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by: Arnaldo Abbott


Arnaldo Abbott
Texas State
GPA 3.93

G. Guerrero

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G. Guerrero
Class Notes
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Popular in Criminal Justice

This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Arnaldo Abbott on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJ 2355 at Texas State University taught by G. Guerrero in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/212860/cj-2355-texas-state-university in Criminal Justice at Texas State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
March 1 2011 Institutional Programs 0 Prison Programs any structured activity that takes prisoners out of their cells 0 Bene ts of institutional programs don t need to know 0 Help manage time 0 Improve inmates lives 0 Improve likelihood of parole 0 Reduce inmate boredom tension hostility 0 Maintain safety and security of prison 0 Produce goods and services 0 Keep prison functional and operating 0 Offer incentives for good behavior 0 5 Types of Prison Programs 0 Rehabilitation Programs I Increase likelihood inmates will lead a crime free life upon release 0 Recreational Programs I Provide organized social physical and intellectual leisure activities I Weightlifting basketball dominoes television cards 0 Medical Programs I Provide medical services to inmates 0 Industrial Programs I Production of sellable goods and services outside prison in free market 0 Maintenance Programs I Provide services essential to upkeep and operation of prison 0 Factors Limiting Potential prison Programs 0 Security I Need to minimize weapons or contraband I Also limits potential effectiveness of some programs 0 Principle of least eligibility I Belief that prisoners can t have it better than citizens I Example elimination of inmate Pell grants 0 Classi cation I Risk of escape I Risk ofviolence I Risk of future criminality Vocation Programs 1 Vocational Rehabilitation I Designed to teach inmates cognitive and vocational skills to nd and keep employment I Vocational training obsolete equipment I Inmates lack skills to get and keep jobs I Punctuality accountability deference to supervisors cordiality to co workers how to nd a job do interview Civil Disabilities I Barred occupations include in some states 0 Nurse barber beautician real estate chauffeur cashier insurance salesman stenographer worker where alcoholic beverages are sold 0 Prison Industry Programs I Contract labor system 0 Labor was sold to employers who provided the machinery and materials I Piece price system 0 Contractor provided materials and agreed to purchase goods made my inmates at a set price I Lease system 0 Contractor maintained the prisoners outside of the prison providing them with food and clothing I Public account system 0 Prison bought materials then the inmates manufactures a product 0 Corruption ended the practice I State use system 0 Goods sold exclusively to state agencies and tax supported institutions goods never enter the free market I Public works system 0 Inmates work on public construction and maintenance projects lling potholes building and repairing buildings and bridges etc for which the institution receives a fee 39 Certi cation Programs 0 Congress passed Private Sector Prison Industrv E E in 1979 0 Sell goods to open market if meet several conditions I Pay to inmates is similar to free world wages I Collect funds for victim assistance programs 0 23 of state are involved in the PIE Program 0 Example Eastern Oregon Institution 0 85 of wage deducted for I Victim restitution I Child support I Incarceration costs I Court costs I Taxes 0 15 ofwage available for I Canteen I Voluntary family support I Savings available at release 0 2 Substance Abuse Programs 0 Crimedrug abuse link is strong I 5080 arrestees test positive for drugs I 5075 need drug treatment I Treatment difficult I High failure rate 0 Entering Treatment I Offenders enter correctional treatment programs in several ways 0 First judges can mandate 0 Second identi es during the classi cation process 0 Third inmates can enter a treatment program at their own request 0 The most used program is group quot J J bv r or by peers in a selfhelp program 0 Goals of Substance Abuse Programs I Reducing or ending drug and alcohol use Substantially reducing violent behavior Reducing education or vocational de ciencies Obtaining legal employment Changing the individual s values to be more conventional toward work family and the law 0 T quot ommlmitv Model ihas the best chance of success with hardcore drug abusers I Where individuals live in a highly structures subcommunity with individuals with similar problems work to promote change and then offer a communitybased aftercare program for graduates I Problems 0 High dropout rates 0 Expensive long term 0 Cooccurring Disorders 7 individuals who use dru salcohol and also have a mental disorder 0 Traditional programs have not focused on treating the mentally ill 0 4 Religious Rehabilitation 0 Practice of religion is valuable for inmates 0 Legal and religious practices 0 The First Amendment protection two requirements seem to emanate from the salient cases I Beliefs is sincerely held39 dif cult to determine 7 no objective criteria and I Beliefs must be religious in nature I A bona fide religious belief is found in a religion s published theology and is associated with a particular religion 0 Why inmates join religious groups March 10 2011 I Inmates join religious groups for a variety of reasons including the following To gain direction meaning and hope away from a life of crime Religion promotes a positive personal behavioral change Requires inmates develop selfcontrol thus avoid both staff and inmate confrontations To feel safe in prison inmates need a group to protect them Incarcerated for certain sex offenses and seeking escape from fear of attacks May be the only place where inmates can socialize positively To socialize negatively contraband 1 Provides an opportunity to meet with civilian volunteers men and women Involvement in religion provides inmates access to special resources including food and coffee holiday greeting cards and books musical instruments and food privileges during certain religious holiday May also gain opportunities for favors from faith quot g phone access and letter of recommendation for parole hearing or transfer to another institution 0 5 Programs for Female Offenders 0 Separation from Family and Kids I SiXtvfive percent of women in prison have children under 18 I Children placed in foster homes or with maternal grandparents 0 Special Issues and Needs ofFemale Inmates I 39 A further away from their homes 0 Visits from children are important I Parenting programs 0 Alcohol and Substance Abuse I 12 were using drugsalcohol at time of their offense I Eighty percent have severe longterm problems I Make up 6 of prison population 0 Need for Medical Care I Gynecological care I Pregnancy issues I Health problems stemming from poverty and drug use 0 Legal issue Equivalence for females I Barefield versus Leach 7 found that state of New Mexico was not providing equal vocational training and work opportunities I Why I Pargo versus Elliott 7 court ruled that differences in programs for males and females is not necessarily a violation of the equal protection clause I Five criteria should be used to determine if discrimination exists 0 Number of inmates in a prison 0 Prison security Level 0 Crimes committed by inmates 0 Length of sentences 0 Any other special characteristics March 22 2011 o Prisonization process of inmates taking on the folkways mores and custgoms of general culture of prison 0 Two theories on how inmate culture becomes part of prison life 0 Culture is indigenous to prisons 0 Culture is exogenous from outside world 0 Violence in Prison 0 In 2000 49 of state prisoners committed violent offenses o Bases of Inmate Violence 0 Age 7 youth machismo identity 0 Attitude 7 subculture of violence 0 Race 7 convict code gangs 0 Three main characteristics of prison violence 0 Age 7 more likely to be aggressors and victims of prison violenve I Older inmates are left alone I Younger inmates lack ability to walk away 0 Attitudes 7 lower class value system I Tolerated expected or required 0 Race 7 racist attitudes among inmates 0 Causes of prison violence 0 Inadequate supervision by staff and inmate staff relations 0 Easy availability of deadly weapons 0 Housing dangerous and non dangerous inmates together 0 High level of tension caused by close quarters 0 Architectural design includiong size and condition 0 Interpersonal violence 7 occurs between two or more individual inmates o Collective violence 7 between and initiated by groups of inmates includes riots and disturbances 0 Usually inmates against prison staff and administration 0 Three categories of inmates who generally resort to violence 0 Antisocial offenders who use violence to get what they want 0 Special needs offenders with physical or mental problems 0 Psychopathic offenders who are cold and predatory o Aryan Brotherhood 7 swastika AB and three leaf clover lightening bolts 0 l4 We must secure the existence of our people and a future for white children o 88 Heil Hitler o 3 l l KKK o 33 6 11 times 3 KKK and the 6th era of the Klan o AKA Antia Bakers Amy Baker 0 100 pure and white bloodline o 4 ll Waco and Oklahoma City Bombings 0 420 Hitler s Birthday 0 l8 Adolf Hitler o 23 white Mexican Ma a MM Eme skull La Nuestra Familia 7 a sombrero and a dagger Texas Syndicate 7 T and S Black Guerilla Family 7 dragon correctional officer and watch tower Prison bars 7 represents time in prison Spider webs 7 represents doing time Tombstones 7 dead time in life Drama faces 7 happy life sad life play now play later Butter y 7 freedom Lightening bolts 7 if colored in they killed someone minority EVil Clowns 7 the wearer Eight ball 7 bad luck No hands on clock 7 lost time in life spent in prisons Hour glass 7time spent 10851 7 auto theft Keyhole 7 freedom Teardrops 7 each drop 3 years driveby you killed someone in drive by or lost someone that way Toe Tag 7 die young mentality Barbed wires 7 doing time 11550 7 drug in uenced crime 0 Area codes 0 Aces and eights 7 known as dead mans hand March 24 2011 Famous Prisons 0 Located in San Francisco California 0 It was formerly known as a military stockade o Inmates of Alcatraz o Birdman of Alcatraz I IQ of 134 normal is 100 I Committed numerous murders I Was in many prisons where he began an obsession with Canaries and became the author of two books regarding the subject I Spent 17 years in Alcatraz 0 George Machine Gun Kelly I Criminal career started at age 19 when Kelly was married with two children he picked up bootlegging and joined a gang to survive I Girlfriend Kathryn held Charles Urshel an oil tycoon hostage for 200000 dollars ransom for 8 days 0 Al Copone I Aka Scarface I Had lavish room and guards working for him at his original penitentiary I Staff manipulations did not work at Alcatraz I Rumored that Capone started pimping prostitutes before puberty I As an afult his career earned him over lOOldweek o Prostitution rings 0 Bootlegging 0 Gambling houses I Served 4amp12 years before being transferred and eventually 0 Angola Largest maximum security prison Louisiana State Penitentiary at Angola was opened in 1835 and is still located in Angola Louisiana Corn and Coybeans are the major crops that are harvested on 18000 acres of farmland Herd of 1500 cattle Prison newspaper 0 Atlanta Federal Penitentiary Was the largest cement mass in America until Hoover Dam was built in 1932 Opened in 1992 Can hold 25000 inmates Located in Attica New York 1971 1300 prisoners staged rebellion that lasted 4 days Prisoners held 40 guards hostage while they gave their list of demands of better living Negotiations lasted 7 days National Guard and State Police stormed the prison killing 43 inmatesd and 10 hostages Inmates 0 Mark David 0 the man who assassinated John Lennon is currently incarcerated here 0 Born in Fortworth Texas 0 The Catcher in the Rye book he read 0 Kendall Francois 0 Killed 8 prostitutes from 1966 to 1988 and hid them in his attic and basement 0 Life without Parole 0 Willie Sutton O O O O O 0 Bank robber who robbed over 100 banks from 1920 2950 0 David Berkowitz 0 Son of Sam 0 Killed 6 people in Mew York I Eastern State Penn I Located in Philadelphia Pennsylvania I Opened in 1829 1971 I Prisoners were isolates and forced to re ect on their crimes I Now a museum Folsom State Prison I Opened in 1880 in Represa California I Folsom can hold up to 7246 inmates I One of America s first maximum security prisons but is now a medium security facility I Johnny Cash sang about this prison 0 Folsom Prison Blues Erik Menendez I Serving life at Folsom for helping his brother kill their parents Rick James I Superfreak in the 70 s served 2 years for assaulting a woman Charles Manson I Spent time at Folsom from 19721976 Johnny Cash I Never an inmate o Leavenworth O O O O In Kansas The walls of the prison extent 40 feet high and 40 feet below ground Population 1642 Birdman spent most of his time here 30 years Famous inmate I Birdman I Machine Gun Kelly I Byron Morris 7 former NFL player I Michael Vick 7 Current NFL football player 0 McNeil Island 0 This is 25 mle wide and 3 mile long prison was opened in 1875 in Steilacoom Washington Is the oldest prison in the Northwest was is the last prison in America built on an island that is only access by boat or helicopter Only holds 908 inmates Famous inmates I Charles Manson 0 San Quentin 0 San Quentin California oldest correction institution opened1852 0 Holds 5967 o Overlooks San Francisco bay and had Califomia s gas Chamber 0 This prison held Charles Manson and Stage Coach robber Black Bart 0 Scott Peterson conVicted of killing his wife Laci and their unborn child Connor 0 Stanley Tookie Williams conVicted murderer and cofounder of the Crips street gang 0 Merle Haggard I Sentenced 15 years only served 3 o Sirhan Sirhan 7 Robert Kennedy assassin o Sing Sing 0 Located in Ossining NY 0 Hold 1533 inamtes in 800 cells 0 Made by inmates from auburn o Phrase up the river refers to prisoner being sent up the Hudson from NY to Sing Sing 0 1953 Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were put to death at Sing Sing for espionage 0 during the Cold War Albert Fish a serial killer and cannibal Wall Unit 0 O O In texas Was the only prison in the 11 confederate states still standing after the civil war Executions not held at the walls or it was but wasn t waited there Supermax Prisons O O O O O O O O 0 Reserved for inmates who have extensive records of misconduct Extremely strict control including use of solitary con nement Florence Colorado were Mexican Ma a leader Ruben Nite Owl Castro is incarcerated AlQaeda terrorist Zacarias Moussaaoui was sentenced to life without parole at Florence upon his conviction on May 2006 Professor Theodore Kaczynski Unabomber who attacked via mail bombs Robert Hanssen American FBI Agent turned Soviet Spy Terry Nichols an accomplice to the Oklahoma City Bombing Eric Rudolph 7 Atlantic Olympic Bomber Ramzi Yousef who led the first WTC attack Supermax in US 0 O O O Started in 1983 Developed from the permanent lockdown at Marion Illinois I Two officers were murdered during separate incidents on the same day I Lock down lasted 23 years until September 2006 o Longest Lockdown in American History 35 states have super max prisons I Different forms variations There is an national move away from the supermax facilities Most inmates exercise alone not by choice 23 of 24 hour lockdown 1 hour to exercise 3 minute showers Rare face to face contact with family members Level one has no privileges 0 Must wear handcuffs and belly chain when out of cell 0 Level two 0 Some television 0 Level three 0 Some personal freedom 0 What to do to go to Supermax O O O O 0 Institutional infractions Attempting escape 5 Riot Assaulting staff 16 Assaulting another inmate 20 Murdering or attempted murder of fellow inmates 18 Assault on fellow inmate Escape attempt 10 Judicial order 3 Other 28 o What do prisoners say 0 O O O O 60 claim direct experience with excessive force 63 reported use of excessive pepper spray instead of restraints 76 report psychological harassment 58 say psychological needs were unmet 58 report medical need were unmet January 20 2011 CJ Corrections Email for TA 7 m1083txstateedu Early Correctional Thought 0 Corrections 7 are a wide range of sanctions treatment programs and services for offenders 0 Goals of Corrections 0 Surveillance and control of offenders Surveillance 7 watch them 0 Punish criminals we are all criminals o Deterrence 7 trying to prevent someone from committing future crimes and incapacitation 7 taking someone out of the streets 0 Reduce recidivism through treatment and rehabilitation 0 Out of 6000000 felonies reported only about 8 percent are convicted and 4 percent are sent to prison 0 Why should students study corrections 0 It is a booming business 0 Currently over 65 million under correctional supervision 0 Variety of correctional job opportunities exist in many fields of study 0 Jobs Corrections officer Parole officer Treatment centers Wardens Boot camps Computer specialist Psychologist Training instructors Teachercoach Safety Manager Medical officers I Drug specialist I Gang specialist o The Birth Of Penology I The birth of corrections begins with cesare beccaria and deterrence theog I Wrote an essay on crimes and punishment book a philosophy of punishment in 1764 I Wrote down his thoughts and listed his philosophies and punishments for certain crimes I He argues that to deter crime punishments needed to be swift and certain I Criminals should be punished on the degree of injury not on criminal imit I Believed 39 39 should be A A To keep offenders from committing the most serious crime I Believed that 39 39 should fit the crime I Condemned the torture of suspects Torture only ensured that weak suspects would incriminate themselves I He wanted society s bonds to become stronger and not weaker from punishments I Believed that each crime could be eradicated through the right penal medicine I Problem with Beccaria s theory He overlooks that not all individuals were rational in their actions I Jeremy Bentham 7 an English reformer who is best known for his utilitarian theories I He believed people seek pleasure while at the same time trying to avoid pa I People make free will decisions to commit crime by weighing of advantages versus disadvantages of action I To prevent crime the pains of punishment must outweigh the pleasure derived from criminal activity Hedonistic Calculus 7 pleasurepain principle Crime was not sinful but rather improper calculation He wanted to prevent crime and not just punish offenders Wrote the Panopticon in 1791 His book focused on the constant observation of inmates Cell blocks were constructed around a central guard tower Suggested that private contractors might want to use convict labor Milbank Prison incorporated his architectural ideas Bentham willed over his body to be preserved and kept as if he were thinking at the University of College in London Originally prisons were just a method of ensuring that people made it to court Fines developed as an alternative to going to prison Many early problems men and women together old and young together young learned from old High overcrowding sickness and death Almost all felonies in England resulted in executions Many judges offered the colonies in lieu of death The transportation act of 1718 made transportation the standard penalty for non capital offenses Between 1718 and 1776 an estimated 50000 British convicts were shipped to the colonies Did this until the American Revolution then used hulks large ship used as prisons then sent to Australia John Howard 7 elected sheriff of Bedfordshire England in 1773 and was responsible for all the local prisons Probably the most influential 39 39 in terms of penal reform mid 0 women should be kept separate from men 0 Juvenile should be separate 0 Cleaned on daily basis 0 Well ventilated 0 Should not suffer unnecessarily I Developed the term penitentiary for selfdiscipline and moral mediation Re ect on what you did wrong N I Credited for getting Parliament to pass the Penitentiary Act of 1779 which provided four principles of reform 0 Secure and sanitary structures 0 Systematic inspection 0 Doing away with fees 0 Having a reformatory structure 0 The History of Corrections in America 0 Virginia s Military Law I Jamestown was the first permanent settlement in North America 1607 I Captain John Smith ruled under martial law and law code entitled m Lawes Divine Moral and Martial I Death for blasphemy trading with Indians stealing boats forgery sodomy rape and destruction of crops I Missing Church 0 First offense loss of a weeks rations 0 Second offense rations and whipping 0 Third offense punishable by death I Strong military existence because of the fear of attack from the Indians and Spanish in Florida I The real enemies were diseases and starvation Many were simply not accustomed to physical labor I The first recorded execution resulted from a man murdering his wife and unborn child for food I Harsh with humiliation tactics o Penance in church for missing 0 Shaming through stock and pillories 0 Public whippings of women for adultery The dunking stool used for women gossip Sumptua laws regulations against excess dress or home furnishings Treason Stretched the traitor on a wheel to break his back then disemboweling him then hanging him then cutting off his head and exhibiting it on a pole Massachusetts Puritans O O O O O O O O O O O Believed in the freedom of religion but only their religion They banished practicing Quakers Were ruled by the Body of Liberties that had a strong religious in uence Church attendance was mandatory and was punishable by nes or imprisonment Failure to obey your parents could result in death Public lectures from clergymen Ordeal by touch for infanticide claiming still born Higher being to see if they are guilty or not Touching the Victim to see if it would bleed bierright 1 One case the mother was forced to touch the babies check and it ushed she confessed then was hanged Sexual Offenses were punished harshly I Adultery death both I Records three people Many times these offenses resulted in fines whippings or house of corrections Masturbation punishable by death A capital offense could not be given without two witnesses Sumptua Laws were also in use Women could not wear makeup have long hair or use beaver hats Punishments I Burning at the stake I Hanging I Amputation of ears I Slitting of nostrils I Branding faces and hands 0 Salem witch trials I Was a result of the largest witch hunt in American History I Spectral evidence witnesses claimed visions of their tormentors I 150 people were arrested I 19 men and women were hung as witches Pennsylvania 0 O O Ruled by the Great Law in 1682 AKA The Quaker Code Banned atheists and nonbelievers from the colonies Much more humane than other colonies Death in Pennsylvania for traitors and murderers Instead of executions they used prison sentences Gambling cursing and drunkenness could get you five days in prison Important BC prisons were hardly ever used in early Americas Mainly death nes and banishments Last time we used banishments was in Alaska 1994 Incest and Sodomy I First offense one year in prison I Second offense life in prison William Penn believed that the state should pav for the offender s 39 quot as opposed to charging the offenders Prisoners were given free food and board and he believed that the punishment should fit the crime February 1 2011 Walnut Street Jail First state jail in Penn Penitentiary 7 an institute created to isolate prisoners from society so they can re ect repent and reform 0 Known as solitary system it relied upon the total seclusion of inmates could not talk to any one Inmates were brought into the jail in silence processed hoofed blindfolded and leaf to their cells where they would spend their entire sentence The solitary nature of the jail ensured criminal behavior would not be learned Only silent contact between the keeper and the kept was occasionally permitted Auburn the silent system Silent system inmates were kept in different cells and required to remain silent However during the day they worked with other inmates Night in solitary confinement Eyes were always cast down when they moved around in lockstep Additionally credited for the development of striped uniforms If you broke rules you are sent to dark hole wet interior unlighted cell with a diet of bread and water or By whippings with the catoninetails vicious leather whip designed to tear the maximum amount of skin with each stroke Eventually the shower Chinese torture replaced by oggings Cheaper to build because the cells were not built for solitary confinement Executions were conducted at Auburn No executions since 1976 Still make license plates at Auburn February 10 2011 Southern Penology 0 Post Civil War devastation produced 2 results 0 Lease system 0 Businesses would negotiated with state for labor 0 Leased prisoners working on granite columns for the Texas Capitol o Penal Falms o Staterun plantations which grew crops I To feed inmates I To sell on free market Western developments 0 Penology in west not greatly in uenced by the ideologies of the east 0 1852 San Quentin Califomia s first prison 0 Overcrowded prisons o Prisons in California have been declared unconstitutional in 2009 Reformatory Movement 18701890 0 Pushed against oppressive system 0 Focus remained 9 inmate change 0 Still had a strong religious in uence 0 Key features 0 Indeterminate sentences not fixed 0 Offender classification should be based on character and institutional behavior 0 Use early release as incentive to reform I Mark System a Norfolk 1000 miles off the coast of Australia b Criminal were twice condemned 7 sent to Australia then to Norfolk c 1400 inmates guarded by 150 military troops d Constant misery caused numerous riots e f g h I A system for inmate release39 based on crime and behavior Devised by Alexander 39 39 in 1840 At sentencing i An offender is given a number of marks based on an offense 1 Murder 7 20 robbery 7 15 etc ii A debt to society is to be paid For release you earn marks via i Voluntary labor ii Participation in education and religion iii Good behavior 2 The Irish System a b C d By Sir Walter Crofton Derived from Maconochie s mark system Fourstage graduated release i Based on performance All sentences served in four stages Solitary con nement 7 all start here then night con nement 9 months Public works prison 7 working in prison then day release iii Intermediate stage 7 in and out like a halfway house iv Ticket of leave 7 conditional release that can be revoked precursor of modern parole 3 Elmira Reformatory E Fquot qorh Zebulon Brockway 7 Father of Prison Reform Intake interview determine causes of crime Individualized work and education program Mark system of classi cation work school and behavior Administrators determine release date Move up or down with marks Highest Stage i Improved eating arrangements ii Better clothes iii More freedom in prison h Lowest Stages No visitors i No writing or receiving letters iii No library iv Meals in their rooms i Educate all inmates j Hired teachers professors attorneys Reformatory Movement Ends Failed to reform Brutality of inmates Corruption of staff Not administered as planned Most important features survived o Inmate classification 0 Rehabilitation programs 0 Indeterminate sentences 0 Parole February 15 2011 The Progressives Advocated treatment of offender Not punishment according to severity of the crime as Beccaria Atavistic criminal 7 individuals had stigmata that made it evident just by looking at them that they were criminal No way to get rid of them Execution is the only way Lombroso up Parks and Burges O O 0 Zone of transition I The Concentric Zone Model 0 1 Central Business District 0 2 Transitional Zone 0 Recent Immigrant Groups 0 Deteriorated Housing 0 Factories o Abandoned Buildings 0 3 Working Class Zone 0 Singly family tenements o 4 Residential Zone 0 Single Family Homes 0 Yards garages o 5 Commuter Zone 0 Suburbs Half a bulls eye middle to out is l to 5 Mark every time crime occurs in that zone Zone two is where crime is occurring 0 Shaw and McKay 7 High Risk Areas 0 O O Heterogeneity 7 cultural differences living together Mobility 7 no stationary existence Poverty 0 Juvenile Justice 0 Positivist School 0 O O A theory that stresses the application of scientific techniques of the study of crime and criminals XYY chromosome I People in prison get extra y chromosome more testosterone Principles I Behavior including crime is NOT the product of free will 0 Behavior stems from factors beyond control of the individual Criminal can be treated so they can lead crimefree lives Treatment must focus on the individual and problem 0 2 strategies for C reform o Improves general social economic conditions that breed crime 0 Rehabilitate offenders 0 Progressive Reform 0 4 strategies Probation John Augustus is father of probation Indeterminate sentencing Brockway Parole 7 keep prisons from overcrowding Juvenile Courts 7 crook county 1899 0 Separate juveniles from adults 0 Should not get the same punishments o More protection than punishment


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