thoughts hallucinations C dillusions Chapter 17 Schizophrenia usually caused by genes and severe earlv trauma Violence Who dies more this way m Why Maybe because higher levels of testosterone testosterone is correlated with impulsivity and danger 3 because of the way men are socialized Chapter 17 Aggression might be the result of high selfesteem and unmet exgectations Could be worsened with a alcohol weapons C lack of self restraint EPILOGUE DEATH AND DYING EpHogue Thanatology the study of death and dying Epilogue Outline I Death and Hope Dying and Acceptance Bereavement EpHogue I Death and Hope In today s world a happens at later age b takes longer to occure c occur more often in hostpitals Major causes of death a infectious diseases used to b chronic illnesses cancer etc EpHogue Children as young as two Have some understanding of death Children s fear of death is Loss of companionship w loved ones So telling children They re asleep in heaven doesn t help EpHogue Adolescents and young adults Romanticize death may lead to homicides suicides accidents etc Adults alter their thinking of death Once they become responsible for work They now want to Avoid postpone death In late adulthood Anxiety about death decreases Epiogue Some see accepting death as Good mental health Culture and historical contexts Influence our views 0 African and Asian religions Adults take on new important roles EpHogue 0 Muslim religion Death affirms faith in Allah Carrying for the dying is seen as an important task Buddhists Disease death is all part of life s inevitable sufferings 0 Native Americans Affirmation of nature and community EpHogue Hindus Immediate family must help dying relinquish ties w this world and prepare for the next Jewish No emphasis on death bc hope for life is never extinguished Christianity seen as beginning of eternity in heaven hell ppl react according EpHogue Belief in life after death is Directly related to how close one is to death Thus Neardeath Experience a reported by those who survive an illness Injury b often report leaving their bodies c often have religious elements EpHogue ll Dying and Acceptance A good death is a swift b painless c dignified d occurs at home surrounded by friends This good death is Difficult to achieve due to modern medicine EpHogue Elizabeth KublerRoss believes the dying go through 5 stages 1 denial 2anger 3 bargaining 4 depression 5 acceptance EpHogue Others disagree with KublerRoss a don t progress in same order bc say denial anger depress keep reappearing in death process EpHogue Hospice 1 alternative to hospital care 2 seeks to minimize suffering 3 make last days be filled w love and meaning EpHogue Hospice continued 4 first opened in London in 50 s by woman Cecily Sanders provide skilled medical care 5 do not do death defying procedures 6 respects patient s dignity 7 now accept adults and children EpHogue Palliative Care iscare to relieve pain and suffering not to treat an illness Double Effect happens when medicine for pain may relieve pain but also hasten death and two things occurmedicine for pain hasten death EpHogue Now they are more likely to give medicine for pain becausepain will destroy vitality for life quicker than the disease Passive Euthanasia allowing person to die naturally DNR do not resuscitate EpHogue Active Euthanasia some one acts intentionally to end someone39s life who is suffering Illegal most places Physician Assisted Suicide someone provides means for person to end their life legal in Oregon since 1994 EpHogue 0 Living Will indicates what medical intervention person wants or doesn t want 0 Health Care Proxy someone is designated to make decisions for a person who is unable to do so for themselves EpHogue Ill Bereavement Bereavement isa sense of loss following a death Grief isindividuals emotional response to this sense of loss Personal powerful emotion Mourning isceremonies and behaviors that a religion or culture prescribes for bereaved people More public and ritualistic EpHogue Grief Work a people tendency to search for meaning in death b experience and express strong emotions c allows them to move towards wholeness Recently mourning has become a more private b less emotional c less religious EpHogue 0 Now havesmaler funerals and cremations 0 This shift to less public grief and less use of rituals may cause absent grief 0 Absent Grief when someone is not allowed to or expected to mourn EpHogue Incomplete Grief when circumstances interfere with grief process such as autopsy press reports police investigation 0 Disenfranchised Grief when certain people are not allowed to mourn publicly ex spouses unmarried partner EpHogue Due to these new trendssocia isolation for grieving is increases as well as physical illness Bereaved people needsocia support includes someone who can listen sympathizes and can help with complex emotions of grief These emotions may bepowerful complicated and unexpected but are necessary to heal


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