VISUAL COMM MC 3319
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MC3319 Visual Communication Test 1 Review 50 questions multiple choice covering chapters 13 movie clips from class will be on test advised to read book and go over notes What is sense select and perceive AuthorAldous Huxley had a retinal disease which made him more in tune to the images he did see and wrote a book called Seeing which conveyed the idea that seeing clearly is the result of thinking clearly He said that clear vision is achieved using the formula quotsensing plus selecting plus perceiving equals seeing Sensingfirst stage noticing what s aroundyou Selecting second stagefocusing on an individual object Perceiving third stagefinding meaningfor whatyoujustfocused on What three types ofvisual messages does the brain process Mental thoughts dreams and fantasies Direct visual messages you see in real life Mediated visual messages you see on paper or a screen What are the major parts of the eye and retina and how do they work Eye39 5clera white part important because it s the largest part Cornea clear part colored part and muscle that opens and closes the pupil where light enters Optic Chiasm where nerves of the eyes cross allows us to see depth Agueous Humorgel infront m focuses images Vitreous Humor gelfor shape Retina a lining of tissue in the back ofeach eye that contains the photosensitive cells known as rods sensitive to lowlightsituations and movements and cones usedforsharpfocus and color perception Which parts of the brain process and store visual messages Thalam us then Visual Cortex then Hippocampus What are the four Visual cues Colorform depth and movement What are the concepts of contrast and affinity Contrast di erences in color or form The greater the contrast in a visual component the more the visual intensity or dynamic increases Zinitg similarity in color orform The greater the a inity in a visual component the more the visual intensity or dynamic decreases What is color constancy The mind creates color Colors viewed under di erent brightness conditions retain their hue Which dominant color theory emerged to explain how we see color The YoungHelmholtz Trichromatic Theory What is subtractive and additive color and what do they consist of Additive When red green and blue are mixed it is called additive color Equal amounts of these colored lights will make white light Red green and blue are the primary colorsfor light Subtractive When cyan magenta yellow and black are mixed they become darker Subtractive color is used in o set printing Cyan magenta yellow and black are the primary colorsforpaintpigments and printing presses CYMK What are the three ways to describe color and how do they explain our perception of color Obiective also called scientific This method for describing colors rests on the assumption that the perception ofcolor is a result ofvarious light wavelengths stimulating the cones in the retinas There are known standards ofmeasurement set by the location ofa color s wavelength on the electromagnetic spectrum Comparative less accurate than objective relies on an evaluation ofthe person 0ne person s concept of the color red isn t always the same as someone else s ie blood red vsfire engine red A rough estimate ofwhat a colorlooks like Subiective the most symbolic of the three relies on an evaluation of the person in a symbolicemotional way A person s mental state or association with an object strongly a ects the emotional response to a color Warm and cold colors associate a memorable experience whether pleasant or bad with the colors of the objects that constitute the event What is the concept of tone and what are three ways of controlling it M refers to the brightness of objects in relation to the gray scale lmportant factor tonal range ofa picture can help direct an audience s attention The brightest area will usually attract a viewer s atten tion first especially if there is no movement Tonal range can also a ect mood and emotions 3 ways to control tone Re ective art direction brightness range controlled by actual re ectance values of objects Dark tones light tones con trasty tones lncident control lighting gray scale con trolled by the amount ofligh tfalling on objects EXposure adjusting aperture or shutter speed a ects everything in the shot What is form and what are the shapes we talked about in class Form The brain responds to another common attribute ofimages which is the recognition of3 types offorms dots lines and shapes M simplestform demands immediate attention m The result ofother visual components ie perception that allow us to perceive lines Lines appear only due to tone or color contrast 5hapes combo ofdots and lines into patterns There are 3 basic shapes the circle square and triangle What are the eight depth clues SQace depends on theframe in which an image is located ie standing in an openfieldgives thefeeling ofa large amount ofspace and enhances thefeeling of depth m can help in the illusion ofdepth perception ie seeing a plane in the sky and thinking it is smaller than it really is Color warm colored objects appear closer than cool colored objects High contrast pictures with great dijj erences between light and dark tones seem closer than objects colored with more neutral tones ighting dijferences in lighting can communicate depth ie a television studio technician will position a light above and behind a news announcer in order to separate the personfrom the background TeXtural Gradients the ripple e ect seen in a still pond suddenly disturbed by a rock or the ridgesfrom the wind on a sand dune nterposition placement ofan object in front ofanother Graphic designersfor sports magazines use this for their covers with a picture of a player in front of a headline or the publications name The 3D e ect often shows a player seemingly leaping 0 the page M the order ofelements within an imageyou look atfirst second third etc Refers to a viewer s attention to a particular element within an image i e someoneyou know or something you are attracted to because ofpast associations cultural Perspective most complex it is equal parts brain function AND learned behavior A person s cultural heritage has more bearing on the interpretation of perspective attributes than any other one What are the four different types of movement Real Movement motion not connected with an image represented on any screen or medium seen in the real world pparent Movement illusionary ie motion picturefilms Graphic Movement motion ofthe eyes as they scan afield ofview or the way a graphic designer positions elements so that the eyes move throughout a layout ie twister poster example in class mplied Movement motion that a viewer perceives in a still single image without any movement ofan object image or eye Caused by rods and cones ie psychedelic 60 s posters What is Gestalt Theory and what are the various principles involved Gestalt Theory one of the sensual theories Summed up in the saying quotthe whole is dijferent than the sum ofits parts Gestalt is German for quotformquot The theory started with Max Wertheimer and a children s toy ip book Gestalt psychologistsfurther refined the initial work by Wertheimer to conclude that visual perception is a result of organizing sensory elements into various groups Principles imilaritv objects that look similar will be automaticallygrouped together by the brain Proximity the brain more closely associates objects close to each other than it does two objects that arefarther apart Con tin uation the brain does not prefer sudden or unusual changes in the movement ofa line Common Fate a viewer men tally groupsfive arrows orfive raised hands pointing to the sky because they all point in the same direction Closure we tend to want tofinish unfinished objects Pragnanz we tend to like the simplestforms ofimages i e symbols on men s and women s restroom signs What is Constructivism Another sensual theory but this one emphasizes the viewer s eye movements in an active state ofperception rather than Gestalt s passive approach Scanning is a series ofrapidjumps and stops calledfixations ulian Hochberg had a dijferent interpretation than Gestalt when hefound that a test subject s eyes constantly moved as they looked at an image All aspects ofa picture cannot be perceived in a single glance we have to scan Con tent size and placement of images on a page are more important that colors MC Escher pictures are an example of constructivism What is Semiotic Theory and what are the various principles involved Semiotics perceptual theory of the study of signs or symbolism In this context signs are what we routinely refer to as signs every day Signs can be drawings pain tings and photographs or words sounds and body language Explains why we derive the same and dijferent meaningsfrom the same image conic signs the image represents the thing it actually is i e accurate cave pain tings ofanimals by prehistoric humans bathroom signs ndexical signs have a logical commonsense connection to the thing or idea they represent ie afootprint on a beach or a thermometer Symbolic signs have no logical connection between them and the thing they represent They can be taught or can represent an abstract meaning about something i e burning aflag in protest is symbol ofdefiance and anger ignitier an object itself or the technique ofrendering the object ie lighting type offilm black and white ignitied meanings we add to the image Displaced codes are those that transfer meaningform one set ofsigns to another like the guy straddling the bomb in Dr Strangelove What is Cognitive Theory and what are the various principles involved Perceptual theory of the mental process of understanding what s going on around us It assumes that visual communication begins in the viewer with a series of staged mental processes Believes the process is a passive or subconscious interpretation ofa sign Memorv when we comparecontrast an image with a memory Proiection when we project our own meaning onto an image Habituation when we ignore the less important details ie not noticing a billboard that has been the samefor a long time Dissonance cues us to distracting elements like talking during a lecture or the CNN example makes it hard to concentrate Quiz from last class What are the four Visual cues Colorform depth and movement also know the componentparts ofeach What is the most common example of apparent movement A motion picture What are the three types of Visual messages men tal direct mediated also know examples of each The whole is different than the sum ofits partsquot comes from which theory Gestalt also know components What are the 4 grouping laws proXimity similarity continuation commonfate Which theory believes in an active state ofperception Constructivism What does the iris do it s a muscle that opens and closes the pupil What are three types of signs in semiotics iconic indeXicaI symbolic also know examples ofeach Subtractive color uses What four colors Cyan magenta yellow black CYMIQ Which semiotic code transfers meaning displaced code like in Dr Strangelove What are two mental activities affect Visual perception memory projection expectation selectivity habituation etc What is the cinematic technique that Orson Welles used in Citizen Kanequot deepfocus MC33 19 Visual Communication Test 2 Review 50 questions multiple choice covering chapters 4 5 6 8 10 and 11 movie clips from class will be on test advised to read book and go over notes Which professions use persuasion and what are the differences between propaganda and persuasion Advertising PR and journalism use persuasion Persuasion uses factual information propaganda uses onesided and often nonfactual information or opinions that appear to befacts along with emotional appeals What are the details ofquotTriumph of the Will and what persuasion techniques are used in political advertising Triumph ofthe Will is a propagandafilm thatglorifies the Nazis Goebbels Hitler s propaganda minister exploited the use ofen tertainment as lm propaganda Religion power and unity are all themes in thefilm Persuasion techniques used in political advertising ppeal to authority Cites an authority who isn t quali ed to have an expert opinion quotFiremen supportjones as the best choice Firemen are not credible experts m predicts dangerous outcomes ifyoufollow a course other than the speaker s quotThis kind ofeconomic policy will makeyou lose yourjob popularity AKA bandwagon quotPolls show thatAmericans prefer their current health care system ttacking the person AKA quotAd Hominem attacks the person making the argument instead ofthe argument alse dilemma Offers a limited number ofoptions when there are really more choices asgv generalization uses a sample too small to support the conclusion lipperz slope threatens a series of increasingly dire consequences from taking a simpler course of action What are the different persuasion techniques used by media news releases give free publicity taged events attract media attention video news release expensive butget larger audiences that print sent to nightly news or used to sell something xpanded news release like infomercials What is the business side of media as it relates to persuasion The communications industry is a business that s supported by advertising Sometimes the newsroom is effect by economic pressures like letting editorial choice be in uenced by advertisers What is stereotyping and why is it harmful 5tereotyping is a shorthand way to describe a person with collective rather than unique advertising lt s harmful because it leads to scapegoating segregation and discrimination How do dominant cultural groups stereotype and why Dominant cultural groups stereotype through culturism belief that one culturalgroup is better or worse than another We stereotype because our brains naturally classify what we see What is the purpose behind image analysis The purpose behind image analysis is tofind the message an image is trying to communicate It s vital to understanding an image s place within a cultural context An image will beforgotten ifit isn t analyzed Meaning is up to you and onlyyou What are each of the perspectives used in image analysis Personal initial reaction to the work based on your subjective opinions Historical determination of the importance ofwork based on the mediums time line Technical relationship between light recording medium used to produce the work and the presentation ofthe work Ethical moral and ethical responsibilities that the producer subject and viewer ofthe work have Cultural analysis of the symbols used in the work that conveys meaning with in a particular society and particular time Critical the issues that transcend a particular image and shape a reasoned personal reaction Who was Saul Bass what was his background and how did he transform the motion picture industry Saul Bass was a graphic designer mostfamousfor movie posters logos and title scenes He transformed the motion picture industry by changing movie postersfrom pictures ofactor sfaces to a summary of the movie tofront load the audience This new design relied on visuals rather than language to deliver the message of the movies His posters were controversial when they first appeared He launched hisfilm career after designing graphicsfor quotThe Man with the Golden Arm What is the halftone process and what is its significance lt s a series ofhorizontal and vertical lines It produced higher quality images and allowed the regular use ofphotographs in newspapers rather than an artist sketched representation of the image What are the definitions and types of good graphic design white space balance contrast etc Graphic Design the art and craft ofbringing organized structure to a group of diverse elements both verbal and visual Good graphic design depends on the cultural values of the audience Contrast refers differences in color size symbolism time and sound Proportion or scale refers to the spatial relationship between the design elements and the size of the page White spaces relates to size Sound refers to the audio aspects involved with a presentation like music narration dialogue and sound effects Balance placement ofelement with in aframe considered balanced ifit equalized the weightbetween X ampy axes Rhythm controls movement of the viewer s eyefrom one element to another simplicity is part ofthe rhythm ofa design Uni v elements within a design should all be similar in content with elements fitting the same mood What are the five graphic design eras and what are the purposes of graphic design PreGutenberg Egyptian books Greek symmetry roman letters andgraphic clerics Gutenberg invention ofthe printing press lndustrial graphic design purpose was to attract customers through advertising Richard Hoe made improvement to steampowered press and Thomas Nast was the first visual artist Artistic the wide spread use of images because of the invention of the halftone Digital Computer Purpose of graphic design to bring organized structure to a group of diverse elements and to communicate Visual messages Who is Matt Groening and what is the history of how the Simpson39s began Matt Groening is a cartoonist who created the animated television series The Simpson s The charactersfor The Simpson s were developedfrom Groening s weekly comic strip called Life in Hell The series began as short stories for Fox s Tracy Ullman Show Thefirst episode aired in 1 989 and is the longest running cartoon on TV How did the term quotyellowquot journalism begin William Randolph Hearst and joseph Pulitzer exaggerated news stories during the Spanish American war to increase newspaper sales Which movie rst used special effects and animated drawings A Trip to the Moon by George Melies in 1902 What are the different types of cartoons ingleramed caricatures cave drawings Al Hirschfeld editorials Thomas Nast humorous Charles Addams Gary Larson Multi ramed Egyptian paintings Greek vases ip books comic strips Peanuts Fritz the Cat animatedfilms What are the terms used for cartoons eveling simple or complex setting complex would be a serious feeling like Spiderman and simple would be an easyfeeling like Charlie Brown Assimilation crude or sophisticated characters Frame word placement Setting simple or complex Characters crude or sophisticated drawings Motion Lines heat waves give direction Typography type of text important in printed cartoons because reader of the word becomes the actor Who created the rst photograph who was the father of photography and what made photography possible Nicephore Niepce is thefather ofphotography and created thefirst photograph The coming together ofoptical and chemical processes made photography possible What is depth of eld aperture shutter speed and ISO and what do they do epth ot Field The amount ofdistance between the nearest andfarthest objects lt sgoverned by aperture lensfocal length like 50 mm 200mm and shooting distance The closeryou are to an object the less the DOF Aperture like our pupil responds to light wide open little DOF 5h utter Speed how fast the picture is taken a ects exposure and motion changes sensitivity to light lower 50 means lower sensitivity to ligh t e ects exposure What are the basic lenses used in photography Wide Angle gives wider perspective but distorts lines Normal 50 mm lens give the point ofview ofa human eye Telephoto brings things closer like binoculars Macro closeup Fisheve distorts curvature of earth