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by: Jeromy Hilll


Jeromy Hilll
Texas State
GPA 3.98

S. Ogletree

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S. Ogletree
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeromy Hilll on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 2311 at Texas State University taught by S. Ogletree in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see /class/212844/psy-2311-texas-state-university in Psychlogy at Texas State University.




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Date Created: 09/23/15
H H 0 H Mid Term Exam Review Which ofthe following is NOT true of the Comstock Act a It prevented the selling of famous artworks that included nudity b It denied Americans contraceptive devices and information about them for almost 60 years c It prohibited homosexuality amon men d It prohibited the mailing of obscene lewd and lascivious writings and advertisements Old women employed by men in the Middle Ages to procure prostitutes for them and teach them about love and sexuality were known as a Entremetteuses b Troubadours c Witches d Penitents Which of the following was NOT one of the goals of sexuality according to ancient Chinese Taoist philosophy a Women should experience orgasm during sex to allow men maximum contact with female yin which peaks at orgasm Men should have sex with many different women to prevent the yin of any one woman from being depleted Men should have sex with other men to maximize and strengthen their male yang essence Heterosexual intercourse should be prolonged as long as possible without male ejaculation to increase the contact of male yang with female yin essence H ESE Which part of a marital relationship was viewed as least important by the ancient Romans a Mutual consideration of one another39s nee s b Fair treatment and respect of one another c The improvement of economic status d Passionate romantic love Robert is an early20th century individual who is researching human sexuality by taking surveys of the behavior of American adults He does not advocate a particular moral or political point of view in his work instead he is interested in quantifying scienti cally as much information as possible about human sexuality To which of the following 20th century movements or trends does Robert belong a The gay liberation movement b The beginning of sexology c The Social Hygiene movement d The feminist movement According to psychoanalytic theory what are the two most powerful human drives that guide behavior a the Oedipus complex and the Electra complex b the libido and thanatos c the oral stage and the phallic stage d the libido and the superego Which of the following researchers published the rst empirical study to demonstrate that homosexual and men were 39 r quot t quotN 39 based on their psychological histories Alan Bell and Martin Weinberg Evelyn Hooker Richard KrafftEbing Katharine Bement Davis 353 01 Which of the following is NOT a risk or disadvantage to Internetbased sexuality research a Participants can potentially submit multiple responses and researchers cannot monitor this without removing anonymity Internet users underrepresent various minorities and those of low socioeconomic status and education Participants who answer Internet surveys might be more typical of Americans as a whole than college students who are the most common research participants Minors might inappropriately access Internetbased sex surveys r HEW D U Which of the following is NOT one of the three basic standards that researchers in sexuality must be sure that their research possesses validity strict control generalizability reliability E35amp 10 Which sex researcher was a German doctor who became known as an expert on homosexuality who advocated for humane treatment of homosexuals and who helped establish the first sex research institute which was destroyed by the Nazis in 1933 a Magnus Hirschfeld b Sigmund Freud c Albert Moll d Clelia Mosher 11 According to research how do most couples demonstrate their willingness to engage in sexual intercourse a whispering erotic phrases to each other b wearing sexy lingerie or going naked to bed c saying nothing at all d directly saying quotLet39s have sexquot 12 Which of the following have researchers found a Men and women talk about the same amount Men tend to talk more than women do Women tend to talk more than men do Research has not found any conclusions about this subject ESE 13 Which of the following does NOT seem to be a problem with computer mediated communication It reduces the role that physical characteristics play in the development of attraction Some people become obsessed with it and use this form of communication exclusively A person can39t be sure of the gender age or intentions of another person whom they meet online It allows people to create quotvirtual identitiesquot online E358 14 When Ieffery sends owers to his girlfriend Kayla to symbolize their love for one another Ieffery is using a subliminal messages computermediated communication nonverbal communication d a male genderlect r 15 15 Which of the following type of online communication is comparable to tag questions in facetoface communication a IM39ing b emailing c using emoticons d text messaging 16 Alison grew up feeling that her body was not correct and it did not match how she felt inside She tried to explain this to her parents but they did not take her seriously When she got to college she began therapy with a gender specialist and decided to medically transition and live her life as female She now feels content with her body and decision to live as a woman How would you best describe Alison a Alison is a lesbian b Alison has a disorder of sex development c Alison is a crossdresser d Alison is trans gender 17 Christine is an ideal woman she meets all the ideal stereotypical expectations for a woman of her time She is a stayat home mother who is well educated and well read especially on the subject of child development and family life According to Rothman39s work on ideal womanhood when is Christine most likely to be living her life a In the 1800s c inthe 1960s b in the 1940s d In the 1910 19 Which of the following statements about transgender experience is FALSE a Iapan is a world leader in providing surgical transitions b Surgical transition for transwomen is more technologically advanced and realistic than surgical transitions for transmen c More males than females experience gender dysphoria d Transgender athletes can compete in the Olympics as their new gender under some conditions 20 Which of the following hormones is most important in stimulating female sexual desire estradiol progesterone testosterone prolactin E353 21 A child who is born with gonads of one gender but with ambiguous external genitalia has a a disorder of sex development androgyny a disorder of gender development d hermphroditism r HEW 22 Your classmate Keesha has a family history of breast cancer both her mother and an older sister have died of this disease Which of the following suggestions would be LEAST useful to Keesha if she wants to avoid dying of this disease Do regular breast selfexamination BSE and ask her gynecologist to show her the best technique Eat a healthy diet low in saturated fat Discuss mammograms with her doctor to get the optimal recommendations for her Have children before age 30 and breastfeed them E353 23 Which of the following brought increased attention to premenstrual syndrome PMS a the increase in the past decade in the number of female athletes who were injured during the PMS phase b American trials in the 1990s in which women were acquitted of killing their husbands on the grounds that PMS reduced their capacity to control their behavior British trials in the 1980s in which women received lighter sentences for killing their husbands on the grounds that PMS reduced their capacity to control their behavior d the acceptance of PMS as a legitimate disorder in the 1990s by the American Psychiatric Association C U 24 Which of the following terms refers to the female external sex organs collectively the vagina the vestibule the mons veneris d the vulva 353 25 Which of the following gynecological cancers is MOST likely to be fatal if a woman is diagnosed with it a ovarian cancer b cervical cancer c breast cancer d endometrial cancer 26 Which of the following factors does NOT increase the risk of a woman getting a nonsexually transmitted genital infection a having poor genital hygiene b having high levels of estrogen whether naturally or from taking hormonal birth control pills c douching d having frequent sexual intercourse 27 Which of the following is NOT true of the buildup of sperm a Nocturnal emissions occur if there is a need for the testicles to release sperm b Hormone production decreases when the sperm count in a man39s body gets too high c Sperm are regularly absorbed by a man39s body d Men must ejaculate regularly to release the buildup of sperm 29 Which of the following is NOT a treatment for priapism a surge b discontinuing any drugs that might have caused the condition c hormone thera d draining the blood from the penis with a syringe 30 What is the most common reason why people use anabolicandrogenic steroids AAS a to increase fertility b to enhance sexual performance c to prolong youthfulness d to enhance athletic ability 31 Which of the following statements about Peyronie39s disease is FALSE Peyronie39s disease if left untreated is usually a lifelong condition Peyronie39s disease is often treated with medication or surgery Peyronie39s disease can go away as suddenly and unexpectedly as it appears No one knows what causes Peyronie39s disease E353 32 The part of the body where immature sperm mature for 10 to 14 days is known as the a interstitial cells b epididymis c vas deferens d agellum 33 Which of the following statements about childhood sexuality is TRUE a Children can be considered to be quotlittle adultsquot in most aspects of their lives including their sexuality b A young boy having an erection is probably experiencing something similar to the sexual feelings that an adult male experiences during erection c Children want love appreciate sensuality and engage in behaviors that set the stage for adult sexuality d Children39s sexual behaviors are based on motives similar to those of adults 34 Kjersti is a newborn baby girl If she is typical by what age should her parents expect her to become fully aware that she is a girl identifying herself as a girl and including quotbeing a girlquot as an important part of her selfconcept a by age 2 b by age 12 months c by age 6 d by age 6 months 35 Casual parental nudity openness to sexual questions and willingness to let young children sleep in their parents39 bed at times is usually associated with excessive sexual interests and knowledge in children later body shame in adolescence neither beneficial nor harmful effects Generally positive effects on children39s well being E35amp 36 Which of the following statements about sexual development in infants and very young children has NOT been validated by research a Nearly half of 3 to 4year old boys can achieve the urogenital muscle spasms of orgasm even though they do not ejaculate b Our sexual anatomy is functional even before birth ultrasounds have even shown male fetuses with erections c Infant boys and girls secrete small amounts of sex hormones estrogen and testosterone from their gonads and adrenal glands d Although infant boys can achieve orgasm girls cannot achieve orgasm before puberty 37 At what age is it most typical for children to engage in sex games such as quotSpin the Bottlequot and samesex sexual behaviors 24 years old 46 years old 1415 years old d 911 years old 358 38 Uzoma age 17 is going out on a date with Mariam age 16 He arrives at her parents39 home in his car but before they can go out he first comes into the house to meet Mariam39s parents Mariam39s parents chat with him for a few minutes about the weather and other neutral topics until nally her dad tells Uzoma to be sure to bring her back by 1030 PM Mariam and Uzoma leave her home and go to a school dance together What do researchers call this form of datin a traditional dating b modern dating c quothooking upquot d casual dating 39 In same sex sexual relationships who is most likely to initiate sex a the more socially dominant partner b the more emotionally expressive partner c among lesbians the more dominant partner among gay men the more emotionally expressive partner d among lesbians the more emotionally expressive partner among gay men the more dominant partner 40 Which of the following is NOT a contributor to increasing rates of divorce covenant marriages increasing levels of women with advanced degrees more religious tolerance of divorce nofault divorce laws E35amp 41 In which country do married couples score the HIGHEST on a compatibility index a Swe en b Turkey c Iapan d the United States 42 Which of the following report the highest levels of happiness physical and mental health and the lowest levels of psychological problems a married women married men cohabitating men cohabitating women ESE Chapter 1 You are living in a complex society with many potential in uences on your sexual attitudes and values An important part of our culture is the media teens rate the media as a leading sex information source Sexologists are scientists who study sexual behavior and sexuality Although animals mate only humans have the rituals fantasies customs art etc that are associated with sexu 39ty Although our animal ancestors were primarily quadrupeds walking on all four legs approximately 3 million years ago some primates began to walk erect This resulted in genitals and breasts becoming more visually prominent Learning about historical and crosscultural perspectives can help us realize that our sexual attitudes and values are just one view of many that have been held in other places and times Modern Western views toward sexuality are especially dependent upon three ancient cultures Hebraic Greek and Roman Modern Western views toward sexuality are especially dependent upon three ancient cultures Hebraic Greek and Roman Other cultures such as ancient China emphasized the Taoist perspective of living in harmony and balancing yin and yang In Taoism sex was not only for reproduction but also for spiritual growth and enhancing harmony Karma or a person39s life path that included a belief that deeds in one39s present life in uenced the next life was a part of Hinduism and in uential in India In Hinduism sexuality was one path to spiritual fulfillment Early Christians were a small sect following the teachings of Jesus who was in general nonjudgmental regarding sexuality Let he who is without sin cast the rst stonequot St Paul however argued that celibacy refraining from sexual behavior was the ideal with marriage being the next best option Confession of and penancefor one39s sins was instituted during the Middle Ages Islam begun by Muhammad in the sixth century draws from Jewish and Christian religions as well as Arab tribal beliefs Although the Koran the Islamic Holy Scriptures portrays powerful women women in Islamic countries are often denied privileges and have their freedom restricted During the Renaissance women experienced an increase in their rights and gained more respect However with the witchcraft trials reappearing in the 17 h century the tide turned The Protestant Reformation resulted from Martin Luther and John Calvin rebelling against the Catholic Church both of these reformers saw women as having more important roles than just being bearers of children The 18 h century Enlightenment emphasized rationality sexual desires and drives were considered natural However the following Victorian Era was conservative at least publicly with propriety highly valued however pornography and prostitution ourished as we The Puritans were a group that ed to the US colonies from England to pursue religious freedom They punished some sexual transgressions such as adultery and rape severely but mild sexual transgressions were tolerated One custom bundling allowed unmarried couples to share a bed provided they were clothed and used a bundling boardquot between them When premarital pregnancies resulted the couple would marry The Puritan custom of bundling allowed unmarried couples to share a bed provided they were clothed and used a quotbundling boardquot between them Antimiscegenation laws that forbade sex or marriage between individuals of different races were passed in many states following the importation of slaves from Africa However many mixed race children were still born Whites accused slaves of having loose morals using this as an excuse for rape The free love movement during the 19 h century emphasized love as the important precursor to sex rather than marriage This movement as well as polygamy practiced by the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter Day Saints was controversial The medical model emerged toward the end of the 1 9 h century However in 1873 Anthony Comstock lobbied Congress resulting in the passage of a law to prohibit obscene material distribution this resulted in contraceptive devices and books being destroyed The free love movement emphasized love as the important precursor to sex rather than marriage Those wanting to restrict sexual information freedom continued to struggle in the 20 h century with others who wanted increased individual rights and education Movements such as feminism promoting the rights of women and ga rights became more prominent during this time Margaret Sanger ghting the Comstock laws was an important voice promoting women39s right to have birth control information In 1969 the Stonewall resistance following police raiding a gay bar was instrumental in increasing gay activism The American Psychiatric Association officially removed homosexuality as a psychiatric disorder in 1973 Chapter 2 Do you have your own theory related to sexuality How would you explain the diversity in human sexual behaviors Theories provide organization and structure to ideas generating hypothesizing for testing through research Chapter 2 includes psychological biological sociological evolutionary feminist and queer theories each provides a somewhat different perspective on sexuality Sigmund Freud the founder of psychoanalytic theory believed that people had two important drives the libido or life sexual instinct and thanatos the death or aggressive instinct Freud also described three parts of the personality the id or the instincts present at birth the ego which deals with reality and the superego the judging moral conscience personality structure that develops last In addition psychosexual development occurs in ve stages the oral anal phallic latency andgenital stages According to behaviorists sexual behaviors are learned through operant conditioning as a result of consequences rewards and punishments that follow a behavior An undesirable sexual behavior from this perspective could be changed through aversive therapy punishing a person with a consequence such as an electrical shock following inappropriate arousal for example related to arousal from child pornography According to behaviorists sexual behaviors are learned as a result of rewards and punishments that follow a behavior Cognitive theory focuses on thoughts and information processing Humanistic theory is interested in maximizing human potential or selfactualization Biological theories focus on physiological and genetic bases of sexual behavior Sociological theories consider society39s andvarious institutions39 impact on sexualbehavior of prime interest to evolutionary theorists is how sexual behavior impacts having offspring and hence the evolution of sexual behaviors Feminist theory challenges male domination power and heterosexist attitudes queer theory similarly questions traditional attitudes regarding sexual orientation and gender A number of sexologists have in uenced our knowledge of sexuality including Iwan Bloch Albert Moll Magnus Hirschfeld Richard von KraftEbing Havelock Ellis Clelia Mosher and Katharine Bement Davis Alfred Kinsey undertook the rst largescale survey in the United States and in the late 1940s published his rst book that became a best seller partly because the American public was so starved for sexual information William Masters and Virginia Johnson broke ground with their laboratory observations of male and female sexual behavior in the second half of the twentieth century Sexologists employ a variety of research methods that are described in Chapter Two Which method a sexologist employs depends upon a number of factors including the question being asked Consider how you might collect data on the following questions I Does listening to sexually violent rock music affect males39 attitudes about violence towards women I Why does a person become a serial rapist I Do most college students think that having sex before marriage is wrong I Is masturbating once a day too much Regarding the first question an experimental study would be necessary to make a causeandeffect connection We are limited to case studies of serial rapists to try to nd out why an individual might become a serial rapist Our generalizations willbe very limited Using a questionnaire with a random sample of college students could provide us information relevant to the third question Finally we may be unable to answer some questions such as the fourth question While we might be able to provide relevant information how much does the average person masturbate possible consequences for individuals who have masturbated many times a day deciding if masturbating once a day is too muchquot may be ultimately a question of individual choice and values Case studies involve studying one person or a small group of people in considerable depth Advantages include being able to consider detailed backgrounds of atypical individuals to understand possible pathways leading to their behavior Friends parents teachers and prior relationships might allbe included in an 39 39 39 Tquot J C o t is J include limited generalizability while one may speculate and provide evidence leading to one or several individuals becoming serial rapists it would be impossible to definitely prove that this would be applicable for all serial rapists Case studies involve studying one person or a small group of people in considerable depth Interviews involve faceto face questions while questionnaires are written The latter method could provide individuals with greater anonymity leading to individuals being truthful Certainly though individuals in both cases will have a tendency to portray themselves in a socially appropriate or desirable way rather than a truthful way called a social desirability response tendency Imagine that a person is asked how many sexual partners they39ve had Do you think a tendency to overestimate or underestimate the number of partners would be related to whether the person was a man or woman Another very important concern relevant for survey studies using interviews or questionnaires is sampling We need to make sure the sample was selected randomly without any kind of biasing factor If for example we end up with primarily college educated individuals in our sample would that affect answers regarding how often the average person masturbates Even if we make every effort to have a random sample from the population the group that we want to generalize to we may still have a problem with selfselection and nonresponse people refusing to participate in the research This is probably an especially relevant factor related to human sexuality research people who refuse to participate in sexuality questionnaires and interviews may differ in important ways in terms of their sexual attitudes and behaviors from people who agree to participate volunteerbias If our sample is not representative of the population our ability to generalize beyond the sample may not be very good One of the best surveys that will be referred to again and again in your text is the 1994 National Health and Social Life Survey conducted by the University of Chicago The participation rate was 79 very high compared to many sexuality surveys Nonresponse is probably an especially relevant factor related to human sexuality research Masters and Johnson used direct observation methodology Observing individuals39 behavior rather than asking for their opinions minimizes the likelihood of a social desirability response tendency Masters and Johnson brought men and women into the laboratory hooked them up to various physiological devices to measure what was happening during sexual behaviors and also observed them through oneway mirrors You could also do natural observationquot by seeing what happens in a bar as the night progresses Do women indeed become prettier at closing time as an old country song suggests A limitation of observational methodology is that the sample is usually not random Masters and Johnson argued that since they were studying the physiology of the human sexual response and since all human bodies were basically alike it didn39t matter that their sample was not random For other kinds of studies not having a random sample might be more of an issue Also as with the other methods described above one cannot make causeandeffect links With direct observation methodologies a sexologist is primarily providing descriptive information The experimental method is the best way to consider questions needing a causeeffect answer Does alcohol increase or decrease sexual responsiveness Experimental studies have led to the conclusion that alcohol although it lowers psychological inhibitions reduces both male and female physiological responsiveness Experimental studies use at least one experimental group and at least one control group All variables are kept the same in the treatment of the two groups except the variable being manipulated called the independent variable For example regarding Question 1 above we could have groups listen to sexually violent heavy metal rock music one experimental group Christian heavy metal rock music one control group or classical music a second control group The participants would be randomly assigned to which kind of music they heard and all other aspects of their treatment would be kept the same If samples are large enough in the three groups we assume that any peer in uences any biological predispositions etc that might be relevant to our question would be averaged out through random sampling We would then assess what we39re trying to measure called the dependent variable In this case the dependent variable might be a survey assessing attitudes toward women St Lawrence and onner 1991 did one such study and found that individuals who listened to heavy metal rock regardless of whether it was sexually violent or religious had more negative attitudes toward women We could then say with some certainty although replications with other samples and different music would help us be more certain that listening to heavy metal rock negatively affects attitudes towards women Ethical issues are of supreme importance in research with human participants particularly in a sensitive area such as an individual39s sexuality Individuals have the right to informed consent when they decide whether or not to participate they


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