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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

A. Meeks

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A. Meeks
Class Notes
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This 79 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2311 at Texas State University taught by A. Meeks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/212840/psy-2311-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.




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Date Created: 09/23/15
CHAPTER 3 SEX RESEARCH Chapter 3 Chapter Overview Issues in Sex Research Major Sex Surveys Direct Observation IV ParticipantObserver Chapter 3 Issues in Sex Research a Sampling b Reliability of SelfReports c Interviews vs Questionnaires d Webbased Surveys e SelfReport vs Direct Observation f Extraneous Factors 9 Ethical Issues h Political Issues Chapter 3 a Sampling why is it important Population Sample Nonresponsive Volunteer bias Chapter 3 b Reliability of SelfReports may or may not tell you the truth by 1 2 3 c Interviews vs Questionnaires cost vs information gathered Chapter 3 d Webbased Surveys larger and broader samples taboo behavior still rely on selfreport can eliminate other influences such as age race gender of interviewer Chapter 3 e SelfReport vs Direct Observation Advantages and Disadvantages of each f Extraneous Factors age gender wording Chapter 3 h Political Issues opposition from political groups based on values religion use of tax money Chapter 3 9 Ethical Issues Informed consent to participate Minimize harm or stress Chapter 3 Major Sex Surveys A Alfred Kinsey Report 1938 to 1949 Male report in 1948 female report in 1953 Sample was large but not random How gathered information He advertised in newspapers in metropolitan cities White young educated city dwelling people Types Of QueStionS All face to face interviews Not the most credible information Not completely honest Leading questions how many times a week do you have sexquot Assumptions built into the questions Who was inCIUded Sought out people with unsual sexual behavior Chapter 3 B NHSLS National Health and Social Life Survey Year 1994 wanted to see national norms excluded 3 of US population much more represented excluded those in institutions used interviews lack of funding kept numbers small 3432 Chapter 3 Magazine Surveys Magazines are very subjective to their audience so when they print results they must note that Large but not representative Who buysreads magazine Age of person Sex Ethnicity Education Income Type of work Chapter 3 Surveys with Special Populations Coxon s research male homosexuals in Wales and England males who have sex with males used snowballing technique started with a few who asked their friends who asked their friendsetc gave diaries to record information How when where with Chapter 3 Direct Observation Masters and Johnsons research 1954 studied physiological responses to sex used paid volunteers 694 total married and single Not necessarily sex with spouce age range from 18 to 89 assumed response is same in all people Chapter 3 IV ParticipantObserver Studies when the researcher becomes part of the community being studied anthropologists use same format Two wellknown studies Laud Humphrey s Tearoom Trade Charles Moser s study of sadomasochism Chapter 3 Laud Humphrey s TEAROOM TRADE impersonal sex between men in public places A participant observer study Role Of Humphreypublic restroom public park He worked as the look out How did he follow up with these men He would take the licence plate number and go to their homes and ask questions for a different study He went back compiled all these things and published a book ViOIationS Never shared the names with anyone but it would have never happened in todays APA Much information at a high cost Chapter 3 Found that many men who do this are also 1 Heterosexual Bisexual 2 Married 3 High powered 4 Influential in the community Maintained anonymity of the participants In his report Chapter 3 Charles Moser S and M Behavior 1998 Moser attended over 200 S M parties Internet invites or wordofmouth Parties may have a theme women only male dom fem submissive or vice versa Rented space or in a home Set of rules for each party who can talk whom who can touch whomever ensure safety of all participants No intoxication allowed Orgasm is not the goal all about playing out these roles Chapter 3 Safety is a priority Activity is sexual but pleasure is from roles Did not have informed consent Moser believed consent was not necessary Moser did not publish identifying information Chapter 2 Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Chapter 2 Chapter Overview I Evolutionary Perspectives a Sociobiology b Evolutionary II Psychological Perspectives a Psychoanalytic b Learning c Social Exchange d Cognitive III Sociological Perspectives a Religion b Economy c Family d Medicine e Law 1 Reiss theory Chapter 2 I Evolutionary Perspectives A SOCiObiOlogy applying the principles of evolutionary biology to the social behavior of animals including humans We all behave in ways so our genes will stay alive Attractiveness and why it matters Sexual Selection and how it happens Com petition one gender competing for the attraction and attention of members of the other gender Increases survival value Looks Money Emotional and Physical Sexual Biology is focused on several things 1 Attraction plays a major role 2Attractiveness is an Indicator of health 3Health focuses on whether of not they are a viable partner to keep the genetics alive preferential treatment favoritism through accepting offers sexual advances spend more time on that one male 0 B Evolutionary uses principles of evolution to view psychological traits of Sexual Strategies Psychological Traits David Buss UTA says that traits last or dont With short term vs long term goals Search for characteristics by looking at the longevity of the goal Shortterm vs Longterm relationships Short term Females what immediate resources like food and drink Long term The males willingness to provide such resorces Desire Willingness Males want a sexually avaliable female in the short term Long term they want a female who has more education honest and stable Chapter 2 Males vs Females Changing Standards in Males vs Females Men are much more drastic when changing between short term and long term goals Chapter 2 ll Psychological Theories A Psychoanalytic created by S Freud Labido our sexual energy Id The id is the pleasure principle It wants what it wants when it wants it Ego Driven by the reality principle Strives to keep the Id and Superego in balance SU perego Based on our ideals Perfect scenerio Our highest attainable match Fa nta CY Freud s Psychosexual stages Oral birth1 yr Focused around the mouth Everything the baby encounters they want to put in their mouth Anal 2nd3rd begin to have interested in potty training Control bowls and bladder Phallic3yr5yr odepus complex Children become jealous of their same gender parent The boys seceretly want to be with their mother Neofreudians Electra complex Jealous of males with penis Latency5 391112 sexual desires and fantacies become dormant GenitalAdolDeath Males and females are awakening to the fact that they are maturing sexually Able to get fixated in any of these stages Can present themselves in later stages Vaginal vs Clitoral Orgasm Women who were able to have a Vaginal orgasm it meant they were the most mature Clitoral orgasms means that it was more immature That the male should create the orgasm through intercourse Orgasms can vary in intensity but the way it is achieved does not make a difference Chapter 2 B Learning theory of sexual behavior Classical conditioning when two events become associated together Pavlov dog salivation Opera nt conditioning BF Skinner reward and punishment If a behavior was rewarded it would be repeated If it was punished it would not be Sex can be the reinforcer to a behavior Social learning Learned socially watch and immitate A Bandura Bobo Doll aggression Chapter 2 C Social Exchange Hedonistic Ia person Whose life is devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and selfgrati cation seek to increase rewards and decrease costs Seek out and stay in a relationship which has high rewards and low cost D Cognitive gender schema theory 805 and 90s psych started to look at how people perceived their relations How its interpreted We have a mental frame work for males and females and we process information based on gender Ill Sociological Perspectives Different aspects of society effect sexuality 3 Assumptions Every society regulates the sexuality of its members Basic institutions of society affect the rules which govern sexuality ofthose members Gender matters Chapter 2 III Sociological Perspectives A Religion 1 Obstaining from sex can be virtuous 2 Sex is ok if it is for procreating Procreational Ideoloqv 3 Because they think sex is for procreating they think marriage and sex should only be between a man and a woman because they are the ones who can produce a child B Economy Industrial revolution has change how people talk about sex When everything was home focused word between towns got around much quicker as people left their homestead they were able to have sex with people without word spreading C Family became less important as work got further and further from home Relational Ideoloqv If you have love and in a relationship Then its ok to have sex Not necessarily had to be married D Medicine Masterbation was thought to be bad for younow it may even be prescribed to you to help with sexual frustration Theraputic Ideology Some sexual acts can be theraputic E Law 1tels us whats right and wrong LegalIllegal Telling us the norms 2 The law is the way of social control 3 reflection of the group in charge of that society Sexual Scripts What order things will happen in Meet 9 Visit 9 Date 1 9 Kiss 9 Date 2 9 Sex Talk Sexual History 9 Fondle Chest 9 Date 3 9 Genitals 9 Oral Sex 9 Date 4 9 Sexual Intercourse 9 Date 9 I love you 9 Meet Family 9 Engaged 9 Marry Guys ideas about the sexual script are more more quotstraight to the deedquot than womens Idea There should be more types of sex quotRecreational Sexquot and quotMaking Lovequot Communication is a large part of relations and sexual histories Why Sex Matters Ira Reiss There is great physical pleasure in sexual activity Great personal disclosure People dont reveal themselves unless they suspect they will be accepted Chapter 2 F Ira Reiss theory linking society and sexuality Kinship system helps regulate our sexual behavior Jealousy and marriage is universal Dont want to share Even poligamy has a share schedule Power structure Influence our sexual society Members who have the most power hold the most controls oversex Ideology Of society what they define as normal and abnormal gives us an idea about what we are going to do and should do CHAPTER 1 SEXUALITY IIN PERSPECTIIVE CHAPTER 1 Chapter Overview I Sex and Gender II History of Understanding Sexuality I Media IV Cross Cultural Perspectives V Cross Species Perspectives IV Sexual Health Perspective Chapter 1 I Sex and Gender Why Study Sex 1Curiosity 2 Practical reasons 3Avoid problems or remedy problems Sex Sexual anatory of a person and behavior that leads to orgasm Gender the state of being male or female Chapter 1 History of understanding Sexuality Religion Page 3 1 Greeks openly acknowledged their hetero and homo sexuality They thought the people started as two parts and were divided by the gods left to search for their other half for rest of time 2 15th Century Christians Noctornal emissions AKA quotwet dreamsquot were from spiritual creatures incubiquot m and succubi f and the recipient was pinned for sodomy or witchcraft Both sins in their culture because you werent having sex in order to produce children 3 Muslims finest pleasures of life as derived from Muhammad Held extremely high Muhammad had several wives so he could experience this pleasure often Chapter 1 Science took a more serious look at sexuality 1 Dutch scientist Leeuwenhoek 16321723 Discovered sperm in semen 2 German scientist Hertwig 1875 Discovered fertilization of eggs in sea urchins 3 Human Fertilization 190039s Human conception observed Ovums not discovered until the 20th century Chapter 1 4 Freud Viamese medical doctore late 180039s spoke of the norms about sexuality and oppressive Focused mainly on the subconscious thought and action He had patients come in his office with physical symptoms he couldnt explain He was alive during the Vicorian era very repressed unless to procreate Sex wasnt ok Wives were aware their husbans had mistresses Psycho sexual stages discussed later 5 Havelock Ellis Case histories published in 1896 quotstudies in psychology of sexquot English Physician Medical and anthropological findings Believed that women were just as much sexual creatures that men were Sexual deviation was harmless and urged society to accept them Because it was different doesnt mean it was harmful He was objective and scholarly No taking of sides no judgement Forerunner for modern sex research Both Freud and Ellis were highly respected in their communities Chapter 1 6 Richard von KraftEbing late 180039s Patholigical not well sexuality Not objective or tolerant Brought judgement and Coined sadism inflicting pain masochism having pain and pedophilia aroused by children And Heterosexuality and homosexuality Wrote a book focusing on Deviant sexual behavior 200 cases of individuals appearing in Psychopathia Sexualis 7 Magnus Hirschfeld 18681935 German First sex research institute and administered the first large scale sex survey obtaining data from 10K with a 130 item questionnaire many results Destroyed by Nazis First journal devoted to study of sex Established marriage counseling Legal reforms and advice on contraception39s and sex problems Specialty in homosexuality He was a homosexual and transvestite Chapter 1 8 Alfred Kinsey194039s American researcher who collected data in america and their secual practices He put out an ad to be interviewed 18K people City dwelers read educated and typically young Not a general response for America as a whole Sexual disorders and physiology of sexual response 9 William Masters and Virginia Johnson 196039s Most well known He was a med doc obstitritian and the first grant was on the reproduction of rabbits He then got his assistant Johnson single divorced mother they researched the sexual response cycle in humans What happens to their bodies What does the orgasm look like physically Collected data of individuals having sex Individuals werent necessaraly couples M amp J married eventually and divorced in their 8039s 10 Anthropologists Margaret Mead and Malinowski collected data on how sexual behavior differs in other cultures Chapter 1 Study of sex is Interdisciplinary Biology Psychology Sociology Anthropology Medicalphysicians Ill Media influences sex through a Cultivation people think that what they see on tvmedia is a reflection of what really happens b Agenda setting when the media tells us what is important by covering certain topisstories Ex Kennedy White House vs Clinton White House c Social learning the media gives us role models that influence our behavior d Internet the more time spent watchinglistetingsurfing the more influence is trancended Chapter 1 IV CrossCultural Perspectives Ethnocentrism the belief that our cultures way of life is the only way Certainly the best one EthnoCulture CentrismAround us Crosscultural findings a all cultures regulate sex in some way These regulations vary between cultures b the incest taboo is nearly universal no sex between blood relations c Most cultures condemn forced sexual behavior such as rape d taboo for sexual intercourse right after childbirth A Variations in Sexual Techniques of 1 Kissing common technique in many cultures but in some it is unknown and not experienced In some there is no exchange of saliva in others excess saliva is arousing 2 Cunnilingus oral sex preformed on a female Not known in all societies In some societies it is done differently ex A fish is placed in her inner lavia and retrieved by the mouth 3 Pain Accepted in some societies A brazilian culture where the woman bites off bits of the partners eyebrows Another where the men pull out pieces of the womans eyebrows South pacific the woman pokes her finger in a mans ear when she is aroused during sex they bite eachother to the point of drawing blood and leaving scars B Variations in Sexual frequency inis eeag island off the coast of ireland For married people they have sex one to two times a month in the south pacific the mangaian culture where married people have sexual intercourse several times a night southern asia married people have sex several times a day at the start of marriage US is in the middle C Variations in Masturbation happens in all cultures but reaction varies Some encourage it some tolerate it some condemn and punish it some teach young children how to do it South Pacific they learn around 7 or 8 at 9 or 10 they are instructed how and at sexual maturity they are instructed how to have sex with an older adult of the opposite sex They teach restraint so he can hold back his orgasm until his partner is ready for orgasm They want them to understand their bodies and how other bodies work Able to participate well in a relationship D Variations in Sex outside of marriage Extramarital and Premarital sex Premaritally some cultures do encourage it others absolutely not Egyptian culture the female has their clitorus removed in order to reduce the sexual excitement Sex outside of marriage is shunned upon and the female is married off a few weeks after the opperation Extramarital sex is the second most restricted type of sex second to incest 74 of cultures forbid it If allowed the male is the one allowed to step out E Variations in Samegender partners Homosexuality Varies within cultures but every culture has it Some discourage it completely veryjudgemental Some encourage it as a teaching device Some think its only for children but not adults Some have a social role for a gay male as an incorporated into society 1 observed in all cultures 2 males are more likely than females to engage in it 3 never the prodominant form of sexuality in a culture F Variations in Attractiveness Different body parts are the focus in different cultures Ex Girraff women They had elongated the necks so much that without the rings they will not survive According to what they were raised with quotEye of the beholderquot Plump women are more attractive than ultra thin It says that you come from a family that has enough money to be able to feed you Bad skin is universially unattractive Chapter 1 G Social class education and sex The more education people have the more likely the people are to masterbate have an abortion and participate in oral sex The less education the less likely you are to participate in those three areas of sexual behavior Undertanding and awareness come into effect Monetary reasons wanting to continure on the professional track more awareness Relevance of crosscultural studies Shows if there is a difference or variation Puts our behavior in perspective Looking at cross cultural studies helps highlight the importance of culture and our sexual practices Broaden our horizons to become more accepting H Ethnicity and sexual behavior African Americans blacks Latinos Asian Americans American Indians Whites Blacks 1 African heratage 2 The influence they had during slavery 3 The current economic and social conditions Less likely to masterbate less likely to engage in oral sex less likely to marry Women have abortions about equally Latinos 1 Gender roles are very defined and structured aMen are in charge of the well being of the family b Women Motherhood is very valued Virginity is very importatnt 2 Latinos and whites have about the same masterbation marriage and abortion rates Asian Americans 1 low levels of multiple sex partner 2 low levels of same sex partners 3 highest levels of abortion thought as a part of birth control American Indians 1 Not a lot of data on sexual practices Chapter 1 V Crossspecies Perspectives a masturbation Monkeys and apes masterbate as well Red deer run their antlers through the brush and vegitation in order to become aroused The female porkey pine holds a stick in her paws under her body and walks The stick rubs on the genetals and causes arousal b Samegender sexual behavior seen in sheep and many other species Shows dominance or just for pleasure Chapter 1 C sexual Signaling Female primates flirt to signal avaliability Not just a human species behavior 39 Human uniqueness We depend much more on our brain that our hormones or pharamones If a female of that species is not in heat then sex doesnt happen so freely With humans the woman doesnt have to be fertail in order to have sex We dont depend on our bodily cycle to have sex moreover we use our brain quotthe sexiest part of our bodyquot Chapter 1 e Nonsexual uses of sexual behavior not necessaraly to have an orgasm but to have a baby To get a job gain power To get money prostitution Forced sexRape about power control and agression overly angryaggressive Exobitionest about the shock and awe not a sense of power Show off in a very inappropriate setting Chapter 5 Menstrua Cycle Chapter 5 Menstrual Cycle The menstrual cycle is regulated by levels of These changes cause a change in the and Differences between menstrual cycles and estrus 1 2 3 Chapter 5 Phases of the Menstrual Cycle Phase 1 Follicular Phase a b c Phase 2 Ovulation a b Chapter 5 c d Phase 3 Luteal Phase a b Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Phase 4 Menstruation a b During these four phases the uterus is also changing how first phase Chapter 5 0 Third phase If fertilized egg arrives 0 next 10 to 12 days Chapter 5 0 After menstruation Menstrual flow 0 What truly regulates the menstrual cycle Chapter 5 Toxic Shock Syndrome Chapter 5 Length of cycle Chapter 5 Can you feel yourself ovulating Do you always ovulate Other changes in body during cycle Cervical mucus Chapter 5 Basal Body Temperature Menstrual Problems dysmenorrhea is most common Common symptoms Chapter 5 Dysmenorrhea is caused by prostaglandins Remedies Chapter 5 Endometriosis occurs when places vary common symptoms treatment Chapter 5 Psychological Aspects of Menstruation Moods Do moods fluctuate Chapter 5 0 This data was 1 2 3 Chapter 5 So women do have 1 2 3 Chapter 5 Sex During the cycle 0 2 3 4 Chapter 5 Emotional with cycle Two theories as to why 1 Biological Chapter 5 2 Cultural Chapter 5 Cycles in Men 0 Menopause Climacteric Chapter 5 Physical Symptoms of Menopause Long term study found Chapter 5 Hormone Replacement Therapy Chapter 5 Sexuality Changes So majority of women Chapter 5 Male Menopause Chapter 5 Men s Mid life Crisis


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