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by: Miss Alexandrine Ortiz


Miss Alexandrine Ortiz
Texas State
GPA 3.62


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Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miss Alexandrine Ortiz on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ACC 2301 at Texas State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/212877/acc-2301-texas-state-university in Accounting at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Test 3 Alcohol Objectives 1 Be able to determine how much alcohol is in a beverage based on it s proof 0 Beer 56 alcohol 7 proof is double that 7 10 to 12 proof 0 Wine 814 alcohol 16 to 28 proof 0 Liquor 3545 alcohol 70 to 90 proof 2 Define standard sizes of alcoholic beverages and the term moderate drinking for both men and women 0 Standard size of alcoholic beverages is usually 15 grams of alcohol 12 ounces of regular beer one serving size 5 ounces of wine one serving size 15 ounces of 80 proof distilled spritsmartini one serving size 10 ounce of wine cooler one serving size 0 These are all one serving of alcohol which is 15 grams 0 Moderate drinking for women 7 no more than 1 drink a day 0 Moderate drinking for me no more than 2 drinks a day 3 Define binge drinking and explain how it increases the risk of alcohol poisoning o Binge drinking is 4 or more drinks at one occasion for females and 5 or more for males o Methanol recognize it as ethanol 7 anafreeze 7this is why people can drink it an die quickly 0 Methanol wood alcohol poisonous if blood alcohol levels rise high enough poisoning cause respiratory failure and death 4 Describe ethanol where it s from and the calories per gram it provides 0 Ethanol is the alcohol in beer wine and sprits 5 Summarize how alcoholic beverages are produced the first two stages what is used and what are the products 0 Fermentation lst stage yeast multiplies until oxygen depletion o 2quotd stage yeast survives anaerobically by digesting sugars to produce gases 0 C02 7 c2h6o ethanol h20 0 Yeast and water are combined at room temp 6 Outline the process of alcohol absorption transport and metabolism Know the two different locations and ways of alcohol metabolism No digestion required Absorbed from mouth esophagus stomach and small intestine Absorption slowed by food Passive diffusion into all cells damaging proteins Stomach 7 rst site of digestion Metabolism go into blood stream and can be stored as fat Ifyou overwhelm enzymes 7 it will continue to be absorbed can go to brain and bloodstream liver going to have to finish it so stomach and liver metabolize it 7 Discuss factors affecting alcohol metabolism 0 Race ethnicity 7 asian decent loss of alcohol dehydrogenase very little aldehyde dehydrogenase lots of acetaldehyde in bloodstream causing ushing nausea headache 0 Gender men have more alcohol dehydrogenase than women 0 Age lose enzyme activity as age increases into late adulthood 8 Know the reasons women have lower tolerances for alcohol 0 Body size women are smaller than men smaller livers and less total water 0 Women have a higher percentage of fat than men less water to dilute alcohol 0 40 less enzyme activity 7 alcohol dehydrogenase 9 Discuss potential bene ts of using alcohol 0 Heart disease lowers LDL highers HDL lowers Platelet aggression 0 Bene ts remain after alcohol is removed 10 Summarize the risks of alcohol consumption and know the long term effects of chronic alcohol consumption which ones persist after drinking 0 Can pretty much damage every organ 0 We have a lot of veins in our live have to have a lot of circulation 0 Chronic excessive consumption of alcohol leads to fat deposits and in amtion in the liver called alcoholic hepatitis 0 Effects are reversible alcohol hepatitis 0 11 Describe the effects of chronic alcohol use on the liver Know the differences between a healthy liver alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis 0 Healthy liver has veins going out both lobes of liver has a lot of circulation o Cirrhosis 7 scaring throughout liver irreversible fatal 0 7 beers a day for 10 years can lead to cirrhosis in men 3 a day for 10 years in women 12 Know what fetal alcohol syndrome is and how it can damage a fetus When is the critical period for fetal alcohol syndrome 0 Happens when mom is pregnant and drinking and affects baby 3rd and 4th month Causes abnormalities Mental retardation Low birth weight poor growth CRITICAL period 1216 weeks gestation o Fetus never metabolize ethanol 13 List how alcohol affects breastmilk o Decreases milk production 0 Disrupts babies sleep pattern 0 Infants consume less milk 0 Express milk after drinking time dependant on amount and dispose Metabolism Lecture Objectives Part 1 1 Define metabolism pathway anabolism catabolism dynamic state aerobic anaerobic coenzyme glycolysis TCA cycle and electron transport chain ketosis betaoxidation deamination and urea le Metabolism the sum total of all chemical reactions that go on in the living room Metabolic pathway a series of reactions from start to finish end product is a metabolic pathway Anabolic build up Catabolic break down Dynamic state the body is always in a dynamic state of controlled gentle turmoil both anabolism and catabolism are occurring simultaneously allows for tissue maintenance Anaerobic absence of oxygen process that does not require oxygen Aerobic presence of oxygen process that requires oxygen Coenzyme organic compounds bind with inactive enzymes to activate b vitamins work with u cannot work without enzyme Glycolysis first step in the breakdown of glucose occurs in the cytosol anaerobic TCA cycle and electron transport chain stage 3 in carbohydrate metabolism in mitochondria aerobic start with acetyl coA 2 carbons end with oxaloacetate Electron transport chain stage 4 in carb metabolism in mitochondria aerobic a series of redox reactions that create an environment that changes the ATP synthase enzyme start with NADH and FADH2 and end with 28 ATP Ketosis condition of having a high concentration of ketone bodies and related breakdown products in the bloodstream and tissues Beta oxidation the process of converting a free fatty acid to multiple acetyl coA molecules Because it begins with the beta carbon which is the second carbon on a fatty acid chain Deamination removal of amino group results in creation of toxic ammonia Urea cycle 2 Discuss the objective of catabolic metabolism and list the catabolic pathways Discuss the objective of anabolic metabolism and list the anabolic pathways Objective produce ATP to keep reactions going Some reactions need a little ATP to get started but yield a lot more ATP Anabolic pathways use small simpler compounds to build larger more complex compounds Catabolic pathways break down compounds into small units 3 Explain how ATP provides energy what types of processes it is used for and how it is made What does it mean to couple reactions ATP stores and yields energy in its phosphate bonds 3 phosphates fully charged ADP 2 phosphates not as charged Creating ATP ADP Phosphate ATP ATP is formed from the energy released during metabolic reactions in the TriCarboxylic Acid TCA cycle and the Electron Transport Chain 4 Know how many net ATP are produced at each stage of carbohydrate metabolism I 2 5 Explain what coenzymes are used for in metabolism what vitamin is often found in them and which coenzyme is repeatedly used in carbohydrate metabolism Used to bind with inactive enzymes to activate them B vitamins are found in them I D 6 Explain the purpose of redox reactions in metabolism especially in fueling the electron transport chain 7 Describe the stages of glucose catabolism Include the location in the cell oxygen status starting and ending products State the number of carbons in each step I 8 Know the three irreversible reactions in glycolysis noted by single headed arrow What is the purpose of each of the three irreversible reactions ls ATP necessary Step 1 Glucose to glucose phosphate step 2 fructose 6 phosphate to fructose 16 biphosphate step 7 phosphoglycerate to pyruvate ATP is necessary 9 Explain what the electron transport chain is and how ATP is produced The final pathway of aerobic respiration located in the mitochondria Functions in most cells in body Cells that need a lot of ATP Oxidative phoshorylation start with NADH and FADH2 10 Explain the purpose ofthe Cori cycle and which tissues are involved In the absence of oxygen pyruvate is converted to lactic acid liver and muscle 11 Explain what betaoxidation is and how the triglyceride endproducts result in ATP production The process of converting a free fatty acid to multiple aceytal coA molecules is called beta oxidation because it begins with the beta carbon on a fatty acid 12 Discuss the significance of oxaloacetate what can happen if the body runs short ofthe needed amount of oxaloacetate and how such a shortage might occur Briefly explain the process of ketone production Acetyl coA binds with oxaloacetate to begin the TCA cycle Oxaloacetate is derived primarily from CHO When the diet is low in CHO there is inadequate oxaloacetate to continue the cycle This leads to the formation of ketone bodies 13 List the different nutrients that can be made from protein in amino acid metabolism 14 Identify the connection between protein ammonia and urea the site of urea formation and the site of urea excretion 15 Describe which metabolic pathways occur during feasting 16 Describe what the predominant and secondary source of energy during early shorttermed and prolonged fasts 17 List and discuss the functions performed by the liver


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