WRITING MASS MEDIA (WI)
WRITING MASS MEDIA (WI) MC 1313
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Stephanie Bauch on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MC 1313 at Texas State University taught by K. Fox in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see /class/212897/mc-1313-texas-state-university in Journalism and Mass Communications at Texas State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
MC 1313 Midterm Review HeadlineThe big type written by copy editors that summarizes the story BylineThe reporter s name often followed by credentials Many papers require that stories be a certain lengthor written by a stafferto warrant a byline LeadThe opening of a story A news lead condenses the key facts of the event into the first paragraph Liftout Quote Aka pullquote A quotation from the story that s given a special emphasis nfographicInformational graphics display key facts from the story in a visual way At big paperscreated by artists small papersproduced by editors or reporters CaptionAka cutline Information about the photo is often collected by photographers but written by copy editors or reporters Nut graphAn explanatory paragraph near the top of the story that summarizes what the story is about or tells readers why they should care ParaphraseAn indirect quote that summarizes in your own words what someone else said common way to clarify or condense someone else s statements necessary because people don t always speak articulately or efficiently so quoting them indirectly lets you rephrase their ideas in a clearer more concise way Direct quoteState exactly word for word what someone said or wrote Always begin and end with quotation marks Qualities of News ImpactDoes the story matter to the readers Will it affect their lives The bigger the consequences the bigger the story becomes ImmediacyHas the story just happened Timeliness is crucial especially when you re competing against other news outlets ProximityHow close is the story Nearby events will matter more to readers than events in other cities states or countries ProminenceDoes this story involve a well known public figure or celebrity If so readers are bound to be more concerned or curious Noveltyls something new odd or surprising going on Readers enjoy news that s intriguing and unexpected Conflict Clash or power Sports rivalry Reporters and readers both enjoy dramatic storytelling Emotions Sad Angry or Happy We all respond emotionally to human interest stories that are poignant comical or inspiring o Plagiarism quoting another s thoughts and words is only ok with proper attribution 0 Use direct quotes paraphrases or rework and reword until the idea is your own 0 Element ofa good guote don t bore readers with dull quotes avoid using a quote as a lead don t mimic someone s dialect beware of foul language don t distort a quote s meaning 0 Courtesy Titles 0 Anonymous sources when a source doesn t want to be named or quoted in a story because they re embarrassed or feel afraid Sometimes giving a source anonymity is the only way to get info into a story but it can hurt your credibility it s generally discouraged 0 Ways to nd stem ideas through noticing a fad like nose rings talking to a friend about something bizarre or come across something interesting o Boolean search allow you to combine words and phrases using the words AND OR NOT and NEAR otherwise known as Boolean operators to limit widen or define your search 0 Planning an interview 0 Before get familiar with the topic decide who to interview and where organize your questions 0 During start with the basics name age begin with easy questions keep the questions simple ask them to slow down if they re speaking too fast try using silence as a tactic to get them to go on save the toughest question for last 0 After review your notes while they re still in front of you to clarify confusion ask interviewees to call you if they think of anything else say thank you review your notes again later privately Freedom of Information the public39s right to know what the government is up to Journalists can attend open courtrooms open meetings and open public records to obtain this info Pros and Cons oftage recorders 0 Pros most accurate to capture every word spoken have actual proof of what was said if someone tries to challenge your story can post interview audio on your paper s website 0 Cons transcribing takes time if the background is noisy it can be impossible to hear the machine can jam or the batteries can die Inverted Pyramid story structure best for news briefs and breaking news Summarize key facts in a precise lead then organize paragraphs in descending order of importance Martini Glass story structure best for crimes disasters or other stories where chronology is important Begin with inverted pyramid of story s most important facts then shift to a chronological narrative end with a kicker The Kabob story structure best for trends or story where actual people are affected Begin with quote about a specific person broaden to a general discussion of the topic then end going back to that specific person 0 Types of Leads summary lead narrative lead scenesetter lead direct address lead uses quotyouquot or secondperson blind lead deliberately tease readers by withholding a key piece of info the startling statement Le a stat roundup lead long list of people places and things in the story wordplay lead puns quotLazf leads to be avoided topic leads question leads quote leads 0n the record Active vs Passive voice Diversiy in Sources helps to reflect the entire community s voice in your story Go outside your social circle an common areas visited to find people with different experiences and backgrounds Giving Voice to the Voiceless You should understand how to 0 Edit for attribution does something need attribution 0 Take a look at the Attribution amp Opinion handout To attribute or not to attribute that is the question If a statement is common knowledge or undisputed fact then it does not need attribution to lend credibility or authority If a statement contains opinion a writer must attribute the information tell the reader the source of the information thereby lending credibility to the information or letting the reader decide if the information is credible 0 Edit for extra words 0 Refer to the Write Tight Exercise handout Make sure you understand the concept of how to omit extraneous words and eliminate wordiness 0 Edit for AF Style 7 Pay special attention to the section in the AP style guide on dealing with special groups ie people with disabilities 0 O O O 0 disabled handicapped impaired In general do not describe an individual as disabled or handicapped unless it is clearly pertinent to a story lfa description must be used try to be specific A71 ad alaring adorMie aej Fox megi744 nolieeaa lfrom l e e edx of Pareimort x dixeaxe drew rialiomiide alfertlion Avoid descriptions that connote pity such as a lidedwil or ya erxfrom mailipe reieroxix Rather at mailipe vieermix Some terms include Hippie Often considered offensive when used to describe a person who is lame or disabled dixaaedA general term used for a physical or mental disability Do not use walla retarded andieeg It should be avoided in describing a disability HiridDescribes a person with complete loss of sight For others use terms such as iiyaai l impaired orperxort wil 0w pixie deafDescribes a person with total hearing loss For others usepariia earirtg 055 or pariia l deaf Avoid using deafmale Do not use deaf and Maia male Describes a person who physically cannot speak Others with speaking difficulties are speee impaired w eee airimer People use wheelchairs for independent mobility Do not use mafined lo a w eee air orw eee airiaomzd If a wheelchair is needed say why 0 Edit for grammar especially comma rules particularly compound sentences and serial comma and verb agreement 0 See the Comma Handout for a set of complete rules 0 Pay special attention to AP Style addresses affect and effect ages dates titles and numbers learn these for Part 1 0 addresses Use the abbreviations Are Bird and 31 only with a numbered address 7600 Pearlyvanialre Spell them out and capitalize when part ofa formal street name without a number Pearlyrailia Avenue Lowercase and spell out when used alone or with more than one street name Mamae melfx and Pennyrania arenaex 39 All similar words ae drive road terraee etc always are spelled out Capitalize them when part ofa formal name without a number lowercase when used alone or with two or more names 39 Always use figures for an address number 9 Momirlglide Ciree 0 oo 39 Spell out and capitalize Firxl through Nint when used as street names use figures with two letters for70l and above 7Fi Ave 700 275137 39 Abbreviate compass points used to indicate directional ends ofa street or quadrants ofa city in a numbered address 222 E 42ndXZ 562 U7 43rd l 600 K31 NW Do not abbreviate if the number is omitted E5151 4271a X lreel W651 43rd Eireel Kflreel Northext No periods in quadrant abbreviations 7 NW SE 7 unless customary locally 39 Use periods in the abbreviation PO for PO Box numbers affect effect A as a verb means to influence T e game will a eel l e itandiagx 39 A as a noun is best avoided It occasionally is used in psychology to describe an emotion but there is no need for it in everyday language 39 E eel as a verb means to cause He will e eel maiy e angex in l e eompaiyl 39 Effect as a noun means result T e ee wax oveny elming He mixealmlaleal l e ee of ii aeliom It way a law oflilfle eet ages Always use figures T egirl i5 ifjearx olab l e law it Ejearx olab l e 707jear70lal ame When the context does not requirejeari orjeam old the gure is presumed to begear 39 Use hyphens for ages expressed as adjectives before a noun or as substitutes for a noun 39 Examples A fjeariolal be but l e be i fjeam old T e be 7 ax a Jixler 70 Tie woman 26 ax a daag ter 2 month old T e rate ixfor jeariolab T e woman ii in er 305 no apostrophe dates Always use Arabic figures without 51 ad rdor 15 titles In general confine capitalization to formal titles used directly before an individuale name 39 The basic guidelines 39 LOWERCASE Lowercase and spell out titles when they are not used with an individual39s name T epreiidenl imteal a xlatemeal T epope gave bi alemiag 39 Lowercase and spell out titles in constructions that set them offfrom a name by commas T e iieepreiialent Nelimi Ree ller deelineal 10 run again Pope Beaedz39elXVI l e mmnlpope doe 7101 plan 10 relire 39 COURTESY TITLES See courtesy titles for guidelines on when to use Min Mn Mm M5 or no titles 39 The forms Mn Mm Mix and M5 apply both in regular text and in quotations 39 FORMAL TITLES Capitalize formal titles when they are used immediately before one or more names Pope Beaedz39elXVI PresidenlBaraee Okama WM Presidealxjo n form and Wlliam Xmil 39 A formal title generally is one that denotes a scope of authority professional activity or academic activity 5 e71 Diamie Feimlein Dr Marem Welkj P121 Gamer Pyle 39 Other titles serve primarily as occupational descriptions axlnmauljo n Glemi movie ilarfo a Wignepearmlfamerjimmy Carter 39 A final determination on whether a title is formal or occupational depends on the practice of the governmental or private organization that confers it If there is doubt about the status ofa title and the practice of the organization cannot be determined use a construction that sets the name or the title off with commas 39 ABBREVIATED TITLES The following formal titles are capitalized and abbreviated as shown when used before a name both inside and outside quotations Dr Goa Ll Goa Rep Sen and certain military ranks listed in militar titles All other formal titles are spelled out in all uses GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS In stories with US datelines do not include UHF before the titles of Secretary of State or other government officials except Where necessary for clarity Examples Seereldgl offline Hilldgl Rodbdm Clinlon Alforng GeneralErie Holder In stories with international datelines include US before the titles UHF Seminal of Elnle Hillag Rodbam Clinlon US Alforng GeneralErie Holder Exceptions President Bdrme Obnmn WM Prexidenljoe Biden ROYAL TITLES Capitalize leing queen etc when used directly before a name See individual entries and nobility TITLES OF NOBILITY Capitalize a full title when it serves as the alternate name for an individual See nobility PAST AND FUTURE TITLES A formal title that an individual formerly held is about to hold or holds temporarily is capitalized ifused before the person39s name But do not capitalize the qualifying wordformerPreJident Geoge U7 me depoxed King Conxlanline Alforng Genemldeiignale Gri n B Bell doling Megor PelerBarUI LONG TITLES Separate a long title from a name by a construction that requires a comma Cbnrlex Robinxon lbe nnderxeiretagl for eeonomie Win Jpoee Or Tbe nnderxeiretagl for eeonomie Win Cbarlex Robinxon y oee UNIQUE TITLES Ifa title applies only to one person in an organization insert the word lbe in a construction that uses commasobnone5 lbe dean Vite presidenl Jpoee ADDITIONAL GUIDANCE Many commonly used titles and occupational descriptions are listed separately in this book together with guidelines on Whether andor when they are capitalized In these entries the phrases be ore a name or immediale l before a name are used to specify that capitalization applies only when a title is not set off from a name by commas O numerals A numeral is a figure letter word or group of words expressing a number Roman numerals use the letters I l X L C D and M Use Roman numerals for wars and to show personal sequence for animals and people World War ILNalioe DaneerH King Geoge VI Popejobn X301 See Roman numerals Arabic numerals use the figures 7 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 and 0 Use Arabic forms unless Roman numerals are specifically required See Arabic numerals The figures 7 2 70 707 etc and the corresponding words 7 one Iio len one bundred one etc 7 are calledmrdinnl numberx The term ordinal number applies to 751 2nd 701b 70751firxl xerond lenlb one bundred rxl etc Follow these guidelines in using numerals SENTENCE START Spell out a numeral at the beginning of a sentence If necessary recast the sentence There is one exception 7 a numeral that identifies a calendar year quotWritingquot Basic News Leads 35 words or less answers who what when where why Feature Lead involves using unusual details to catch the readers attention can be used when there is no hard news to grab the readers attention Anecdotal Lead A humorous dramatic or revealing incident that39s used to begin a story Narrative Lead A lead that begins a story by placing readers in the middle of the action Scenesetter sets a scene descriptions of sights sounds trasnports u to another place Question Lead draw your reader in with a question Quote Leads drawing off well known sayings or quotes gives the reader immediate context Paraphrase an indirect quote or summary of what the newsmaker said