INTRO MASS COMM
INTRO MASS COMM MC 1301
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Chapter 4 Study Guide Books Why Books Are Unigue Less timelythan other print media Bound amp covered Made to last longer than other print media indepth durable welldeveloped Not heavily supported by advertising most earn profits based on content sales Why Books Are Important After thousands of years still principal repository of culture technical knowledge guidance Can promote powerful ideas inspire great changes A source of entertainment Book Origins Oldest of all mass media Sumerians developed clay tablets Greeks perfected the alphabet Egyptians as early as 3000 BC pounded thin layers of reeds grown by the Nile papyrus Scrolls came first mostly religious few remain such as the Dead Sea Scrolls Led to libraries in Egypt Rome Greece most destroyed by invaders Romans Contributions to Books l 15 to go from scrolls to books with cut pages uniform size writing on both sides Originated sentences then paragraphs Standardized punctuation Created forerunners of uppercase or capital and lowercase letters Chinese Develop Paper Chinese developed paper named for papyrus as early as the 2nd century AD Persians captured Chinese paper makers during 8quotI century secret divulged so Islamic world had paper long before Europeans Paper brought to Spain by the Moors in the 12quotI century finally paper found throughout Europe within a century led to monks handwriting books Johannes Gutenberg Born1 l400 Mainz Germany Moved from one job to another one city to another 15 a goldsmith for religious charms eventually printed indulgences Marco Polo brought back woodblock printing from China In 1455 converted wine press into a printing system Gutenberg Press Didn t invent the press but 15 to use individual interchangeable metal letters Known as movable type because letters could be arranged amp rearranged 1 letter at a time into words amp lines of print In 1456 printed his first book Bible 2 columns beautifully ornate Each copy cost the equivalent of 3 years pay of average worker never sold enough to be profitable Printing press was repossessed Gutenberg died penniless Printing Press after Gutenberg Over next 3 decades presses spread throughout Europe 1 Government set up prior approval for printers Catholic Church set up the 1st office of censorship in Mainz in 1485 city where printing began in 1455 also the 1st to censor 30 years later Why Books Were Nonessential Books not portable so few transported from England Early settlers fighting for survival Worked from sunrise to sunset Candles too precious for night reading Books regarded as symbols of wealthstatus Puritans servants of the Lord Early Printing Press 1st printing press arrived in North America in 1638 18 yrs after Plymouth Rock landing in Cambridge Massachusetts Printing limited to government amp religious books 1st book printed in the colonies 1644 The Whole Booke ofPsaIms Franklin s Poor Richard s Almanack 1732 one of the 15 and one of the few secular books also published Pamela the 1 true novel in North America written in England Printing Before amp During the Revolution Before revolution printers had to have government permission Some jailed if they spoke the truth Printers revolted wthe Stamp Act Pamphlets were at the heart of the revolution By mid 1770s antiBritish sentiment reached its climax Short books pamphlets motivated amp galvanized political dissent Thomas Paine s Common Sense was most popular PostRevolutionary Printing Book industry slow to develop still expensive literacy a luxury often cost the equivalent of a week s salary Compulsory education was in most states by 1900 demand increases Linotype machine allowed printers to set type mechanically typewriterlike keyboard Offset lithography allowed printers to print from photographic plates rather than heavy amp fragile metal casts The First Novels Tech advances lower cost printing amp widespread literacy Harper Bros amp John Wiley amp Sons Beadles began the dimepulp novel frontieradventure stories by 1865 4 million volumes produced Democratized books made a mass medium The Coming of Paperbacks Allen Lane invented paperbacks Penguin Books London 1935 Robert de Graff brought paperbacks to US Pocket Books small paperback versions Paperback sales surpassed hardcover sales by 1960 60 of all books sold were paperbacks Paperback sales today top 1 million volumes a day Books in the 1900s Young new authors popular in 1 half ofthe century Fitzgerald Steinbeck amp Hemingway AfricanAmerican novelists popular in early years DuBois s The Souls ofBIack Folk Later Harlem Renaissance brings other AA writers to the forefront Wright s Native Son amp Ellison s Invisible Man Haley Morrison Walker amp Angelou become bestsellers Esguivel amp Other Latino Authors Laura Esquivel native of Mexico City wrote Like Water for Chocolate in 1990 the story of a Mexican girl s story of forbidden love with recipes film in 1993 largest grossing foreign film in America Rudolfo Anaya US born Bless Me Ultima credited with modern Latino literature movement Isabel Allende s House of Spirits Sandra Cisneros s The House on Mango Street Books amp Their Audiences The least mass of our media More direct relationship between publisher amp reader Less dependent on largest audience More able to incubate new ideas Can be aimed at small groups Makes books unique in our culture Book Categories Book club editions ElhiHigher education Mail order books Mass market paperbacks Professional books Religious books Standardized tests Subscription reference books Trade books University press The Birth of Barnes amp Noble In 1873 Charles Barnes began selling from his home in Illinois 45 years later son moved to New York amp joined forces with G Clifford Noble 1960s Leonard Riggio opened college bookstores later acquired the largest B amp N NY 1st bookstore to purchase advertising time on television 1st to offer NYT bestsellers at a discount rate later acquired others amp began to sell music DVDs amp Starbucks coffee he Birth of Waldenbooks 1933 Lawrence Hoyt opened a rental library 1962 opened his 1st independently owned bookstore Walden 1982 Waldenbooks became the 1st chain to have stores in all 50 states 1971 Borders brothers opened Borders 1992 KMart acquired Waldenbooks amp Borders amp merged the two 1995 Borders bought itself out Now B amp N largest and BordersWalden 2 remain Anatomy of Bestseller New York Times has one of the best known lists editors choose 36 titles that could be bestsellers amp poll 3000 bookstores Wall Street Journal amp USA Today have lists BestSelling Books in History 1 The Bible 67 billion 2 Quotations from Chairman Mao Mao TseTung 900 million 3 The Qur an 800 million A Decade of Change JK I 1990s blockbusters such as John Grisham s Michael Crichton s brought people back to reading Three people who changed the book publishing world JK Rowling Oprah Winfrey Jeff Bezos Rowling amp the Harry Potter Series as of 2009 Of the top 15 bestselling authors only author with more than novel 1999 first three books were on the NYT bestseller s list prompted the paper to create bestselling list for children s literature 23 of all American children have read at least one edition Total estimated revenue generated by HP 15 billion Number of HP books sold worldwide 400 million The total box worldwide office gross of the 15 five HP films 449 billion Passed Star Wars and Bond films to become most lucrative franchise in history Holds the 123 amp 4 of the fastest selling books in history lnitial printing of the 5 h installment 85 million 80 times that of a normal bestseller amp largest initial print run in publishing history lnitial US printing of the 672page HalfBlood Prince 6quot was 135 million 100x the normal best seller largest print run in publishing history sold 9 million the 15 da Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows final 7 h book sold an average of 5000 books per minute 300000 per hour the first day Efforts to ban the book as antireligious amp antiChristian make it the mostchallenged children s literature in the US Potter series has been published in 55 languages including Greek amp Latin Published in more than 200 countries The Oprah Effect amp Her Book Club O Began pushing books in 1993 as a way to discuss a book she loved usually with the author amp selected viewers not very successful Began the book club in 1996 successful but ended once again in April 2002 revived again in June 2003 Toni Morrison has most books recommended Other multiple authors Faulkner Kaye Gibbons Wally Lamb Most recent announced book midSeptember 2009 1st amp only in 09 Oprah now gives advance info to publishers but demands a confidentiality clause Publishers get about a weeks notice to redesign the cover with Oprah s Book Club logo Publishers must print and ship as many as 1 million copies across the country to coincide wthe show s air date overnight bestsellers Beginning wjust 3 books in 96 Oprah s Book Club has grown to 60 titles The books are mostly fiction often about women facing a struggle Even nonfiction books that are plugged by Oprah see an increase in sales One choice Anna Karenina written by Tolstoy amp originally published in 1875 Penguin Books had rights to the new translation preOprah 2000 copies 1 million were rushed to bookstores and sold When she chose Steinbeck s 1952 East of Eden the number of prints jumped from 80000 to 18 million The 2009 choice announced early by USA Today 15 leak and 1 choice in a year her ratings are down 7 Say You re One of Them by Uwem Akpan a Nigerian Jesuit priest teaches in Zimbabwe 5 stories focusing on a different children in different situations 15 short fiction volume chosen by Oprah Entertainment Weekly named it one of the best of the decade prah s Book Club Controversies Author Jonathon Franken not pleased at her selection of The Corrections 4 Suggested that book was a difficult read for Oprah s audience too elitist for the masses Uninvited to Oprah s author dinner Franken wanted private dinner Oprah moved on James Frey s A Million Little Pieces was chosen by Oprah on October 26 2005 Supposedly a nonfiction memoir of his years as an alcoholic drug addict amp criminal Next to the Harry Potter title the book sold more copies in the US in 2005177 millionthan any other title sold most after Oprah s show 35 million total copies sold Substantial portions found to be created initially Oprah supporting Frey weeks later Oprah denounced her support and suggested she felt betrayed 15 time she was publicly burned According to Nielsen Bookscan the sales of Little Pieces amp Leonard exceeded 38 million copies Frey possibly made as much as 58 million total with 43 million in the last months of 2005 with initial allegations another 15 million after admission has not affected Oprah s magic Business Week suggests Oprah s clout is 20 to 100 times that of any other personality Jeff Bezos Began career in an investment firm wanted to sell books over the Internet Left job opened onestop lnternet bookstore Amazoncom had one million titles 6 times larger than physical bookstores Within month of opening had sold books in 45 foreign countries amp all 50 states later added clothing amp consumer goods online Bezos name 1999 Time magazine s Man of the Year by 1999 customers had bought 15 billion of goods Introduced electronic reading device The Kindle that has connectivity to Amazon Kindle 2 in 2009 with new sleeker rounded edges better keyboard still expensive 359 no WiFi access but connected to Amazon Still dealing with competition from Sony Reader amp now iPad Apple s iPad Virtual keyboard mediagames access can connect to iTunes amp store ebookstore 10hour battery on standby for a month 499829 price WiFi amp Bluetooth connectivity through hot spots or access to ATampT for 2999 but cannot make calls iPhone apps can be used May affect gaming industry amp compete with video consoles Likely will affect publishing industry most with ebookstore and partnership with 5 publishing companies it will go headtohead with Kindle Amazon amp Barnes amp Noble s Nook reader Scope amp Structure of Books More than 175000 new titles issued in 2003 19 increase over 2002 Each American spends on average 9769 a year buying books Total sales of book in 1947 just over 435 million 236 billion in 2007 Current Trends in Book Publishing Convergence particularly Internet epublishing publication initially or exclusively online 0 Dbooks book downloaded in electronic form from the Internet to computer or PDA o Ebooks handheld computers resembling books getting more amp more popular 0 Digital epistolary novels stories unfold serially through email instant messages Web sites Conglomeration dominated by a few giants Top Publishers Random House Inc German owners Penguin Putnam lnc HarperCollins Murdoch Holtzbrinck Publishing Holdings 2009 Top 3 BestSelling Books adult nonfiction Act Like a Lady Think Like a Man Steve Harvey 209 Glenn Beck s Common Sense Glenn Beck 609 Liberty amp Tyranny Mark Levine 309 2009 Top 3 BestSelling Books adult fiction The Lost Symbol Dan Brown 909 The Shack William P Young 708 The Time Traveler s Wife A Niffenegger 704 The Rise of Instant Books Books based on current events that get free publicity because of the timeliness Publishers see these opportunities amp then initiate the project OJ Simpson amp Kobe Bryant s trials Michael Jackson s death Sarah Palin s political run examples events surrounding other celebrities have also been fodder for instant books Future of the Book Industry Online bookselling will be more popular Books as we know them will transform On demand ordered in storeby phone printed at store on paper with cover few now but more in future fewer returns Electronic books ebooks transmitted quickly downloaded to customers computer or reader Online Options Reading online companies sell etextbooks with specified time access not downloaded search capabilities note storage Downloading reading from computer can download books using Adobe s Digital Editions or Microsoft reader read on computer screen Download to device digital electronic readers Reader Kindle Amazon cheap or iPad Developing Media Literacy Skills Only 45 of US readers read anything for more than 30 minutes a day Fewer than 12 of all US adults read novels short stories plays or poetry Most aren t illiterate but aliterate Harry Potter changed views of media what lessons does this series have for other media Ethical Issues in the Industry Kaavya Viswanathan Harvard sophomore amp author of How Opal Mehta Got Kissed Got Wild and Got a Life accused of plagiarism Sloppy Firsts amp Second Helpings She received 500000 2book deal wlLittIe Brown book withdrawn from sale and her 2 book deal was canceled Author apologized and assures that any similarities were unintentional Chapter 5 Study Guide News Characteristics of News Timeliness Proximity Human Interest Consequence Disaster Prominence Novelty Conflict Timeliness News once came by ship and Pony Express from Missouri to California lasted fewer than 2 years immediacy was not an issue Technology now makes news instantaneous amp perishable past the 15 day needs a new angle Proximity News that happens nearby is of most interest even within a community some stories are judged of no interest News is becoming more and more local hyperlocal in the future Human Interest Stories that pull at the heart strings proximity of little importance Some holidays produce more human interest stories Such stories make the audience mourn cry celebrate cheer etc with individuals Conseguence News stories that affect the audience even injury violence and death may mean little if audience is not affected Iraq of consequence because of the length of the war cost etc audience not naturally concerned Disaster Similar to consequence but more dire total calamity is of interest to large audiences Oklahoma City amp 911 are the exceptions to other characteristics Sidebars secondary articles will be side by side with such stories Prominence Stories involving people well known celebrities politicians etc Edward R Murrow warned media about the fascination with celebrity News once had little coverage of celebrities but now a mainstay Novelty When a dog bites a man that is not news because it happens so often But if a man bites a dog that is news John Bogart New York Sun editor Events that are extremely different from the ordinary are deemed newsworthy Many times show up as human interest stories Conflict Unfortunately large number of stories based on conflict results from our inability to get along with one another Divorce fights arrests bombings war all considered conflicts Gatekeeping Those persons who select what small amount of information to accept amp reject Various levels of gatekeepers 0 Story sources recount their story 0 Reporters sift through notes 0 Editors choose material to air 0 Consumer final to make choice Gatekeeping amp the Internet Gatekeeping affects the Internet in both positive amp negative ways Internet can be pivotal because readers have a limited amount of time to absorb information gatekeepers help cut to the chase on the net If info audience wants is not on a site due to gatekeepers decisions there are thousands of others that will have it Gatekeeping Summarized Useful stories usually are accepted news items if audience wants or needs info 7 If it fits a pattern something similar has been newsworthy it may be accepted lf gatekeeper is intrigued if it will amuse astonish amp intrigue it s accepted personal judgments Criticisms of News Media Biased Too quick to jump on the bandwagon Careless with information Sensationalistic Messages aimed at the lowest common denominator Invade privacy News BiasLiberal Reporters decide what to emphasize and not always what we would emphasize Do reporters push certain politicians Because reporters are younger some perceive liberal bias leftleaning politically champions of the underdog May be true on a casebycase basis but true overall MSNBC News BiasConservative Researcher Ted Glasser suggests media are inherently conservative despite some liberal reporters Glasser suggests media wedded to the status quo amp conserving society s dominant values which are right Journalists amp consumers often at odds with reporters role Media Jumping the Bandwagon Competition is fierce so predictions are made that are not always accurate makes audience leery amp untrusting Conjecture is never a good substitute for fact reporters must resist the temptation in spite of increasing competition Careless Media All media are replete with careless errors that audiences detect in print typographical errors in broadcasting crawls with errors However some errors more serious than others names misspelled misquoting someone this leads to mistrust Deadline pressure should not always lead to mistakes Sensationalistic Much like yellow journalism crime sex and violence still sell Some media do this more so than others for broadcast networks sweeps periods produce more such items Aimed at Lowest Denominators Advertisers are drawn to large audiences to ensure audiences get the message info is written so everyone will understand Television happy talk news presents average people who joyfully report for 12 an hour The goal is to reach both the most amp least intelligent because they are committed to securing the largest audience possible Invade Privacy During the most difficult times in people s lives media are there can be positive if showing grief as a result of murder Some go too far ie Jackie Kennedy some use tactics that are beneath the profession Must realize that many in the audience would love to be on camera for whatever reason Results of Criticism All news is tainted the goal is to seek objectivity 8 Became the code taught in journalism schools the myth of objectivity permeated throughout training Objective Journalism Don t all reporters assign greater meaning to some stories than others Does the practice of assembling news articles by quoting spokespersons guarantee lack of bias Are journalists somehow better trained than judges clergy teachers parents or lawyers Consumer Action Consumers do not passively receive info Consumers response equates to feedback That feedback can influence mass media producers Different kinds of feedback but groups can apply pressure through legalpolitical threats FormalInformal Action Mechanisms Special Interest Groups church orgs politically oriented groups amp coalitions that form around individual issues Moral Maj Media critics keep an eye on the press Washington Jour Review Columbia Jour Review amp The Quill Individual Consumer Action not buying or watching license renewal Trends in NewsgatheringI In General Goal is to provide uptotheminute content in a format audience wants in a manner that allows interactivity Audiences now extremely sophisticated cannot simply dump same info online shovelware New content must be designed exclusively for the web with audio amp video with links amp discussion boards some replace reporter with content providers new way of thinking of news delivery Specific Trends Digital binary system of Xs amp Os analog has range of values exact v nuances thermometer compact discs v vinyl Customizable consumers no longer want a one size fits all want to listen to books in car etc can now customize categories of news thru web Immediate can now have news delivered to you can get podcasts as soon as they appear online digital media or audio file Interactive users can now talk back to media in new ways most now offer feedback forums blogs also available Converged now means that audiences have multiple ways of receiving info now companies offer all telecommunication services for one fee Hyperlocal when news media break a city into small pieces amp provide news for a community LPTV only 24 miles Ubiquitous means everywhere where consumers expect their media to be news available on all technology placeshi ing consuming live recorded or stored media on a remote device allows you to watch anywhere in the world Slingbox Information Glut We thrive on the information and yet we can also choke on it Too much information too few editors too little time In 2006 research suggested there were 183 billion emails sent per day 2 million every second Future Shock too much change in too short a period Chapter 6 Study Guide Newspapers News paper Readership 51 million people on average still buy newspapers 124 million still read them Circulation readership is in decline in 2006 circulation fell 28 for dailies amp 34 for Sunday editions during year studied Really have more readers than ever even among young News papers Today Online readership continues to grow so fewer paying customers Can take advantage of the Internet for immediacy 2008 tipping point more people in US got free news online than paid for it by buying newspapers amp magazines Continue to fulfill the initial established purpose Survivability Issues Newsstand sales down Subscriptions down Advertising now relying solely on this one makes papers beholden to advertisers Cutting or eliminating print editions to focus on free websites Christian Science Monitor and the Detroit Free Press Charge for online content 08 amp 09 Newspaper Events Detroit Free Press cutting out home delivery on 4 days Tribune Co filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection Hearst puts up the Seattle Post Intelligencer Minneapolis StarTribune files for reorganization less than 2 years after being bought Journal Register Go owner of New Haven Register amp 19 other papers filed for bankruptcy San Antonio Express News lays off 135 and leave 30 positions unfilled 75 newsroom positions Changes in Newspaper Readership Least prevalent among younger people Fewer than 30 of 1829 read a paper Fewer than 50 of 3044 read a paper Number of 2534 who read has fallen 20 in the past five years alone Decline in newspaper readership as people get younger 25 of all people 1824 seek no news at all Soft news v hard news Readership amp Declining Numbers Readership circulation amp advertising have continued to decline for 5 decades along with the number of daily newspapers The number of persons reading does not show a large decline but the of people reading a daily paper has been declining Young readers are reading news online in higher numbers than in previous years In 2000 the of morning dailies exceeded the of evening papers for the 1st time continues Newspapers Societal Functions They entertain They provide editorial comment of the editors or publishers it s the place reserved for opinions oped pages are pages opposite of the editorial page where readers guests or others can offer info on given topics They advertise They inform 15 page usually devoted to news most important above the fold to the left Why Newspapers Are Special The most novel of all media from inception to present The printed word has the lasting power amp precision that goes far beyond that of the spoken word or visual image They serve communities bounded by geographic cultural amp economic borders some are national no particular city others are metropolitan papers serving a city but sometimes offered nationwide Notable Print Developments 1295 Polo brought woodblock printing to Europe from China 1450 Gutenberg s movable type 1476 William Caxton sets up 1st printing press in England 1665 1st English newspaper the Gazette appeared in Oxford 1638 Puritans set up 1st press in the colonies American Newspaper Development 1690 Publick Occurrences published 1704 1st regular colonial paper Boston Newsletter 1721 1st independent colonial newspaper New England Courant 1784 1st American daily paper Pennsylvania Packet 1833 Benjamin Day s paper New York Sun ushers in the penny press 1880s1890s Yellowjournalism between Pulitzer amp Hearst 1982 USA Today founded Qualifications of a True Newspaper Published at least once a week Produced by mechanical means Available to anyone willing to pay Of interest to a general public Appealing to a public of ordinary literary skill Timely as timely as technology will allow Stable The Earliest Newspapers Acta Diurna actions of the dayCaesar s Rome on tablet posted on a wall after each Senate meeting Corantos printed in English in Holland in 1620 1page news sheets about specific events Diurnals forerunners of today s dailies were printed occasionally with the same title for consecutive editions stopped in 1641 Monarchy s Oxford Gazette later became the London Gazette American Newspaper Background Printers were not thinking of printing trivia gossip amp happenings prior to the 1700s Info spread by word of mouth printing was slow amp laborious When technology is available entrepreneurs will find ways to make money by catering to the public Broadsheet A Profitable Sideline Presses go unused other than books amp government publications 11 Broadsheets singlepage impressions from the full width of the printers press began to print excerpts of letters from the old countr Included any info they could find from England with rudimentary headlines amp columns no reporters at the time Eventually 14 pages papers sold at the printers counter or on the streets by apprentices or children Colonial Newspapers Broadsidesbroadsheets led to Pubick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestick Benjamin Harris 15 attempt government offended by content Postmaster John Campbell s Boston Newsletter 1704Revolution 1 true newspaper followed by William Brooker s Boston Gazette printed by James Franklin James Franklin moved on to another venture that would be his own success Franklin s New England Courant New England Courant 1721 printed with no authority Jamesjailed periodically lasted 3 yrs Papers playing a more important role in community Mixed town info with essays opinion pieces columns even exposes James brought some of the best writers of his time to write for his paper JF Cooper James jailed for no government approval freed Ben from apprentice obligation Benjamin Franklin s Paper Ben moved from Boston to Philadelphia to begin his own paper Took over the Pennsylvania Gazette turned it into a lively amp provocative flagship paper chain of papers in eastern Pennsylvania Proved that financial independence could lead to editorial independence also proved medium could survive amp become dependable as an instrument for information amp ideas His cartoon Join or Die provided a rallying call for the colonies divided snake suggesting that the colonies must stick together John Peter Zenger Zenger the printer amp publisher of the New York Weekly Journal 1 734 Authorities arrested amp indicted him for sedition amp libel criticized New York governor hired 80year old Andrew Hamilton as lawyer who urged authorities who challenged the laws rather than argued the innocence of his client jury found him innocent Truth became a permanent defense against ibe 75 years later case foreshadowed the later change in law helped lead to freedom of the press Now slander spoken ibe writtenpublished Newspapers after the Revolution Jay Hamilton amp Madison s The Federalist Papers 85 essays published Bill of Rights guaranteed freedom of the press meant for populace who could read called for ratification of constitution Eight years later group of four laws threatened the freedom of press Sedition Act dealt more with press freedom no false writings about the three branches of government PostRevolutionary Newspapers Hamilton the leader of the Federalists John Fenno published the Gazette of the United States as a Federalist publication as well as lsaiah Thomas s Massachusetts Spy Thomas Jefferson is the leader of the AntiFederalists 12 Philip Freneau published the National Gazette as an AntiFederalist publication also Benjamin Franklin Bache s Aurora Benjamin Day s New York Sun In 1833 Benjamin Day was losing money amp heading for financial disaster through desperation decided to try selling papers on a perissue basis Decided to make each issue a penny his New York Sun became the 15 of the penny press written for the common man Eightyearold Virginia O Hanlon questioned whether there was a Santa Clause to editor Frank Church of the Sun his 1897 reply Yes Virginia there is a Santa Clause remains the most reprinted editorial in English language newspapers Penny Press Expands James Gordon Bennett began the New York Herald in 1835 combined technology of Day with the new technique of beat reporting Horace Greeley s New York Tribune in 1841 wCharles Dana as editor antislavery developed editorial page s interpretative function nicknamed the Great Moral Organ Henry Raymond s The New York Daily Times began in 1841 foreign coverage indepth reporting amp seriousminded editorials emulated The Times of London public affairs reporting thorough News Wire Services Begin Associated Press AP is the largest amp oldest founded in 1848 by 6 New York newspapers as a way to reduce costs responsible for factual condensed style to avoid partisanship amp viewpoints United Press UP started by Edward Wyllis Scripps 1907 International News Service INS founded by William Randolph Hearst 1909 they merge in 1958 formed United Press International UPI AP amp UPI are two strongest wire services still called wire services because they initially sent stories using the telegraph wire Reuters British wire service emerges New York Times amp other supplemental services also emerge PostCivil War Developments lntro of the rotary press speeds up process 30000 a day 1844 1st telegraph message sent by Samuel FB Morse message transmitted between Baltimore amp Washington DC First message What hath God wrought Personally Morse defended slavery amp warned about the US Catholic menace he fought for years to prove the telegraph was his invention amp won Inverted Pyramid Telegraph s invention will create a new kind of reporting stories had been written in a fairy talelike manner burying important info until last bg first then meat of the story new style caused a shift to inverted pyramid or five Ws style beginning with most important leading to least important Telegraph initially expensive amp not dependable Abolitionist Press Press dedicated to fighting slavery William Lloyd Garrison s Liberator in Boston longestlived amp best known wanted immediate emancipation incendiary articles provoked Garrison s colleague was Frederick Douglass escaped slave taught to read by master s wife Garrison amp Douglass later split Elijah Lovejoy the Alton Observer shot to death 13 Frederick Douglass Frederick Douglass founded The Ram s Horn to challenge the Sun Unsuccessful but it established Douglass amp the minority press as a viable voice that had been previoust silenced Horn was unsuccessful North Star was the most influential AfricanAmerican paper before the war Star s slogan Right is of no sex Truth is of no color God is the Father of us all and we are all Brethren Early AfricanAmerican Newspapers Average lifespan of papers was nine years Freedom s Journal 1827 1st AfricanAmerican owned amp operated newspaper by John Russwurm and Samuel Cornish Philadelphia Tribune founded by Chris Perry Sr is the oldest continuously published black newspaper in the US June 2009 it celebrated its 125 h anniversary Chicago Defender most influentialsuccessful after the war Abbott encouraged blacks to move from the South to the North Ida B Wells1st prominent femalejournalistleditor a feminist reformer amp race leader Washington v Dubois Booker T Washington was the most influential black man of his time Teddy Roosevelt Many thought Washington too conciliatory amp submissive accepted segregation Tuskegee WEB Dubois more militant author of the Crisis suggested there was a quottalented tenthquot of the black population who should get more education Washington chose the New York Age published by T Thomas Fortune as the national voice of his rews Dubois chose the Boston Guardian published by William Monroe Trotter as his national voice Native American Newspapers Cherokee Phoenix founded in 1828 in Georgia one of the first Cherokee Rose Bud founded in 1848 in Oklahoma Today the News from Indian Country the Sho Ban News the Indian Country Today and the Cherokee Observer are popular Hispanic Newspapers EI Mercurio de Nueva York amp EI Mensagero Semanal de Nueva York early 1800s San Francisco had the most amp the longest running amp most financially successful Spanish language papers in the late 1800s Photography Illustrates the Stories Pen amp ink sketches made by artists amp reproduced through woodcuts gave the only pictures before the Civil War Mathew Brady provided first prolific photos of the war Alexander Gardner A Sharpshooter s Last Sleep Lincoln amp the trial 1870s 1S use of photos by newspapers 1890s halftone engravings translating photos into small dots began in NY papers 1924 wire transmission of photo 1935 AP establishes Wire photo network Joseph Pulitzer s New York World In 1883 Pulitzer ushered in a period of journalism characterized by stories with sensational sex crime disasters Yellow Kid was a popular cartoon figure in the World gave a name to the excesses in journalism Gave the common man what he wanted light sensationalistic news coverage plenty of illustrations stunts amp promotions Nellie Bly s Around the World 14 Also championed causes growing slums labor tensions failing farms Statue of Liberty William Randolph Hearst was an intern later a prime competitor William Randolph Hearst Father was extremely rich young Hearst unsuccessful at school but extremely successful in journalism Used Pulitzer s formula first at the San Francisco Examiner and later with the New York Morning Journal even hired Yellow Kid cartoonist RF Outcault whipped up frenzy for Spanish American War wanted to be president but damaged from romantic life personal spending amp ruthless control Citizen Kane based on his life Legends suggest he bought planted amp controlled stories audience eventually turns against yellow journalism but some vestiges still remain Edward Wyllis Scripps One of the most interesting publishers who began his 15 paper in the late 1870s went on to create a media empire that still exists Provided 25000 to smalltown newspaper men to begin a paper if after the the paper flourished it continued if not Scripps had only lost small amount Disdained advertisers really close to his sister Ellen drank a gallon of whiskey a day stopped cold turkey Newspapers in the Early 1900s Newspapers like McClure s magazine exposed wrongdoing amp corruption Ida Tarbell s Standard Oil Lincoln Steffen s Shame of the Cities amp Nellie Bly s Ten Days in a Madhouse Teddy Roosevelt dubbed them muckrakers Upton Sinclair s 1906 The Jungle chronicled problems in meatprocessing plants led to Meat Inspection Act amp Pure Food amp Drug Act of 1906 Hearst and Scripps were the most powerful during the 1920s tabloids in New York period known as jazz journalism with scandals amp graphic photos muckraking more sophisticated becomes investigativejournalism Newspapers The Great Depression amp On Newspaper profits cut during Depression amp ended yellow journalism Rupert Murdoch brought yellow journalism back in his tabloids The Star amp The National Enquirer use modernday yellow journalism techniques American Media owns 65 of supermarket tabloid titles Enquirer amp Star National Examiner the Globe as well as magazines Shape amp Men s Fitness New York Times Paper of Record Ochs in 1896 brought the paper to the status of newspaper of record for the city amp the nation Titantic sinking Acts as an agendasetter helping to decide issues moving to the forefront of the national debate The Opinion Function Political battles waged in news pages in order to influence national debate in the 19m century By the 20quotI century opinions were reserved for the editorial page Now editorials followed by Letters to the Editor where readers can respond to opinions space now also made available on page opposite editorials oped especially Sunday Herbert Baynard Swope New York Evening World said to have created 1st modern oped page in 1921 Journalism as a Profession Journalists stereotypically portrayed in films but 20m century became a time for social responsibility 15 American Newspaper Publishers Assn ANPA Sigma Delta Pi Society of Professional Journalists SPJ amp American Society of Newspaper Editors ASNE all worked to improve journalistic standards amp ethical behavior The Newspaper Guild the trade union also works to improve standards negotiate salaries Newspapers and Their Audiences 51 million newspapers are sold daily in the US 5 of 10 report reading a paper every day More papers are part of large chains Still have audiences who prefer to hold a newspaper rather than read it online just not enough of these readers Passalong readership people who did not originally purchase the paper brings 132 million people a day in touch with a daily There are 200 million people a week in touch with a weekly Overall circulation is stagnant despite growing population Total number of newspapers in US 9800 total number of daily newspapers 1500 15 From 1997 to 2005 approximately 2500 newspapers around the world have gone online Types of Newspapers National Daily Newspapers Top 3 Large Metropolitan Dailies must be published at least 5 times a week zoned editions The Tribune Suburban and Small Town Dailies decreased by 50 Weeklies amp Semiweeklies suburban advertisers like narrow focus Ethnic Press Spanish 0 35 Spanishlanguage dailies most backed by Englishlanguage papers 0 2 million readers because 1 fragmented audiences 2 at 125 of population fastest growing minority 3 loyal readership attracting advertisers ad spending up 565 between 19902000 Ethnic Press African American 0 12 of population but they read Englishlanguage papers 0 After Caucasians 2quot largest group of readers 0 15 million AfricanAmerican readers Ethnic Press New York alone has foreignlanguage papers serving 50 languages Alternative amp Dissident Press 0 Alternative most commonly weekly amp free Village Voice LA Weekly 0 Dissident weeklies wllocal amp political orientation Urban Dialect Philadelphia Independent Commuter Papers free dailies designed for commuters Top US Newspapers by circulation2009 USA Today Wall Street Journal The New York Times Los Angees Times Daily News New York New York Post The Washington Post Chicago Tribune USA Todaynational daily Begun by Gannett in 1982 began profit in 93 papers then only nonnational medium Largest in circulation with no strong editorial voice in political amp social arena Flashy color more like broadcasting McPaper statistics amp facts quickly read by busy consumers Has affected the look of other newspapers Now respected amp readers like graphstables heralded new age of newspapers built on adapting to fastchanging media preferences amp savvy media consumers Though 1 still having problems froze wage increases in February 2009 Wall Street Journal national daily Founded by Charles Dow 1889 has 2quot largest circulation amp one of the leading financial papers in the world bought by Rupert Murdoch in 2007 Tracks businesseconomic trends usually no color drawings photos A favorite of upscale advertisers 150000 average household income New York Times metropolitan daily Founded by Henry Raymond in 1851 bought by Adolph Ochs in 1896 who brought it to prominence All the news that s fit to print Officially considered the newspaper of record 3rd largest in circulation 11 million Sets the healthscience agenda sets pace in artfood tastes op ed page provides a forum for debate appeals to the more educated Los Angeles Times metropolitan daily Leads all other papers in advertising volume 4th in circulation has promoted the city to prominence Ranks in top 10 in minority representation leads all other papers in recycling Daily News metropolitan daily Founded in 1919 it s the New York paper that emphasizes photos covers city in all aspects has won 10 Pulitzer Prizes 1st US daily to be printed in tabloid form building a model for the Daily Planet in Superman New York Post 1st The New York Evening Post circa 1800 one of oldest continuously published papers U S Alexander Hamilton founded the paper one of the most famous editors was William Cullen Bryant abolitionist poet controlled direction of paper as part owner for almost 50 years liberal Bought by Murdoch in the 1990s Washington Post metropolitan daily More than 30 nationally recognized columnists 5th in circulation amp a pivotal paper in the political arena Outstanding coverage of Washington unlike the NYTamp WSJ does not print a national edition Known for the Watergate investigation Unabomber publication controversial Chicago Tribune metropolitan daily Began as a brash amp bold publication today it s the largest amp most popular in Chicago In 1924 moved into broadcasting with radio station WGN later it became amp remains a national television station WGN stood for quotWorld39s Greatest Newspaper Newspaper Ownership Chains Gannett owns most Tribune Company 2quot largest McClatchy 3rd largest after purchasing Knight Ridder in 06 Advantages of Chain Ownership Smaller papers gain access to the resources of the entire chain Chains also give an advantage in terms of shared news gathering resources Disadvantages of Chain Ownership Increasing disconnection with the local media and local community Pressure to bring larger levels of profits Concerns about Ownership Trends Gannett s dominance of large segment Owners who appear to want to make a profit no matter what it does to the news operation Sale of newspapers to other newspapers consolidates too much power Sale of newspapers to broadcast media who want to diversify too dominant Noninformation producers who buy into the info business leads to political propaganda or an industry dominated by bankers amp big investors With only three exceptions News Corp amp others the world s largest media companies do not own newspapers most don t have faith in their future Newspaper Joint Operating Agreements JOAs Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 pushed in Congress by newspaper editors created to preserve a diversity of editorial opinion in communities wout 2 papers merges business amp printing operations editorial operations under JOAs remain separate all other operations are combined In 1970 there were 28 in 2007 there were 12 in early 2009 only 6 remain Death of Denver s JOA Scrippsowned Rocky Mountain News in JOA with The Denver Postthat was to run until 2051 Scripps put the Rocky Mountain News up for sale in Dec 2008 on February 26 Scripps announced the next day s paper would be the last closed operation completely on Feb 27 2009 Founded in 1859 the paper was Colorado s first newspaper the paper was closed just shy of the paper s 150quotI anniversary Scripps had owned the paper from 1926 until its closing Death of Tucson s JOA Gannettowned Tucson Citizen in JOA with the Arizona Daily Star Citizen founded in 1859 and until 2009 was the oldest continuously published newspaper in Arizona Citizen covered 1881 Fight at the OK Corral amp the 1934 arrest of bank robber John Dillinger Citizen ceased operation on May 16 2009 but maintains a web presence Death of Seattle s JOA Hearst owned Seattle PostIntelligencer Pl founded in 1863 entered into a JOA with the Seattle Times PI put up for sale in Jan 09 last print edition published on March 17 2009 continues to operate as an onineony news source country s largest digital only paper Leaves the Seattle Times as the only daily newspaper in Seattle Other Remaining JOAs Detroit Free Press amp The Detroit News to run until 2086 stopped home delivery except Thursday Friday amp Sunday The Las Vegas Sun is in a JOA with the Las Vegas ReviewJoumal 2049 the Sun s print version runs as a section in the Review Journal Charleston Gazette amp the Charleston Daily Mail working in West Virginia Other Reasons Newspapers Are Failing A collapse of the business model Papers became monopolies that led to their becoming safer rather than watchdogs in order not to offend readers Safety amp blandness don t work well on the Internet Managers editors reporters dragged their feet getting into the new media environment Poorly designed amp navigable websites Trends and Convergence Dramatic decline in competition loss of competing papersconcentration of ownership 18 Few cities wlseparate competing papers Little editorial diversity Some suggest that chains don t care about local communities and issues Hypercommercialism Pressure to turn a profit has led to staff layoffs closing stateregional bureaus hiring younger reporters shrinking news Some sell ads on the 1st page Some sell obit space for pets Advertisers share in the selection of news Newsroom amp business side now tied together Editor amp Publisher s Fate The leading journal that covers the newspaper business even it almost went out of business in January 2010 now appears safe at least for now Steve Outing columnist for E amp P took one last look at what newspapers could have or should have done to ensure their future success here are his thoughts What Could Newspapers Have Done Invested in Internet businesses in mid 90s to complement their print operations Designed new online services that created original content Begun making acquisitions during the late 90s wave of Internet startup companies Retained companies even though they seemingly had little to do with papers Grasped the essential difference between print amp the Internet onetomany only vs oneto one amp onetomany Ridden out the bust amp accept the fact that the paper business would be less profitable Newspapers Innovate Or Die Atlanta JournalConstitution editor Julia Wallace said papers must 0 Grow igi a Reinvent print 0 o Create more distinctive content that readers cannot nd elsewhere 0 improve their news amp information gathering Future of Newspaper Industry More papers close small local papers survive for a few more years but then watch local advertising turn to digital ads More papers stop publishing in print on some days of the week others to Sundayonly print amp onlinemobile for the rest of the week some go alldigital A new wave of small news startups begin some partnering with local papers providing content for the papers Future Customers get summaries of their chosen content from aggregators Google Facebook paper websites less important with some info included in summaries Papers that survive invest significant resources to mobile content amp whatever the next platform do not make same mistakes Papers adapt to the instant crowdsourced news Twitter etc rather than fight it Digitalsavvy people are hired to move from the old model to the newer more realistic model Chapter 7 Study Guide Magazines The John Johnson Dynasty Born in Arkansas fatherless at 8 moved to Chicago 19 Attended University of Chicago while working for a life insurance company collected African American news to compile a weekly digest Interested in Life and Look began Ebony in 1943 Jet in 1951 Ebony now boasts 12 readersmonth later added largest fashion show in the world cosmetics radio stations died in 2005 family carries on the dynasty The Magazine Industry More specialized than the other media not published more than once a week Audience even more fragmented by profession interest demographic or other characteristics Audit Bureau of Circulation ABC independent circulationauditing organization has numerous members 802 consumer 213 business 23 farm Magazine vs Newspapers Mags tend to feature more longform writing Mags published at regular intervals Mags published on higher quality paper stock 3 Basic Services of Magazines Provide a democratic literature of high quality Played an important role in economics of literature Furnish an invaluable contemporaneous history of the times Development of Magazines Arabic word makazin or storehouse Mags were storehouses of info British Magazines 1s Englishspeaking magazine in London 1704 Daniel Defoe s Review TatIer founded by Sir Richard Steele in 1709 reporters published essays based on coffeehouse conversations Steele later helped Joseph Addison start The Spectatorin 1711 The Gentlemen s Magazine founded by Edward Cave 1st time the word magazine used intelligent content sophisticated distribution system read throughout Englishspeaking world The Early Magazine Industry Andrew Bradford s American Magazine debuted in 1741 only 3 issues Ben Franklin s General Magazine debuted only 3 days after Bradford s 6 issues Franklin s Pennsylvania Gazette Began as the successful newspaper that Franklin had purchased in Philadelphia Franklin ran the paper for two decades In 1821 the paper changed its name to The Saturday Evening Post circulation ultimately grew to 3 million copies Popular into the 20m century all began with Franklin s successful newspaper Issues Addressed in Early Magazines Taxation Indian relations Religious freedoms Education End of colonialism Early State of the Industry Grew slowly at first only 23 magazines founded between 1741 amp 1783 In the 1792 Postal Act post office refused to carry magazines 6 out of 13 failed as a result Picked up speed when the government established the Post Office as a permanent arm of the government in 1794 Provided reliable way to distribute publications to audiences 20 Not a BookI But Not a Newspaper No copyright rules since 15 federal Copyright Act was not until 1790 Mags sought to differentiate from other media tended to be more provocative amp contemporary Originally booksized 6 wide 9 tall because printed on book presses some twice as big some tabloid size Always more experimental than papers or books constantly trying new concepts and gimmicks erican Almanacs Am I A uniquely American contribution offered useful amp intriguing information usually homespun Franklin s Poor Richard s Almanac was published from 1732 to 1757 anecdotes forecasts amp country wisdom Company almanacs like Armour s FarmerAImanac advertised for the company s product good public relations Colonial Magazine Summary Most in colonial times lasted only a few months By mid1800s readers could select from mags with proven records Most were literary periodicals Successful mags were published by book companies that used mags to build interest in forthcoming books by printing excerpts amp carrying ads for upcoming books Reasons for the Successful Mass Audience Mags Post Office 1794 provided way to distribute publications still more expensive than newspapers Cheaper printing Growing literacy Spread of social movements abolitionism amp labor reform Even more successful after the Civil War but still not a true mass medium Gode s LadZs Book Founded by Louis Godey in 1830 in Philadelphia emphasis on fashion using engraved colored fashion drawin s Patterns were included to allow women to sew their own fashions also included wellwritten stories amp essays some issues highlighted women authors exclusively Most successful prior to the Civil War proved that women were a viable audience Peterson s Magazine In the mid1800s yet another example of ways to experiment Another magazine for women it included large foldout illustrations of the latest dresses amp gowns Each illustration individually handtinted to add color to the blackandwhite publication Illustrations called fashion plates term endures meaning one who wears the latest fashions The Rise of the Seven Sisters Magazines founded exclusively for women 0 Good Housekeeping 1st of the sisters founded to fig ht for consumers McCall s 2quot also had patterns later reached out to more educated affluent women Ladies Home Journal 3rd founded began as a farm mag wsome women s info Redbook still around but not topranked Better Homes and Gardens Women s Day Family Circle 0000 Post Civil War Years 1865 700 magazines published 1870 1200 1885 3300 being published Women were the primary demographic audience 21 Suffrage women s rights dominated the pages howto for homemakers also popular Ladies Home Journal Good Housekeeping etc Literary Magazines Harper39s Monthly 1850 carried Charles Dickens books Atlantic Monthly 1857 Scribner s 18701881 Century succeeded Scribner s 18871939 Literary mags successful but the mass audience mags take over at the end of the 1800s Muckraking Magazines Muckraker mags more space for govt exposes amp business wrongdoing told stories in dramatic new way cartoons then drawings then photos Early 20m century McClure s had Ida Tarbell amp Lincoln Steffens Frank Leslie s 39 quot 39 quota 39 Miquot 39 39 3 industry led to industry regulation Harper39s Weekly Nation McClure s Arena Colliers Ushered in mass circulation magazines Saturday Evening Post Name changed in 1821 148 years later 1969 closed In late 1800s served as a model for Colier s amp McClure s Writing simpledirect catered to lowest common denominator amp sold million a truly national advertising medium Family mag wlcontent accessible to everyone fact amp fiction humorous amp serious downto earth feel a quick read Norman Rockwell amp Hazel Other Similar Magazines Quick read formula wsimple layouts general interest mags Formula refined when Life magazine appeared in 1936 Look in 1937 Pictures replaced line drawings wlpunchy captions amp cutlines info below photo General interest mags led as the national advertising vehicle of the day Photoiournalism Middle of 20 century saw rise in a special type ofjournalism photojournalism Henry Luce Photos were different from newspapers appealed to the emotions of audience Not just photos of bread lines during Depression but also the faces of people in line words were unnecessary Life was the gold standard for more than 30 years ended when Life amp others ceased publication 19001945 The number of subscribing families grew from 200000 to 32 million DuBois began The Crisis in 1910 the official magazine of the NAACP included essays poems and columns still in operation DeWitt amp Lila Wallace began Reader s Digest in 1922 Henry Luce amp Briton Hadden began Time in 1923 Life in 1936 Time1923 Founded by Henry Luce amp Briton Hadden reflects more of Luce s personal style pushy irreverent smartalecky Not the 1st periodical to present news of the week wlillustrations amp commentary Harper s Weeky amp Literary Digest both did so earlier 22 Was a turning point for modern newsweekly news in capsule format separated into departments such as The Nation etc similar to USA Today People sprang up from People department Began Man of the Year for the first issue every January in 1927 Lindbergh the 15 Some selections have been extremely controversial Hitler in 1938 some named twice FDR only one to be named 3 times The Role of General Interest Mags 1st true national medium National amp affordable Helped unify the nation The television of their time Dominant advertising medium Primary source for national news Preeminent provider of photo journalism Rise amp Fall of General Interest Mags Leading national ad medium of the day Soaps toothpaste cigarettes kitchen appliances automobiles amp alcoholic beverages main source of ad revenue Ads had to appeal to as many as possible to make mag ad efficient TV ads appeared in1950s marked end of general interest mags Reader s Digest the exception The Era of Specialization In 1956 Collier s declared bankruptcy 1st mass circulation to cease publication Fate of magazines had been sealed in the 1940s amp continued into the 1960s Umbrella publications covering various topics no longer of interest Television changed the relationship between magazines amp their audiences Why TV Changed the Mag Industry Television had a much larger audience Magazines had no moving pictures no visual amp oral storytelling television did Magazines were weekly television was timely and continuous Television was a novelty in the beginning everything was of interest on television How the Audience Changed WWII changed the nature of American life Audience now mobile amp product consumers bored with magazines like the Saturday Evening Post Audience now more urban amp industrialized Key to success specialization combined with lifestyle orientation The Advent of a Specialized Industry Shift from generalinterest to specialinterest began with the television era continues today Life ceased publication in 1972 warning parent company Time Inc how much industry had changed Company went on to spend tens of millions of to test market number of specialized mags over time Successful ones such as Real Estate and Parenting proved just how narrow the focus had to be Men s Magazines In 1931 Apparel Arts founded as a men s fashion mag meant to provide info on men s fashion to wholesale buyers amp retail sellers so they could recommend to customers fabric samples pasted on pages for 150 per copy 23 Publishers saw its popularity so launched Esquire in 1933 for 50 cents a copy In 1958 Apparel Arts renamed to Gentlemen s Quarterly sold in 1983 to Conde Nast they simplified the name to GQ Esguire Esquire founded in 1933 as 1st classy men39s magazine famous for pinups amp its literary content named because someone sent a letter to the owner Arnold Gingrich Esq Had the work of Hemingway amp Fitzgerald in its issues later Norman Mailer amp other notable authors added October 2008 limited edition issue 39 39 39 75quotI 39 y with 39 39 quot39 moving images Other imitators began to try to set up operations to compete with Esquire most notably Hefner amp Bob Guccione Playboy Segmented One of the best examples of segmented marketing one gender going to one age group men 1830 Begun by Hugh Marston Hefner at 27 in 1953 who remains EditorinChief daughter was chairman amp CEO of Playboy Enterprises from 19882008 Hefner learned the trade by working at Esquire Playboy had a lustier tone emphasized female nudity capitalized on the sexual revolution combined with literary pieces indepth interviews investigative pieces and humor Playboy Facts First issue featured young Hollywood actress Marilyn Monroe initially titled Stag but the name was already taken later changed to Playboy First issue was not numbered Hefner was unsure the magazine would survive Circulation is 3 million in the US 45 million globally Best selling issue November 1972 7 million sold 15 lady of the Internet Lenna largest issue January 1979 with 414 pages 25m anniversary Other Men39s Magazines Guccione39s Penthouse was a commercial success when it began in 1965 now several Penthouse editions available Other men magazines with different subjects such as Field amp Stream Popular Science amp Popular Mechanics arose Circulation The Audit Bureau of Circulation ABC audits publisher s records to ensure that circulation claims are accurate Some carry advertising that is extremely close to the content wellfocused info that complements Mags strive for a balance between newsstand sales amp subscriptions but subscriptions make up the lion s share of distribution 87 of mags were distributed by subscription 13 single copy newsstand sales Circulation Circulation the total number of issues that are sold fall into 3 categories SubscriptionSinglecopy sales Controlled circulation 3 Types of Circulation Subscription about 87 of all sales are subscription advantage of assured readership but cheaper postage Singlecopy sales some magazines such as TV Guide rely on these less reliable but better barometer of who values Controlled circulation providing at no cost to those who meet criteria airline mags Split Runs Split run issues in which editorial content amp ads are aimed at demographics or regions make magazines even more attractive Time for example has at least 8 regional editions more than 50 state editions and 8 professionally oriented editions Passalong Rates When mags are shared or seen by multiple readers not all of whom purchased called passalong Two to three readers per copy is standard passalong rate for mags like Time more personal mags like Playboy have a low passalong rate Those commonly found in dental amp medical offices have the highest passalong rates 2008 Magazine Overview Nearly 20000 in operation 17000 general interest consumer magazines medical mags largest categories religious 2quot then regional ethnic amp travel interior design experienced growth recently along with craft game amp hobby 9 growth in adult readership Reader s Digestamp TV Guide once the largest in circulation both now surpassed Largest Magazines by Circulation AARP The Bulletin AARP The Magazine Reader s Digest Better Homes amp Gardens National Geographic Good Housekeeping Family Circle Magazines amp Their Audiences For people wlcollege 94 read at least 1 magazine Typical readerat least high school graduate Married owns his own house Employed fulltime Annual income ofjust under 40000 Magazine Audience Habits 84 of adults 18 amp older read mags 9 increase in adult readership in recent years Keep them for up to 4 months we pass along our magazines to an average of 4 similar adults Top Five Magazines by revenue People Sports Illustrated Time TV Guide Better Homes amp Gardens Magazine Adaptability Cosmo is an excellent example of adaptability Founded in 1886 as a home magazine 25 Later became a leading muckraking magazine Later became a general women39s magazine Now a specialized women39s mag for young unmarried working women producing 50 worldwide editions28 languages Reader39s Digest 1922 One of the few general interest mags to endure today founders children of poor Presbyterian clergy wanted upbeat but not Pollyanna In 1947 became the 1st mag to exceed a circulation of 9 million Today more than 90 is by subscription Except for Parade RD s been the nation s largest circulation magazine most of the time since then until AARP publications took over Pages glossy instead of rough articles short amp concise with wideranging subjects initially reprints Miniature size format to be portable refused advertising until 1955 still no cigarette ads also added newsstands then Advertisers pay more than 100000 a page for color ads promotional stickers boost sales New Yorker1926 Once called the best magazine that ever was Never carried news lengthy personality profiles No deadlines for reporters no word limit just good writing Made history wRachel Carson s Silent Spring sensitized to fragility of ecosystem Under new ownership it slipped however made changes now increased audience amp profitability Proved that mags have to evolve amp find the right audience to attract enough advertisers to be profitable to their owners TVGuide 1948 Created initially for New York viewers Later expanded to capitalize on the popularity of the new medium In 3953 the 1st year after going national boasted 15 million subscribers AfricanAmerican Magazines David Ruggle39s Mirror ofLiberty one of the 1st AA magazines in preCivil War Insurance man John Johnson began Ebony in 3945 later added Jet now both may have to be sold Essence Black Enterprise amp others now thriving Spanish Celebrity Magazine In late WWII in the midst of Spanish fascism Antonio Sanchez Gomez wanted to start a magazine settled on 4page upbeat gossip mag iHoIa now sells over 600000 copies typically pulls more advertising than any other Spanish weekly now a US edition Skips scandals glamorous but not balanced coverage intentionally flattering Rolling Stone 1967 Jann Wenner student at Univ of California Berkeley in mid 60s started music column at Daily Californian focusing on his favorites Dylan Jagger Beatles later dropped out of college Nobody would print his work on 21st birthday in 67 launched Rolling Stone Other mags aimed at youth but not also about music by sixth year 73 it became profitable Became the voice for a new generation not just flower children circulation is more than 12 million company worth 250 million 30000 times the initial investment he is now worth at least 100 million pre2009 Not bad for college dropout with a 7500 investment Publication size decreased as of October 31 2008 26 People 1974 March 1974 Time Inc launched the first massmarket magazine in decades based on People section in magazine Abundance of celebrity profiles amp human interest stories it showed a profit within two years reached a circulation of more than two million within five years By the early 1990s ranked behind TV Guide in generating revenue from advertising amp circulation sales more than 700 million now 1 Still takes its cues from cultures fascination with celebrities supported by photos short articles amp13 as many words as a typical newsmagazine 35 years later has affected TV amp print news now ranks first in revenue profit Oprah WinfreZs O The glossy selftitled mag is produced in partnership with Hearst Magazines simply print version of her onair program Afterjust 7 issues the most successful magazine startup in publishing history Celebrated its 9m anniversary in May 09 cross promotional she ll continue to have a presence for several years AdWeek named it the StartUp of the Year in 2001 Advertising Age named it Best Magazine of the Year and Best Launch of the Year in 2001 In 2007 ASME gave it National Magazine Award for Leisure Interests as well as Best Magazine Cover of the Year Best Service Cover 0 at Home Revenues topped 207 million in 2004 an increase of 15 Nearly 1600 ad pages up 10 4color page ad costs 133900 Circulation up 74 since 2000 launch By 2006 27 million subscriptions now 3 in newsstand sales behind Cosmo amp In Style Feelgood bible of the 21 century the prophet who s dispensing profit 0 Competitors Rosie took over the historic McCall s mag begun in the late 1800s bought by Rosie in 2001 ceased publication in late 2002 It failed perhaps because of split persona personality on her show was not the persona in the magazine Rosie amp Martha Stewart s legal problems caused problems for their magazines both discontinued Donald Trump s magazine debuted in January 2008 Trump World Martha Stewart Returns Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia began publishing a new lifestyle magazine in 06 called Blueprint Focuses on decorating fashion beauty amp travel for women between 2545 15 issue in May second in August amp 6 issues in 07 little presence of Ms Stewart in this magazine Projects since her release have had mixed success Martha daytime show successful The Apprentice wlMartha Stewart failed miserably led to an extremely public split wlTrump Marketing Magazines All media owners are concerned with their demographics audience characteristics such as age education sex income geographic location etc Mag publishers like to gather psychographic information the values amp lifestyles of their readers Psychographics take data that will help evaluate buying habits of readers to match with the mags content amp circulation Research organizations label audiences according to such information 27 Psychograghic Label Examples Young Digerati tech savvy singles amp couples living in fashionable neighborhoods on the urban fringe affluent highly educated ethnically mixed most likely purchase Blackberry wear Omega Urban Achievers young singles and couples typically collegeeducated amp ethnically diverse who live on the coasts Simple Pleasures singles amp couples over the age of 65 living in modestly priced homes who are very likely to have served in the military likely shop Target Magazines Online Most mags have websites that offer additional info some that allow audience to post their info traffic can be astounding Sports Illustrated with 532 thousand individual page views a month Some mags publish online only called ezines or webzines function like print with regular updates amp advertising sales Two best known are Salon and Slate but many other smaller ones over 3600 total webzines Saloncom David Talbot had to choose between staying at a traditional paperbased publication or gamble on the convergence between magazines amp the Net Opted for the latter amp began Salon in 1995 took 4 top executives from the San Francisco Examinerwith him Salon now partnered with Rolling Stone In 97 Salon began posting a new issue every weekday traffic rose to 400000 unique visitors per month Emphasis is on breaking news Salon now draws 44 million upscale visitors a month however profit continues to be a problem Now offer a premium paid service and in early 2005 earned their 1st quarterly profit combination of paid amp free subscriptions Slatecom Competitor of Salon begun in 1996 by Microsoft Seattle the Washington Post purchased the publication in 2005 Completely free it has approximately 5 million visitors per month Texterity amp Zinio The two companies that hope to make digital magazine delivery fast amp easy their Published Web Format PWF permits browsing online that s similar to paging a print copy Texterity s technology requires no additional software or downloads Zinio requires users to download the Zinio Reader Text searches emailing part of the package entire mag content easily browsed shared amp printed click paths are recorded for advertisers to see Online Magazine Issues Concern is whether online mags are comfortable to read Texterity s 2007 survey of digital readers reported 88 satisfied to very satisfied with subscriptions like the format amp environmentally friendly In 2006 Magazines Publishers of America partnered with Zinio to offer free digital subscriptions of a number of titles to college students to entice them to become mag readers In 2007 Texterity announced they d deliver mag content to the iPhone Magazine Content Online information is content amp companies now specialize in delivering that content Mochila The Media Marketplace offers writing for a price they will syndicate the content that web operators want for a price 28 Web site owners can search for content in categories such as health or sports users can browse for articles written by their staff writers and pay to put on their web sites formatted for individual tastes Trouble for Magazines Publisher s Information Bureau tracks 243 mags found ad pages plunged an average of 28 amp revenues fell by 21 in 1 half of 2009 compared with same period of 2008 Ebony ads fell by 35 with revenues falling 32 2008 revenue 277 2009 188 Jet adsrevenue fell by 40 marked end of Ebony Fashion Fair show Sports Illustrated saw ad sales increase by 15 August fall preview edition by 45 in Sept 7 2009 issue The Future of Magazines The Magazine Handbook put out by the Magazine Publishers of America indicates the number of mags still growing Readers spend 44 minutes on average per issue Supporters amp Skeptics Supporters say magazines apture advertisers 0 Perform better than TV amp net in getting people to buy 0 Outdid TV amp net in enhancing brand awareness Skeptics say mags are dying future dim because Readers becoming viewers Distribution amp sales channels shrinking Environmentalists focusing on industry waste 0 O O 0 Advertisers moving to the online world Chapter 11 Study Guide Film Industry Pioneers of Photography Joseph Niepce developed 15 photo called a Heliograph 1816 poor quality exposure time 8 hours Louis Daguerre developed the first practical photography process in which recorded images on polished metal covered with silver iodide images called daguerreotypes known as the father of photography though his process was inferior to Talbot s William Henry Fox Talbot developed another photographic film process called calotype process most similar to the modern one involves the use of a photographic negative that multiple printscopies could be made improvement over daguerreotype probably would have been given more credit than Daguerre if Talbot had announced his technology earlier Eadweard Muybridge pioneering photographer bet with Leland Stanford photographed moving horses to prove that all four horses hooves come off the ground simultaneously he used his zoopraxiscope to project the images on a surface he was less interested in photography and more interested in the scientific field of motion Peter Roget given credit for the persistence of vision theory that suggests people can see images with their brain after the image is gone led to the principle of putting freezeframe pictures in sequential order to give a sense of motion Hannibal Goodwin first thought of putting celluloid film on a roll George Eastman began to manufacture and sell film rolls Film Pioneers Edison s employee William Laurie Dickson invented the Kinetograph the 15 motion picture camera Dickson also invents the Kinetoscope the machine that allowed individuals to peep into in order to see Edison s films Edison got the credit primary drawback of these inventions the camera was too heavy amp cumbersome thus all filming had to come to Edison s studio also there was no way to project the films Edison opens the Black Maria in West Orange New Jersey it s the 1st film studio in America it had an open roof that revolved in order to follow the sun for filming Lumiere Brothers Louis amp Auguste Lumiere solved the problem of projection with the creation of the first combined camera and projector the cinematographe the brothers went to localities since their camera was so mobile taking what looks like home videos then inviting the participants to viewings later the brothers also created the sprocket holes in film they proved that people would sit in a darkened room amp watch movies projected on screen Thomas Arnat and another colleague invented a projector similar to the Lumiere brothers he sold it to a company who asked Edison to finance amp manufacture the projector Edison agreed only if he could claim it as his own Edison introduced it as his Vitascope Edison used the Vitascope to film The Kiss one of the most scandalous films in the history of Hollywood and the 1stmass audience showing in America 1quot R 39 t Narratives Great Storytellers George Melies called the first artist of the cinema the 1st to actually tell a story in his films his 1902 film A Trip to the Moon 1st to bring narrative to film Edwin S Porter directed the 1 true western in 1903 The Great Train Robbery the 12minute film is the 1st USmade narrative film the 15 to use editing for action 15 to use montage 15 public display of someone intentionally being harmed another on film David Wark Griffith o 15 man to specialize as a director 0 Griffith is considered the single most important person in the development of film as an art form 0 1915 film Birth ofa Nation was extremely controversial because it made the Ku Klux Klan heroic and the Klan used the film for recruitment purposes controversy marred Griffith s significance in history 1 O o the 15 to use parallel flashbacks dollying trucking special music composed for his films split screen closeups and the star system together in such a way to get to the audience s emotions 0 films had wellproduced outdoor scenes as well as cuts between simultaneous scenes to build tension ex woman in peril hero en route to save her 0 Birth cost 125000 to produce with a 6week rehearsal amp 9week film shoot unheard of that early 0 it had a 3 admission and was 3 hours long it was the 1st fulllength featurelength blockbuster film that was one of the most popular films until 1939 thereafter films more than 112 hours became known as feature films 0 Griffith was so disturbed at the reaction to his film he next made Intolerance which was also extremely elaborate and expensive film done by DW Griffith Griffith later went on to found United Artists along with Charlie Chaplin Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks although he received a special award from the Academy Awards he never received the kind of credit he deserved O MPPCTrust Edison goes to court to license his technology Supreme Court gives him all the patents in 1909 Edison and his primary competitor joined forces to create the Motion Picture Patents Company MPPC also called The Trust to establish a single motion picture standard ran the New York film industry by bribing threatening and beating all competitors their competitors moved to California in 1918 in The United States v the Motion Pictures Patent Company the courts ruled that they were an illegal monopoly and they were forced to disband Hollmood s Classical Age Adolph Zukor said to have decided to go to Flagstaff Arizona to get away from the Edison town met him at the railway told him to move on to the next stop that was Los Angeles obtained the rights to The Prisoner onenda which became a big hit Zukor went on to found Paramount in Hollywood Classical Age of Hollywood characterized by vertical integration the ownership by the Big Five studios of all three major aspects of the film industry production distribution amp exhibition horizonta integration the ownership of by the 3 minor studios of production and distribution of films but not theaters studio system the emphasis was factorybased massproduction with film formulas amp stars contracted to the various studios everything necessary to put a film together was under one roof directors actors other key personnel star system period in Hollywood during the studio system when stars were contracted to a given studio to make the movie a success Big Five As the studio system flourished the Big Five were Paramount most profitable amp powerful contracted director Cecil B DeMille actors Rudolph Valentino Mary Pickford W C Fields the Marx Brothers Bob Hope and Elvis Presley the studio later bought the RKODesilu lot that sat adjacent to its studio their 1927 film Wings won the 15 film that won the Academy Award for Best Picture and also the only silent film to win for Best Picture MetroGodwynMayer known for glamorous colorful musicals had Clark Gable and Joan Crawford on contract also known for B movies Tarzan as well as the March of Time amp Movietone newsreels Twentieth Century Fox a combination of two studios known for westerns musicals biographies book adaptations amp religious epics films of Shirley Temple popular brought Marilyn Monroe to stardom in the 1950s Cleopatra starring Richard Burton amp Elizabeth Taylor nearly put the studio out of business budgeted at 2 million ended up costing 44 million Taylor s original contract had her making 1 million after an illness and tracheotomy Taylor continued to film and received 7 million 2 Warner Brothers brothers Harry Sam Albert amp Jack founded the studio 1930s gangster films with James Cagney amp Edward G Robinson 1940s hardboiled detective films with Humphrey Bogart film noir animated features with Bugs Bunny Sylvester Tweety Daffy Duck and Yosemite Sam famous films included The Jazz Singer Little Caesar Casablanca RadioKeithOrpheum merged under the direction of David Sarnoff it produced such hits as Its a Wonderful Life Alfred Hitchcock s Notorious 9 Fred Astaire amp Ginger Rogers films later turned into Desilu Studios where Star Trek and The Untouchables were developed Minor Three Studios The three minor studios horizontally integrated with no theaters were Universal the 1 studio to give billing and screen credit to the actors Edison had refused to do so they were known for their comedies and horror films Boris Karloff in Frankenstein and The Mummy Coumbia known for screwball comedies featuring the Three Stooges had director Frank Capra whose It Happened One Night won the Academy Award for Best Picture United Artists founded by DW Griffith Charlie Chaplin Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks today it is owned by MGM Comcast amp Tom Cruise small share Rise of directors Max Sennett best known comedy genre Keystone Kops and Charlie Chaplin in his films Cecil B DeMille best known for his spectacular films The Ten Commandments Busby Berkeley best known for musicals his famous camera shot was above the set to see the dancers in unison from that strange angle in 42 Street Frank Capra perfected the sentimental genre he later made war movies sympathetic to our side and he also served in the military during the war It s a Wonderful Life Alfred Hitchcock master of suspense The Birds Psycho End of Silent Films Never really silent always had music accompanying film Not all black amp white some had color for mood Sound could have been added earlier studios saved money with silent films Warner Brothers desperate almost bankrupt decided to try sound Disagree on what the first sound movie was The Jazz Singer is the 1927 film best known for the synchronized sound added to a few scenes particularly Al Jolson s musical scene not the first all sound film Lights of New York was the 1928 Warner Brothers film that holds the distinction of being the first allsound feature length film The Effects of Talking Films Some actors did not have pleasant voices lost careers Made new genres possible musicals Performances amp acting improved Smaller studios closed because films now too expensive Big film studios become even more powerful Hollmood Scandals The Kiss too realistic too suggestive for the time 1st Hollywood scandal Fatty Arbuckle the rotund Hollywood actor who after signing a 1 milliondollar contract celebrated with a 3day party where young actress died he was accused of having raped and crushed her with his girth size eventually cleared but never regained stardom Wallace Reid the number one actor of his time had a studiorelated accident studio doctors gave him morphine through that movie and others to follow became addicted and died of a drug overdose William Desmond Taylor the director whose unsolved murder caused a sensation in Hollywood studio called before the police they took evidence cleaned before the police were called 3 Censorshig Motion Picture Producers amp Distributors of America MPPDA was the organization founded to help restore Hollywood prestige Will Hays was appointed the first president the organization still exists today but the name was later changed to the Motion Picture Association of America MPAA Hays put censorship system in place the system called the Hays Code the Code or the Motion Picture Code MPC Modern Ratings MPAA unveiled their current ratings system in 1968 their initial ratings which have changed over the years were G M R ampX After Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom parents complained that G nor PG were not sufficient to warn parents about violence or other inappropriate problems found in films Spielberg himself suggested to the MPAA that PG13 be added to the ratings and it was now the ratings stand at G PG PG13 R and NC17 PostDepression Changes Audiences stay with films throughout the Depression after the size increases substantially The Justice Department begins to challenge vertical integration for all of the major studios in 1938 the absolute worst time for Hollywood television debuts in 1939 1939 Hollmood The single greatest year of filmmaking with Gone with the Wind Stagecoach Mr Smith Goes to Washington Wuthering Heights Of Mice amp Men The Wizard of Oz are all nominated for Best Picture Victor Fleming directed both Gone with the Wind and The Wizard of Oz The Genius of Orson Welles He 15 shocked the nation in 1938 with the radio version of The War of the Worlds In 1941 he acted wrote produced and directed what some consider the greatest movie ever made Citizen Kane film loosely based on the life of William Randolph Hearst Citizen Kane and his 2quotd film The Magni cent Ambersons were considered his greatest achievements Hollmood amp WWII Other countries shut down film making FDR allowed Hollywood to continue if supportive of the war efforts war bonds were sold in theater lobbies Director Frank Capra joined the Army and made propaganda films others joined as well By the end ofthe war 90 million were filling the theater The End of Hollmood s Golden Age Age of Television Rise of commercial television Paramount Decree is the landmark case in which all five of the major studios including Paramount were forced to divest themselves of one aspect of vertical integration they all sold their exhibition or theater business Suburban migration made television the medium of choice not movie going Steep decline in movie going The Era of Competition 1950s1970s Hollywood mounts a number of efforts to try to compete with television CinemaScope is the process of shooting film in widescreen and putting it on 35 mm SmellOVision is the system of disseminating various smells while a film was playing in a theater Hollywood was attempting to do anything to compete with television 4 blaxpoitation was a distinct genre of 1970s Hollywood films in which black actors were cast as the leads Living with Television Studios find a new formula abandon mass production focus on financing amp distribution produce fewer biggie films Studios realize that television would be useful so they began to syndicate old films for television amp began to step up telefilm series production By 1960 studios made more money from television than films still so today Rise of New Hollmood 1970s Sparked by the end ofthe 1970s with films like Jaws Star Wars New era of cable TV with paycable channels new market and the VCR period now home movies Increased reliance of spectacles lntensifying blockbuster syndrome blockbuster is used to classify films that by themselves become events and make huge amounts of money Jaws is thought to be the first new era blockbuster making 100000000 as a summer blockbuster blockbuster syndrome the Hollywood psychology and mentality looking for films that will be events Into the 1980s Blockbuster syndrome coalesces Spielberg amp Lucas are the new auteurs artists Ancillary markets expand cable home video Fall of Soviet Union China s opening allow for a global market Reaganera changes FCC s deregulation will integrate film amp TV industry ownership relaxation now means companies will have ability to cross own media Con lomerate Holl ood 1980s to the resent Deregulation steps up media mergers consolidation of the film amp TV industry Studios add on independents to their dynasties End of the Cold War brings even more of a global market Digital revolution now present computergenerated imagery or CGI DVD Movies amp Their Audiences Typical moviegoer in the US is a teenager or young adult Teens buy more than 30 of tickets bought though they re less than 20 of the audience Malls are logical places for teens to see movies Most films aimed at children to young adults most of top 10 appeal to younger audiences Film medium seems to be geared toward what the young want amp need yet there are a few films of merit represented Top 10 Grossing Movies Avatar Titanic The Dark Knight Star Wars Episode IV Shrek 2 Film Records 1946 4 billion tickets sold now 16 billion a year in US theaters 2007 previous most profitable year with 9663 billion spent 2009 10595 new recordsetting year Today s Maior Studios Warner Brothers largest Paramount Columbia Universal Toda s Cor orate Inde endent Studios still come under the cor orate umbrella Miramax Disney Sony Classics Warner Independent Paramount Vantage Fox Searchlight Focus Features Universal Today s True Independents Lionsgate Madea amp Saw films Summit Entertainment Twilight Dreamworks SKG Spielberg Katzenberg amp Geffen Current Trends in Moviemaking Concept films more popular Concepts plots amp characters now often market tested Sequels amp remakes now dominate Comic book amp TV successes are revived Merchandising more important than plot Product placement is prevalent Convergence issues Digital technologies reshaping industry Kodak amp Texas Instruments experimenting with digital distribution theaters would have to convert Microcinema digital video cameras amp desktop publishing becoming popular George Lucas shot scenes from Phantom Menace using digital video Spike Lee s Bamboozed on digital video New Problems Steven Soderbergh s Bubble released in theaters cable TV amp DVD simultaneously the future DVD sales tapering Latinos purchased 131 DVDs Blacks 128 Whites 88 right now Latinos represent 700 billion in purchasing power now expected to be 1 trillion by 2010 Blacks 650 billion on track to 850 billion by 2010 studios must begin to make more for these audiences HD DVD v Bluray Bluray is now the format of choice better quality better resolution highest quality format better sound quality larger storage capacity 50 GB v 8 GB the format for the future HD DVD or high definition density digital video discs for storing information and films cost less had more titles initially faster loading times it was primarily backed by Toshiba but in 2008 they announced they would not longer make it now considered dead Chapter 12 Study Guide Public Relations International Public Relations In 2000 Turkcell 1 of 3 phone providers in Turkey learned that public wanted more from them Joined other nonprofits amp helped increase educational opportunities for Turkish girls in 28 rural areas by offering 5000 scholarships later expanded to 35 areas established goodwill amp popular support What is PR Often equated with snake oil salesmen hucksters amp flacks Can be publicity research public affairs media relations merchandising promotion amp more Often more evident when something goes wrong Public Relations Defined PR is the management function that focuses on the relationships amp communications that individuals amp organizations have with other groups called publics for the purpose of creating mutual goodwill Basically helping your client create goodwill thru improved communications thus establishing relationships making someone or something look good to the people who matter Identifying Publics PR people interact with a number of publics 0 Employees newsletters events Stockholders goodwill necessary Communities organization s neighbors Media trustgoodwill of media professionals Government deserves the attention Investment Community public must trust Customers goodwill is invaluable 000000 Public Relations v Advertising Biggest difference is money adv pay PR free Control adv have complete control bc pay PR no control Amount of exposure adv pay for exposure PR lucky to get it Writing style adv copy more relaxed PR in the style of the medium Amount of contact adv may or may not have contact PR nurture amp cultivate relationships Facilitating Info Flow 1980s Goodbye to the Low Pro le by Herb Schmertz VP Mobil Oil He willingly injected his opinions amp asked for full debate PR had been behind the scenes so controversial Origins of PR Aristotle s Rhetoric one of the earliest volumes Some suggest the Bible is one of the first PR books Julius Caesar reported achievements to maintain morale amp solidify power Early colonists fed overstatements halftruths lies Boston Tea Party 15 pseudoevent event staged for the purpose of attention Samuel Adams Spelled out PR techniques that still work 0 Form activist organization Use many med39a Create eventsslogans Orchestrate conflict Sustain an info campaign over time 0000 President Andrew Jackson s PR Jackson was the 15 common man voted into presidency Distrustful of those who traditionally held power Surrounded himself with his Kitchen Cabinet amp Amos Kendall who wrote speeches carefully crafted Jackson s reputation 1st press secretary 1 advance man From Press Agentry to Public Policy PT Barnum represents press agentry coined the greatest show on earthquot in reference to his circus believed to have said a sucker is born every minute 1896 1 modern national political campaign Westinghouse 15 corporate PR department The Publicity Bureau 15 publicity company opened in Boston in 1906 ATampT President Theodore Vail gave term legitimacy to term public relations in 1908 when he named report Public Relations Ivy Lee Informing the Public Lee a former New York World reporter 15 helped Pennsylvania Railroad 1914 helped John D Rockefeller with Ludlow Colorado mine strike Bloody Ludlow Henry Ford uses PR to promote cars PR now 1way from organization to public most of the elements of today s PR agency in place TwoWay Public Relations America not enthusiastic about WWI President hires George Creel to head the Committee on Public Information CPI in 1917 to help sell war Edward Bernays on CPI begins to emphasize what people thought of the organization beginning of way Later FDR used radio as his medium to build goodwill also FDR guided by advisor Louis McHenry Howe had a sophisticated PR campaign for New Deal Polling industry now crucial during the early 2way model Gallup amp Roper crucial Edward Berna Double nephew of Freud Books Crystallizing Public Opinion 1923 ushered in scientific PR Propaganda 1928 suggested people s habits amp opinions could be manipulate Saw how propaganda was used in WI propaganda info deliberately spread to help or hurt the reputation of an individual organization or country Called PR the engineering of consent Coined the phrase public relations counsel First to Suggest PR was a profession not a craft or trade Use the term public relations Write a PR textbook 0 Teach a PR class Called the father of PR Stressed the importance of applying psychological amp sociological findings in PR Clients RCA GM Procter amp Gamble government of India etc planned the Torches of Liberty campaign to encourage women to smoke for a cigarette client Greatest celebration he planned Light s Golden Jubilee in Detroit to honor Edison the 50m anniversary of the light bulb hosted by Henry Ford 000 0s amp 1950s Public Relations 194 I More sophisticated using research advertising amp promotion Novels hurt the industry The Hucksters amp The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit Vance Packard s The Hidden Persuaders further eroded PR esteem Congress passed Federal Regulation of Lobbying Act 1946 anyone dealing with federal employees for private citizens must disclose relationships TwoWay Public Relations Model Advertising agencies began to emphasize a company s good name amp reputation they add PR divisions further blurring distinction between advertising amp P Women join TV Internet amp other media new instruments for messages Summary of Modern Public Relations Two PR scholars amp theorists Grunig amp Hunt suggest Bernays developed 2 new models of PR here are all four models 0 Barnum Press agentrylpublicity shameless promotions based on fancy emphasis on promotion sensationalism persuasion manipulation of public Ivy Lee Public information emphasis on 1way dissemination oftruthful information 8 O o Bernays Oneway asymmetrical model emphasis on formative research to determine wants needs amp attitudes of target audience 0 Bernays Twoway symmetrical emphasis on balanced communication between producer amp consumer All four models still exist today PR Program Implementation Several steps in implementing PR program 0 Identify subpublics specific demographic groups within publics such as parttime v fulltime must determine the characteristics amp behaviors of the target consumer 0 Setting objectives must decide on target audience set time frames deadlines so success can be assessed 0 Planning the program John Marston s RACE formula research action communication amp evaluation Roles amp Functions of Public Relations Four roles O Governments amp goodwill 0 Politics amp entertainment 0 Corporate rebranding 0 Crisis management damage control Steps necessary to handle the damage 1find out what s happened amp how it affects the public 2 Tell the truth 3 take the necessary steps to ensure the problem will not happen again 4 must show the company has learned its lesson and taking responsibility issues management once past the crisis show organization is still working to solve problems Sample PR Events Johnson amp Johnson s Tylenol was arseniclaced in Chicago 1982 J amp J voluntarily pulled from the shelves instituted tamperresistant packaging CEO served as spokesman throughout earned public trust Vice President Richard Nixon on a tour with Russian leader Krushchev was ushered into a US kitchen exhibit by PR aid William Safire Nixon lectured Krushchev about the virtues of America while Safire took pictures Safire went on to become a speech writer for several Republicans Coleco surprised at the Cabbage Patch Doll popularity they used psychological research to understand the appeal then used the research to determine the PR campaign to keep parents patient 1979 ThreeMilelsland nuclear power plant crisis government took 3 days to address Exxon Valdez oil spill crisis public lost faith in company cut up credit cards amp sent them back to com an British Petroleum hired Ogilvy amp Mathers Worldwide to make the company seem more earth friendly must have worked because Alaskan oil spill amp Texas City refinery explosion did not hurt the company Corporate Rebranding Corporate social responsibility CSR refers to companies looking to revamp their images while benefitting society amp improving their bottom line Companies that exaggerate when trying to look environmentally altruistic are negatively said to be greenwashing Branding and rebranding can be done in the political arena mavericks amp change and in the entertainment arena Skills amp Tactics of PR Professionals Relations with the media must develop relationships in order to place stories Management by objective MBO a business technique that s now useful in PR tell clients up front what objectives you intend to accomplish so that your work is measureable at the end of the job 9 Research applications research is now so doable so you must use research to understand what the public thinks amp how it behaves to your client s issue can do research through public opinion polls focus group interviews or study behaviors as people act Ability to present factual data in a comprehensible interesting compelling amp believable manner Ability to write well and in a journalistic style either print or broadcasting style Ability to strategically use the newest cuttingedge technologies particularly social media for your client s best use Scope amp Structure of Public Relations 200000 PR professionals 10 billiondollar industry Advertising can serve a PR role when trying to build the image of the client rather than sell a product 80 of major US companies have PR departments some housing 400 employees Over 4000 PR firms in US the largest with 2000 employees most are smaller Top Five Public Relations Firms Edelman Public Relations Worldwide largest Ruder Finn Group Waggener Edstrom APCO Worldwide Schwartz Communications Trends amp Convergence in PR Foreign ownershi Specialization in issues health care environment etc Specialization in new technologies social media Chapter 13 Study Guide Advertising Advertising Defined Advertising is a mediated message paid for by and identified with a business or institution that seeks to increase the likelihood that those who consume those messages will act or think as the advertiser wishes Properties of an Ad What are the properties that make an ad They are d message is paid for by the client 0 Ad message is made to look personal yet aimed to anyone it may concern 0 Information promotes ideas goods or services 0 Client is identified Advertising is Every Where US advertisers spend 20 billion a year advertisers spend 450 billion globally Typical person sees between 3500 to 5000 ad messages a day That compares to 500 to 2000 a day in 1970s Criticisms of Advertising Intrusive amp deceptive Exploits children Demeans amp corrupts culture Can distort reality Hypercommercialism Always trying to sell audiences something they don t need Benefits of Advertising Provides information Entertaining Primary force that drives the economy Makes broadcast television amp radio free to consumers Ads help guide citizens to products particularly new products Promotes goods amp services that aid us Promotes competition within the market thus driving prices down amp increases availability Helps consumers decide where to get the best price amp what products have value Since media outlets function at no cost to us more outlets flourish Early Advertising Babylonian merchants hired barkers to shout product info in 3000 Romans wrote announcements on city walls Siquis pinup want ads common in the 15 I century The Weekly News in 1625 was the 15 newsbook amp was printed in England with ads Colonial Advertising Came here from England whose ads were filled with exaggerations colonial ads more straightforward and truthful 1st colonial ad Boston News Letter in 1703 publicizing Oyster Bay Long Island estate Ben Franklin sold ad space in Pennsylvania Gazette Mostly farmers advertising before Civil War Industrialization amp the Civil War Industrial Revolution amp Civil War altered social amp cultural landscapes Copywriter Volney B Palmer makes a liaison arrangement in Philadelphia in 1841 by 1849 expanded to BostonNew York his was the 1st ad agenc Quaker Oats amp other wellknown brands develop emphasis on the brand at this point Advertising in the late 1800s Benjamin Day s paper the Sun brought ads to the masses within 4 years reached 30000 making it the largest paper in the world at that time Ad agencies form in the late 1800s in 1882 Procter amp Gamble started an ad campaign for Ivory soap with an 11000 budget unheard of then Modern Advertising The 1900s began the modern ad period with products such as Kellogg s cornflakes in 1906 Kellogg began to advertise in 6 Midwestern magazines By 1915 Kellogg was spending more than 1 million dollars a year on ads a new record By 1921 Reynolds designated 8 million on ads mostly Camel cigarettes by 1923 Camel controlled 45 of market Government Involvement 1914 Federal Trade Commission Act creates the Federal Trade Commission FTC could issue a cease amp desist order against any company engaged in dishonest advertising Hit cigarette companies hard Magazine Advertising Expansion of railroads rise in literacy amp cheaper postal rates helped expand magazines 1 national mass medium By the 20m century magazines financially supported primarily by advertisers rather than readers A Changing Market Radio In early 20 century companies began to spend money by radio 1st radio ad WEAF in 1922 cost 50 for 10minute spot Advertisers took over programming ad business became show business 11 The Eveready Hour the 1st regularly broadcastsponsored series Ad agency BlackettSampleHummert developed new genre for radio soap operas WWI amp Depression did not destroy radio advertising but harmful advertisers responded with the hard sell emphasizing the need much of it dishonest Consumer Union was founded in 1936 Consumer Reports WheelerLea Act of 1938 extends the FTC power rld War II Wo I War Advertising Council is formed in 1941 to promote government programs amp issues after the war the organization changed to the Advertising Council Emphasis in advertising switched to corporate image advertising expansion in the number amp size of manufactures advertising departments Advertisers turn from radio to TV July 1 1941 NBC s WNBT aired its 1st telecast that opened amp closed with a closeup of a Bulova watch 15 TV product placement 12 million of TV ads in 1949 by 51 128 million Political ads begin in 1952 Political Advertising 1952 Dwight Eisenhower became the 1st presidential election to use TV Same company handled Eisenhower s campaign and MampM candy That election changed America the 2008 presidential election 3 billion on TV campaigns Evolution of TV Commercials After quiz show scandal commercials were spread across a number of programs Brand awareness became important who made it done through slogans ampjingles First 60second commercials then later 30second commercials develop 100000 commercial minutes in 1967 105622 in 1974 Emphasis then changed to the people who use the products rather than the products image advertising began Then 15 10 and 1second blink ads spots began to appear dangerous because of clutter so many commercials the audience turns off to all message gets lost in the shuffle Government Advertising amp Nielsen Government began to advertise to support WWII War Advertising Council got free ads War Council turned into the Advertising Council putting out public service campaigns featuring Smokey the Bear amp McGruff Nielsen begins to help all advertisers determine strategic methods to reach their demographic quantifiable information about audience such as age income and psychographic lifestyle non quantifiable info about audience such as golfers gamers End of the 20Lh Century Advertisers moved from selling a certain product instead wanted to embrace the brand such as 1963 The Pepsi Generation campaign MTV helped bring about flashier ads in 1980s Internet introduced hightech ad forms in 1990s By 1993 the Internet had 5 million users amp soon 2 billion on Internet ads today 24 billion out of the 450 billion spent on Internet ads A Culture of Consumerism Consumerism is the theory that the more we buy the more the economy thrives began in the US at the start of the 20m century People working fewer hours higher paying jobs investing in stock market buying luxury items consumerism is clear today 6 trillion in goods amp services today 12 Faces of Advertising Direct mail considered junk mail by some sent through post office grocery store circulars pre approved credit cards common promote special sales to select customers useful because companies can create mailing lists of customers who are most likely to purchase Pointofsale promotions amp offers on or near checkout counter recently becoming more high tech with video flyers but they can be expensive amp overlooked this form is beneficial since purchasing decisions are made in the store letting the advertiser tap into impulse buying Outdoor Advertising billboards personal cars bus shelters park benches public transit vehicles etc in 2007 outdoor advertising made 73 billion Internet has shaken the advertising world amp now a dominant force in the media electronic banners now placed on home pages or Web pages can be popup or sidebar video paid search amp payperclick ads are the fasting growing Google s Advertising Role Google began both paid search amp payperclick ads mastered by Google founders Paid search called AdWord is used on a search engine web site allowing companies to have an ad placed on top or next to search results when keywords are used Payperclick ads called AdSense are ads placed on web pages in exchange for a small fee when a user clicks on the ad the web site administrator gets paid Google has made more than 16 billion in ad revenue and its expected to grow Government Regulations Government came after pharmaceutical industry first customers were tired of false claims medical community amp consumers pressed Congress to pass the Pure Food amp Drug Act of 1906 prohibits claims of undocumented cures amp misrepresentations products must also list all ingredients FTC s expanded role regulate advertising amp prevent deceptive practices monitor amp correct claims study abuses issue reports FTCI 1950s1980s Bait amp switch advertising common fraudulent advertising in which a company advertises a product for an unprofitable price then product unavailable so you move up to a higher priced item Free claims for products not really free also prevalent Free Credit Report now being hit with these claims By the 1980s FTC took an aggressive stand against Brand X ads required advertisers to name its competitors cite impartial research data as proof that one product is better than the other FTC s Regulation of Advertising Several options for enforcement if problems are found with ads 0 Cease amp desist order ordered to stop 0 Impose fines 0 Order the creationdistribution of correction advertising FTC amp False Ads When is an ad false It is when 0 It lies outright 0 Does not tell the whole truth 0 Lies by implication 3 f 39 of39 quot 39 39 Unfinished statements bigger stronger more bigger than what Stronger than what Qualifiers words that limit a claim may help with dirt but no promise it will help Connotatively loaded words amp claims are common cherryflavored products that have no cherries in them 13 Sample FTC Decisions Profile bread had to explain to customers that bread had fewer calories because it was thinner not lowfat Ocean Spray accused of false claims since company has to pay a of the rest of the year s advertising companyjust did not advertise further that year waited the year out without ads Other Government Agencies US Postal Service screens catalogs amp other mail to ensure no fraud Securities amp Exchange Committee checks to ensure no fraud that would make stocks rise Food amp Drug Administration overseeing info pertaining to food health care products cosmetics amp drugs in 1991 announced new more stringent rules Road to the End of Cigarette Ads Surgeon General s findings led to required warnings on the cigarette packages in 1965 In 1971 Congress prohibited TV broadcast cigarette ads industry said it was unconstitutional print industry loved it Congress looked at banning print ads in 1980s FTC also tried to fight Reynolds Company for false ads but unsuccessful Cigarette Audiences Tobacco companies said they were advertising to those who already smoked Now college women smoke cigarettes more than college men is advertising to blame While medical community was pushing for less tobacco advertising they were pushing and successful for fewer restrictions to allow doctor amp medical ads that were once prohibited Effects of Advertising Debate over alcohol has become emotional amp heated National Association to Prevent Impaired Driving complained about too little emphasis on not driving under the influence Wall Street Journal survey showed most favored end of TV ads don t want liquor ads to end Consumers with a Voice Ralston Purina Domino s Pepsi amp General Mills cancelled their ads on Saturday NightLve One mother complaining about Married With Children brought a lot of attention but advertisers remained Pepsi pulled ad with Madonna video Like a Prayer fearing the company would suffer they also pulled a Ludacris ad because of pressure Action for Children s Television The group that brought us Sesame Street they also acted as consultants for HBO on Buy Me That Documentary showing how ads seduce children Congress passed a bill reinstating limitation on number of commercial TV minutes per hour are aimed at children limits removed in 1984 during deregulation new limitations imposed again in 1991 Media SelfRegulation Networks have a right to refuse to run ads 2 networks refused to run a political ad from Grace Company in 1984 in 1986 all 3 refused some felt networks were trying to do away with the Fairness Doctrine mandates equal treatment Congress did do away with most provisions of the Fairness Doctrine in 1987 FCC still requires opponents to receive free air time to respond to statements made by another side of the issue National Association of Broadcasters NAB 15 drafted a code in 1929 with suggestions for broadcasters in 1982 taken to court to argue the code Code is not law but most broadcasters have adopted the code rules 14 Stations simply choose to stay away from ads featuring issues such as condom use or abortion fearing controversy Industry SelfRegulation National Advertising Review Council NARC founded by major adv industry forces in reaction to public criticism amp FTC scrutiny they founded an investigative body National Adv Division NAD to investigate deceptive or misleading ads Children s Advertising Review Unit of NAD addresses children s advertising complaints NAD does not have power to censor ads impose fines or other sanctions review amp publication of findings discourages future abuses amp excesses Theories of Advertising AIDA model 4 steps consumers go through are attention interest desire amp action Unique Selling Proposition USP identify 1 specific characteristic of the product to make consumer want to buy Surf gets out the dirt amp and the odor They all do Hierarchy of Needs Maslow need for survival then security then love amp sense of belonging then esteem then selfactualization advertising aimed at making the customer think the product will do this for them Reinforcement Theory repetitious amp constant ads seen over amp over amp over work MediaPlacement Formulas where when amp how often to use media to target audiences New Technology Internet so popular advertisers are going to spend large portions of the budget likely viral videos amp bogs will emerge as effective way to reach customers Mobile advertisers newest way to deliver ads 24 hours a day possible to send fulllength commercials to thousands of phones Product Placement Advertisers want you to see more of them Bull Durham showed Miller products 15 film to do so also showed 50 brand names every 12 minutes on average few knew what happened Some TV programs now have up to 7500 instances of product placement some worry it will harm the show s integrity but the money makes the stations welcome product placement Guerilla Marketing Form of advertising that attempts to get the most out of spending little marathon runners wearing chicken suit could reach large audiences Serious issues also brought to the attention free healthcare test reminder is an example SubliminalHidden Messages New Jersey movie theaters in 1950s superimposed images to audiences asking them to Drink CocaCola or eat popcorn ultimately led television networks and the National Association of Broadcasters to ban subliminal advertising on television in 1958 Some state legislators have introduced bills to ban subliminal advertising Researchers have debunked evidence that it works Now advertisers use color graphics amp images to create mood appeal to sexual thoughts amp attract our attention Future of Advertising Megacorporations buyingselling advertising companies just as in all other media Word of mouth VVOM important bogs buzz viral marketing amp customer evangelism their speaking for the product now prevalent Advertisers constantly looking for new places attempting to expand to many venues beyond the traditional commercial media ambient advertising for example 15 Piggybacking the presentation of two products by a single sponsor will continue Scope amp Nature of Industry In 2002 266 billion in US amp 400 billion worldwide were through ad agencies In 2006 advertisers spent more than 292 billion to place messages in US spent more than 604 billion to reach the world s customers does not include 8 for planning production amp distribution Now amount is much less Approximately 6000 ad agencies operating in the US employing about 12 million people Fewer than 500 of the agencies earn more than 1 million a year Typical individual will spend more than 1 year of hisher life watching television commercials Chapter 1 Study Guide The Evolution of Mass Communication George GuessSeguoyah 0 Father whitemother Cherokee handicapped never learned to read or write English Cherokee felt they were meant to hunt not read 0 Devised a system of 86 characters each representing a sound in the Cherokee language Guess taught his daughter to read system adopted by the Cherokee nation in 1825 nation awarded Guess a silver medal for his contributions 0 Only single person in history to createperfect a system for reading amp writing a language English botanist named giant California tree Sequoyah Guess s Cherokee name for his giant contributions Storytelling 0 National Storytelling Association defines storytelling as the art of using language vocalization and gesture to reveal the elements and images of a story to an audiencequot 0 Story defined as narrative account of real or imagined events stories pass on wisdom beliefs values explain whowhat we are explain how things are why the building blocks of knowledge the foundation of memory learning connect link us to the past present amp future 0 Telling defined as live person to person oralphysical presentation of a story to an audience involves direct contact between tellerlistener teller must use vivid language to bring the story to life listener must bring experiences to help bring to life 0 Storytelling Elements interactive cocreative personal interpretive human a processmedium for sharing amp interpreting meaning to an audience Culture 0 Culture defined as the behaviorsbeliefs characteristic of a particular social ethnic or age group the learned behaviors of whatever group to which you belong 0 Another definition of culture the sum total of ways of living built up by a group over a period of time and passed on from one generation to anotherquot Media amp Stor elling Culture 0 Mass media have become our culture s storytellers whether it is advertising television newspapers whatever media they all tell stories that we like those who can tell stories well will be sought 0 Media stories some positive some negative stereotypes build over time many based on truthful info for some extended to all of a given culture once again some stereotypical images dominate Earl CulturesampStor ellin 0 Oral cultures passed on info from one generation to the next without benefit of writing Cultures extremely close elders considered most wise 1St important communicators 0 Myth amp history intertwined Early Writing Cultures o Sumerians cuneiform a picture language using a stylus tool 0 Egyptians created hieroglyphs w2000 symbols used papyrus writing surface derived from plants along the Nile and parchment writing surface from the skins of goat amp sheep Rosetta Stone helped decipher hieroglyphs o Phoenicians developed 1St syllable alphabet o Greeks credited with perfecting the alphabet Printing Press 0 Before the press took 5 years for monks to hand write a Bible 0 Other presses for art amp wine existed Gutenberg gave 1St printing press winterchangeable letters 0 Five years after the printing press 12 million books published in Europe Communication Defined Process in which we assignconvey meaning in an attempt to create shared understanding requires interpersonal amp intrapersonal skills such as processing listening observing speaking questioning analyzing amp evaluating Different Communication Types 0 lntrapersonal communication one has with oneself can be speaking aloud eye contact winking daydreaming referred to as silent language 0 Interpersonal includes all aspects of personal interaction or contact usually with 2 people but can be others not a large group interacting with another exchanging info amp views a thoughtful exchange debate 0 Mass Communication when messages are sent through technology thereby making it possible for large numbers to access the message principles of this type the same as others but this one much more difficult than the other types because of the large numbers in the audience Problems with Communication 0 A message can challenge a person s experiences may cause rejection distortion or misinterpretation 0 Noise anything that interferes with the transmission of a message may occur smudged print reception problems lawn mowers 0 Feedback crucial because message may be misinterpreted unclear delayed etc Information Revolutions Background 0 Writing brought an end to the importance of oral storytelling 0 Author Irving Fang suggests there are 6 info revolutions in each of the 6 storytelling changed drastically First Revolution Writing Revolution 0 Began primarily in Greece around 8th century BC o Began wconvergence of the Phoenician alphabet to the East the Egyptian papyrus to the South Ramifications of 1St Revolution 0 Memory no longer crucial 0 Knowledge now boundless o Elders no longer revered o Cultures divided Second Revolution Printing Revolution 0 Began in Europe second half of the 15th century when paper originally from China and a printing system established by Gutenberg o Marked the beginning of the modern world Ramifications of 2quotd Revolution 0 Info spread through many layers of society royaltychurch no longer all powerful 0 Printing lends itself to massive political religious economic educational amp personal changes Martin Luther 0 Period called the Reformation or Renaissance o Marked the end of feudalism Third Revolution Mass Media Revolution 0 Began in Western amp Eastern United States during the middle ofthe 19th century 0 Began wthe convergence of advances in paper production amp printing press methods amp the invention of the telegraph 0 Changed the way info was conveyed Ramifications of 3rd Revolution 0 For the 1St time newspapers amp magazines reached out to the common man with news events near amp far amp packaged goods for sale 0 Photography became popular 0 Public schools amp libraries began to spread 0 Literacy possible for the masses Fourth Revolution Entertainment Revolution 0 Began in Europe and America toward the end of the 19th century 0 Stories printed sold cheaply just like cars on an assembly line entertainment can now be infinitely duplicatedcanned Ramifications of 4th Revolution 0 Entertainment will change American audiences forever 0 Eventually audiences will spend more time being entertained than many spend working Fifth Revolution Communication Toolshed Revolution 0 Evolved during the middle of the 20th century transforming the home into the central location for receiving info amp entertainment 0 Includes telephone broadcasting recording improvement in print technologies cheap universal mail services Ramifications of 5th Revolution 0 Radio keeps families entertained foreshadows fascination wtelevision 0 Birth of TV changes all other media radio loses programs amp becomes a jukebox general magazines lose prominence 0 Home entertaining will never be the same Sixth Revolution Information Highway Revolution 0 Began with the Internet explosion in the 1990s 0 Describes today s convergence of electronic technologies Ramifications of 6th Revolution 0 Has created an uncertain situation forfuture of all media 0 New media now extremely popular young people spend the most time utilizing new media Overview of Media Changes 0 4000 BCE Written language began o 1455 Gutenberg s Bible is published 0 1960 US transitions to information society 0 1975 1St personal computer introduced SATCOM 1 was 1St satellite approved it is sustained about 22300 miles above the Equator o 1982 CD 1St digital music recording medium introduced 0 1991 World Wide Web begins 0 1995 First digital hit movie Toy Story 0 1996 Telecommunications Act of 1996 changes US media policy particularly ownership 0 1998 First US HDTV broadcasts new Copyright Act 0 2007 Internet reaches 75 of American homes 0 2009 US transition to digital television Broadcast Media in 5m m Centuries 0 Radio dominated until 1948 audiences abandoned TV in early 1950s 0 In the 1950s more TVs sold than children born in spite of the Baby Boom Generation 19461964 0 In 1963 TV becomes the preferred medium for Americans to get their news 0 For years network TV dominated news figured dominated trusted as credible 0 Mass efficiency could reach 97 audience w3 ads in primetime ads were succinct not tailored to niche audiences but large sections ofthe population Pivotal Moments in Television 1963 TV reaches maturity 1975 HBO goes on satellite 1976 1St basic cable service amp WTBS debut 1987 Fox TV network debut 1996 Telecommunication Act triggers mergers 1998 Broadcast news loses dominance Media ProblemsIssues at Hand 0 Audience fragmentation now really difficult to reach 0 Convergence erosion of traditional distinctions among media content now available everywhere 0 Conglomeration prevalent media bought by nonmedia companies 0 New media convergence media ownership all impactful all hitting at the same time Technological Innovations 0 Digital communication helped in the development of the 1st computers in the 1940s can duplicate store amp play back complicated media content 0 Microprocessors miniature circuits led to the first personal computers smaller cheaper and increasingly more powerful computer chip power doubles about every 18 months 0 Fiber optic cable appeared in the mid1980s featuring thin bundles of fiber incorporating glass amp pulse of light that can be transported through lasers and can carry broadcast channels telephone signals amp all sorts of digital codes 0 Various innovations from 1969 to the 1990s led to the Internet amp the WWW Aftermath of Media Changes 0 Democratization of media because audiences are everywhere reach is now diminished o Other new problems newstainment credibility questioned reality programming product placement amp beyond 0 No boundaries no news cycles 0 Content delivery now proliferated New Media 0 From Colossus to ENIAC to Apple computers amp the Internet pivotal in all changes 0 Blogs have changed society particularly politics 0 eBay amp Craigslist revolutionized retailing 0 Facebook MySpace amp Twitter Google YouTube Yahoo Blogs 0 Coined in 1997 describes web logs daily postings with content personally posted on narrow topics often watchdogs amp selfproclaimed experts o In 1999 a few companies began offering blog software by 2002 Pyra Labs claimed 970000 users 0 Gone from obscure fad to a genuine alternative to mainstream news outlets Strom Thurmond s 100th birthday party marked the turning point Trent Lott complimented Thurmond s segregationist party involvement in his run for presidency in 1948 Lott s comments virtually ignored by mainstream press blogs kept it alive 4 days later Lott apologized 2 weeks later Lott was out as Senate Majority Leader 0 CBS s Dan Rather story on George W Bush s military stint presidential candidate John Kerry Swiftboatquot incident helped cement the future importance of blogs eBa 0 Online selling site begun by Omidyar in 1995 0 Originally called AuctionWeb 1St sold a broken laser pointer for 1483 0 Bought PayPal in 2002 now have a 25 stake in Craigslist 5 Craigslist o Begun by Craig Newmark as email list for friends later job amp apartment listings added now has everything 0 Most postings free expenses covered through job postings 1 million jobs posted each month now more than 50 million users 0 Negative press because of Erotic Services section that had been a well kept secret now called Adult Services allegedly Philip Markoff a Boston med student met victims using the site in April 2009 Julissa Brisman killed Markoff charged on 81510 what would have been the 1St anniversary had he gotten married Markoff found dead in his cell a suicide his death has renewed interest in the site that has now been removed with Censored on the site instead Facebook 0 Originally called thefacebookcomquot begun by Harvard sophomore Zuckerberg in his dorm room as a hobby 0 Later extended to Stanford amp Yale 0 Forbes called him the youngest billionaire on earth amp possibly the youngest selfmade billionaire ever 2008 MySpace 0 Begun by Greenspan DeWolfe amp Anderson in 03 1 social networking website in 06 o In 07 0 Approximately 180 million MySpacecom accounts in 07 0 Typical user has 278 online friendsquot 0 Teens spend an average of 15 hours per week on site 0 Bought by News Corporation in 05 looked like a wise decision site steadily lost its stature over years 0 New team different logo no longer the place for friends and a smaller workforce may help site bounce back Twitter 0 Founded by Dorsey Stone amp Williams in 06 users limited to only 140 characters messages known as tweets 0 Postings answer the question What are you doing 0 Growing fast thanks in large part to the celebrities that now have accounts Google 0 Founded by computer science grad students Page amp Brin at Stanford in 1998 0 Wanted to find a way to retrieve information from the web began the search engine BackRub that later became Google named for the number represented by the number 1 with 100 zeros behind it o In 98 Google opened its office in Menlo Park CA so powerful it now owns YouTube 165 billion YouTube 0 Founded by Hurley Chen amp Karim in 2005 now the world s most popular online video sharing site people watching hundreds of thousands videos daily President Obama one of the 1St politicians to take advantage his info watched for 145 million hours Average viewer watches 15 minutes a day would take two centuries to watch all of the videos Gets two million views a day double the number of viewers watching network television in primetime combined 70 of traffic comes from outside the US Yahoo Begun in 94 by two Stanford electrical engineering PhD candidates Filo amp Yang originally begun as David amp Jerry s Guide to the World Wide Web Yahoo stands for Yet Another Hierarchical Officious Oracle though founders say definition sold the name Leading global Internet commerce and media company offering services to more than 345 million each month worldwide Convergence Now allows access to all types of media products whenever desired Hulu is the site offered by News Corporation amp General Electric allows viewing of Fox NBC amp other network programs TVcom is CBS s version of Hulu offering CBS programs ABC programming available on the network s website amp iTunes Concentration of Ownership More media companies are owned by fewer amp fewer people Should encourage the widest possible dissemination from diverse sources Marketplace of ideas shrink new amp independent voices are stifled Osama v OJ Whitewater Princess Di embassy bombings v Lewinsky all focus on insignificant issues instead of pressing concerns Top Powerful Media Corporations 2008 Time Warner The Disney Company News Corporation General ElectricNBC Universal Viacom Ted Turner amp Warner Brothers Merge Time Warner Results 11 Turner already owned 0 CNN amp Headline News 0 MGMUnited Artist pre1986 libraries TNT o HannaBarbera Productions Cartoon Network 0 WTBS Turner merged wTime lnc Warner Brothers merged also to become Time Warner Time Warner owns CW 50 Warner Brothers HannaBarbera HBO Cinemax CNN Headline News TNT Turner Classic Movies TBS Cartoon Network AOL Time Sports Illustrated People Fortune Atlanta Braves New Line Cinema Cartoon Network DC Comics The Disney Company 2 0 Disney Company owns ABC Pixar Disney Studios Buena Vista Touchstone Miramax ESPN Disney Channel ABC Family Toon Disney SoapNet Classic Sports Network pieces of Lifetime E portion of AampE History Channel Disneyland Disneyworld ESPN magazine 62 radio stations Previous animated hits Beauty and the Beast Lion King pen amp ink animation More recent hits Pirates Freaky Friday National Treasure Disappointments The Alamo 100 million King Arthur Around the World in 80 Days 20012002 tried Who Wants to Be a Millionaire 4 times a week rebounded with Desperate Housewives Lost amp Grey s Anatomy 0 Had the opportunity to work with Pixar Pixar Animation 0 As of January 2006 had won 20 Academy Awards 2007 s Ratatouille most nominated animated film 0 Had a previous deal with Disney beginning in 1991 with Toy Story 1995 shared box office receipts amp licensing revenues Disney retained the right to make sequels to movies such as Monsters Inc 0 Hits Toy Story Toy Story 2 A Bug s Life Monsters Inc Finding Nemo The lncredibles Cars all digital animation 0 Steve Jobs Apple chief executive also owns 12 of Pixar talks of a deal wDisney broke down when Michael Eisner was CEO 0 Cars was to be their last joint effort Disney s new CEO Robert lger worked well with Jobs agreed to be a major partner wiTunes releasing two ABC hits to Video iPod 0 ABC s release of popular programs helps cement the success of Video iPods 0 New relationship helped hasten the merger now Jobs is the largest Disney shareholder Power of Steve Jobs 0 Named by Fortune magazine as 2007 s most powerful person in business founded Apple Inc in 1977 the Apple II began the PC era 0 Gave us desktop publishing the laser printer amp pioneered personal computer networks 0 Bankrolled Pixar a brand new business model for creating computeranimated feature films Jobs bought the Pixar technology from George Lucas 0 Left Apple in 1985 returned in late 1996 changed consumer electronics with the iPod 0 Persuaded the music industry the television networks and Hollywood to distribute their content with iTunes Music Store opened successful Apple Stores retail ushered Apple s entry into cell phone business iPhone 0 So the five industries that Jobs has influenced 0 Computers 0 Hollywood 0 Music 0 Retail 0 Wireless phones 0 According to Fortune no one has more influence over a broader swath of business than Jobs he figured out a reason amp a way for people to pay for media Apple Statistics 0 Apple s computer division had a record 2008 selling 97 million Macs twice the growth of industry average as of 2009 Apple has sold 6 billion songs in 6 years to 75 million people 0 The iPhone the 1St true mobile computer is generating billions 0 Apple released the iPad already successful News Corporation amp Rupert Murdoch 0 News Corp owns Fox 34 O amp Os My Network TV 20th Century Fox FX Fox News Channel Fox Movie Channel Fox Sports The SPEED Channel National Geographic Channel Madison Square Garden Network Newspapers satellite TV HarperCollins MySpacecom Wall Street Journal 0 Chairman amp CEO News Corp is Rupert Murdoch Fortune named him the 2 most powerful person in business 0 Career began in 1953 when he inherited control of 2 Australian newspapers expanded to Britain in the 1960s the US in the 1970s and Asia in the 1990s in Britain he owns the biggest tabloid the Sun in the US the New York Post Fox News Network 20th Century Fox etc 0 His purchase of MySpacecom amp Dow Jones the parent company of the Wall Street Journal as well as the recent launch of the Fox Business Network position him as a globalspanning financial news powerhouse 0 At 76 Murdoch appears to be at the height of his power Fortune CNNMoneycom GENBC Universal amp Comcast 4 0 NBC Universal owns NBC Telemundo part of FAX 14 NBC 0 amp Os 15 Telemundo O amp Os NBC Universal Studios MSNBC CNBC Bravo Trio USA SciFi 5 theme parks 0 Comcast has purchased NBC Universal NBCU presently Comcast is the largest multiple system operator MSO meaning it owns multiple cable operations across the country 238 million customers 0 Comcast provides highspeed Internet service to 157 million voice service to 74 million owns the Golf Channel and portion of E Philadelphia Flyers hockey 76ers amp their 2 arenas now owns majority NBCU after the sale is approved by the government Things to Watch When Comcast Takes Over 0 Jeff Zucker s fate NBCU chairman who grew the cable side Leno s fate will they embrace him Olympics will they bid for the next or leave it to Disney NBCU name will likely go away Hulu network programming likely free cable likely will be a pay model has already begun pay model Viacom 5 o Viacom owns CBS CW 50 ownership with Time Warner 16 CBS 0 amp Os 18 UPN O amp Os 5 others Paramount Studios CBS Productions King World Productions Showtime Spike TV MTV MTV2 Noggin VH1 Nickelodeon BET Comedy Central TV Land CMT Flix Sundance Channel Blockbuster Simon amp Schuster lnfinity 184 radio stations Extent of Media s Reach 37 million people in the US will tune in to a primetime TV show on a typical Sunday night 98 of all homes have a TV set 91 have a VCRs amp DVDs TV sets are on more than 8 hours a day in a typical US homes 23 of all US adults will read a newspaper each day 23 will listen to radio for some part of every day lnternet population exceeds 938 million people 71 million Americans use email every day 66 of the entire US population regularly uses the Internet 90 of teens 12 to 17 Americans spent more than 88 billion buying 14 billion movie tickets 05 The Economy 0 Not just individuals harmed by bad economy fewer people working means fewer buying fewer buying means fewer advertisers less advertising less money for media 0 One in every 5 journalists who worked in 2001 likely gone 0 There will always be a need for talented eager amp passionate media employees Chapter 2 Study Guide Mass Communication Effects Mass Communication Research 0 Scholars wanted to know how media affect society how media will affect our future 0 Media influences consequences still not understood 0 Clear media do affect us but how much amp to what degree effects closely studied by psychologists sociologists amp social psychologists Charles Horton Cooley Pioneer 0 One of 1St social psychologists to look at media s role Human Nature amp Social Order 1902 amp Social Organization 1909 attempted to explain role of communication in society 2 opposing views 1 media encourage individuality 2 media limit distribution of new ideas thus lead to assimilation Individuality encouraged persons with unpopular political views can find likeminded individuals amp find validation through media Limit new ideas language in media could become the universal dialect of a people replacing their own Cooley said 2 kinds of people result one that embraces isolation the other that is drawn to choice Felt modern media foster isolation amp obliterates choice Over time media will eliminate what makes us unique as individuals communities races and nations May look dress behave differently all still extremely similar Cooley Summarized 0 Some effects positive info about alternative lifestyles races can lead to tolerance amp acceptance 10 0 Can be negative when 0 audiences develop superficial understanding amp concern 0 no detail about important issues 0 overloaded with information o Theories based on print media effects inspired future researchers Movie Industry Concerns 0 Researchers determined that film industry different from all others because films appealed to multiple senses looked at actors such as Charlie Chaplin one of the most popular his films The Kid 1921 amp The Gold Rush 1925 showed just how popular millions were going to the movie theaters a week 0 Motion Picture Research Council questioned amount of influence on children launched one of the largest studies funded by the Payne Fund 0 13 studies began in 1928 each answering a different question 0 What was the content 1500 films between 19201930 genre films 0 Who was exposed Edgar Dale studied 50 Ohio communities found children 58 attended more than adults boys more than girls 0 How much info was retained Over 3 yrs 3000 tested at 6 wks then 3 months retention rates high among all groups sleeper effect showed info can sit dormant in subconscious amp emerge over time movies did provide special format for learning 0 Could retained ideas create an emotional response Most children displayed increased anger sadness related to content 0 Do films cause children to act on increased emotions Children who attended often showed declining morals delinquent behavior lower intelligence etc 0 Does frequent film attendance lead to unsophisticated behavior or do unsophisticated children attend often Found no simple causeandeffect relationship Payne Fund Studies Results 0 Unable to find definitive answers to all of the questions 0 Found that movies do have an effect on children 0 Groundbreaking discovery adultschildren learn from media 0 Discovered that what audiences learn affects how they live their lives changed way academics viewed communication amp media Research Turns to RadioOrson Welles 0 Radio pivotal in homes millions turned to CBS for its news station known for being the only network to break into programming for newsworthy events 0 On October 30 1938 theater director Orson Welles adapted the HG Wells novel The War of the Worlds with fictional news bulletins amp interruptions War of the Worlds Broadcast 0 Excellent special effects acting amp writing seemed completely real to the 12 million listened some listened without knowing it fiction some estimate 6 million believed it factual some evacuated called police 0 CBS radio under pressure Federal Communication Commission FCC published guidelines against fiction amp news Su estibilitv Research Resultinq from War Broadcast o Researcher Hadley Cantril amp other broadcasters at Princeton University interviewed amp observed to identify causes of panic o 1 time communication researchers described types of people amp conditions that lead to panIc o Suggestibility rather than less education a cause Cantril thought less education found that characteristics alone don t explain listener s reaction to panic but people were more susceptible to panic if they had the following characteristics 0 A lack of selfconfidence A sense of fatalism A tremendous amount of personal worry Strong religious beliefs OOO Lasswell s Hypodermic NeedleDirect Effects 0 Theorist Harold Lasswell theorized this one of the 1 true theories to deal with mass media effects 1920s amp 1930s 0 Suggested media inject public with thoughts amp opinions media manipulators wanted attributed powerfuldirect effects of media 0 Audience s direct access to media was new amp unfamiliar now messages in homes amp workplaces unfiltered by human interaction 0 1930s Nazi Germany s intelligent use of radio film amp print media an example Lasswell felt there was no question that media influenced World Wars amp ll political propaganda on all sides 0 Though convincing this theory later discredited as being too simplistic more sophisticated complex theories resulted o Lasswell went on to ask one of the most important questions of research who says what in which channel to whom amp with what effect led future research Lazarsfeld amp Political Power Research 0 1940s Paul Lazarsfeld amp colleagues looked at mass media amp changing views in politics 0 1 thought media sway a voter s decision later decided little effects on voting 0 Political party affiliation more important paid attention to media messages that support their affiliation Selective Perception Theory 0 Individuals respond amp perceive messages selectively based on their own personal needs pay close attention to some things ignore others 0 Media messages don t affect groups the same instead the effects personalized amp people remember what they choose to 0 Recall in place to satisfy individual needs of the audience recall what they want Uses amp Gratification Theory 0 Using selective quot 39 39 amp theory Elihu Katz developed uses amp grats 0 Individuals respond perceive amp use media messages differently depending on their own interests amp needs 0 People remember media messages on what they select to retain selective recall 0 Places emphasis on personal gratification each individual gets from media to explain how why we select messages we consume amp how they affect us TwoStep Flow Research 0 Lazarsfeld amp Katz political science research suggest that media messages 1St influence economic amp political power elites or opinion leaders who put their own spin on messages 1St step then later pass them on through interpersonal contact or by using media messages 2quotd step 0 Popular in the 1950s amp 1960s lost power once media channels expanded allowing more access The Technological School 0 Early theories focused on direct effects of media on people other theories emphasize indirect media influence 0 Impact comes from media the technology itself rather than their messages 0 Technological School Toronto School contends that the real impact lies in the changes that the technology has brought to societies 0 Marshall McLuhan s the medium is the message suggest that media have the power to shape amp influence the message itself amp determine how the audience interprets the message broadcast emphasize image McLuhan amp mentor lnnis felt media are extensions of human mind amp body electronic media extension of human nervous system this extension circles globe establishing interpersonal involvements the global village 0 Joshua Meyrowitz s 1985 No Sense of Place examines the influence of electronic media on our cultural environments and how our roles amp behavioral patterns in society are formed 0 Manuel Castells 3volume The Information Age examines the social cultural political amp economic impact of the information society on our daily lives 2quotd volume focuses on how new media amp technologies are changing how we organize our lives amp define ourselves MySpace iPod etc ThirdPerson Effects Research 0 End of the 20h century researchers looked at effects from new angle important not just how public is affected by media how does the public think it is affected 0 New hypothesis seems to be confirmed in study after study 0 1980s theory that suggests people tend to believe media messages affect amp influence others more than themselves 0 As audience members we resist the idea that we can be directly affected by messages everyone else is susceptible though this led to a more recent model the indirecteffects model lndirect Effects Research 0 People tend to perceive the effect of messages of others then react to their perception 0 Example You hear me discuss Judge Judy and you begin to assume that even if you are not a fan the show is influential o If you hear it so much you become tempted to jump on the bandwagon so you won t be left out Social LearningModeling Theories 0 Social learning involves learning behavior that is controlled by environmental influences ratherthan internal influences Modeling typical result of social learning observation of others actions to determine how you should behave Concerned with ways in which observation of behavior in mass media can encourage similar behavior in audience members problems that could result include 0 People make many decisions simply because of the behavior of others 0 Replicating aggression of cartoon characters or wearing a jacket without going outside because others are doing so are all examples of modeling Albert Bandura found that children learn aggression sharing cooperation social interactions amp quot 39 from 39 quot 39 39 39 in their 39 Violence 0 Bandura s research led many to believe that if children could learn so much from people they also likely learned from television especially violence 0 Research on media violence amp children controversial amp falls under two types 0 1St type media violence lessens the likelihood that children will want to commit violence 0 2quotd type media violence increases the drive for children to participate in violent behavior History of Media Violence Concern 0 Issue of concern since 1950s do media have great influence or limited effects o In 1960s 2 government commissions explored topic found some influence some causal relationship between watching amp acting violently o In the last 15 years more criticism due to videogames amp hiphop music Ice T s Cop Killer Columbine o More recent studies showjust how much violence young people are subjected to average child under 14 exposed to 11000 TV murders Cartharsis Theory 0 Dates back to Aristotle who felt that viewing tragic plays people get to release emotions such as grief rage amp fear 0 Claims media can ease children s urges to participate in violent behavior 0 Viewing violence in media helps aggressive people address their anger vicariously amp lessens aggressive behavior Cultivation Theory 0 Grew out of work by George Gerbner amp colleagues Annenberg 0 Late 1960s tried to correlate amount of violence in primetime television to perceptions television viewers hold about reallife violence 0 Thus causal link to watching television amp how we perceive reality television cultivates or shapes the way we see the world Mean World Syndrome 0 So much television violence leads people to think that the world is far more dangerous than it really is 0 Basically TV shapes the way we see the world the more TV watched the more distorted perception ofthe world 0 David Walsh violent video games can lead to violent behavior other risk factors but games heighten impulses of troubled teens Violence and Music 0 Recent studies done focusing on violent images in music videos on cable music channels 0 Studies found that 164 of videos contained acts of violence low but 76 of violence was assisted by use of weapons Study found that hard rock 72 of videos and hiphoprap 48 of videos were most violent genres Three main problems identified with this violence 0 Increased levels of aggression young males seeing violence as natural way to resolve conflicts Mean world syndrome steady diet of violent media over lengthy time makes viewers think it s a mean amp violent place might lead to feelings of anxiety alienation and depression Desensitization violent messages might lead to a loss of sympathy for victims less proactive involvement in preventing amp stopping violence and a general perception of violence as the norm 0 0 Women Sex HipHop Video Games amp TV 0 Depiction of women in videos of concern some suggest that lyrics amp videos degrade women subservient to men misogynist Popular videogames objectify amp stimulate violence amp aggressive behavior toward women Popular television shows also problematic 83 of most popular TV shows among teenagers in 20012002 had sexual content Sex amp Pornography 0 Worldwide business but difficult to determine what is offensive obscene amp pornographic amp what is not even difficult for the Supreme Court to define know it when you see itquot 0 Research begun in earnest in 1970 with the Presidential Commission on Obscenity amp Pornography 0 Image amp treatment of women amp relationship between the sexes has been studied Telecommunications Act of 1996 0 Most sweeping reforms in the field of telecommunications in 62 years 1934 mandated digital television allowed cable services by telephone companies discontinued media ownership regulations 0 One entire section dedicated to the issue of pornography on the Internet courts have struck most rules down as unconstitutional amp conflicting with the protections warranted by the First Amendment Ethics amp Antisocial Behavior 0 Media messages might be eroding traditional ethical values thus stimulating antisocial behavior Images so pervasive that they might be creating a sense of alienation amp frustration in the youth Pervasive use might lead to a society that places excessive importance on materialism appearances amp consumption of material goods Education and Socialization 0 People who spend a great deal oftime watching television have lower le 0 Studies suggest children who spend a limited amount of time watching television do better academically 0 Educational programming can help children strengthen abilities 0 Questions go unanswered in terms of the effects certain that they tend to reflect amp perpetuate gender amp stereotypes Political Beliefs amp Attitudes 0 Many of us rely on media for political information researchers interested in finding out if these images have an impact on people s views beliefs attitudes amp behavior 0 Antismoking public service campaigns have provided a wealth of information to gauge the effectiveness of mass media 0 Now looking at the relationship between political messages amp voting behavior Rock the Votequot Chapter 3 Study Guide The Media as Entertainment Industrial Revolution 0 Late 18th amp early 19th centuries 1700s amp 1800s in which there were huge changes in all aspects of society transportation manufacturing agriculture education 0 Economies changed from manual laborbased to technologically based technology made work much more efficient thereby giving workers time amp more money Henry Ford 0 Relaxation now possible media there to fill void Media Negatives amp Positives o Negatives 0 Media supply a tasteless product with little redeeming social value Media waste opportunities to enlighten amp enrich O o Positives 0 An outlet for relaxation amp relief of stress 0 Entertainment only one aspect balances the other functions Newspapers as Entertainment 0 Most novel product of the printing press 0 Early colonial papers provided little entertainment 0 Literacy levels in the North were high thus leading to cradle of American journalism 16 Benjamin Harris 0 Understood the premise of entertaining as well as informing 0 Gets credit for the first attempt at a newspaper Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick o Included stories about lustful royalty amp bloodthirsty natives audience loved it authorities did not newspaper shut down after first issue James Franklin 0 Brother of Benjamin Franklin who was an apprentice to James 0 His New England Courant similar to papers in England exciting amp relevant o Included best writers of his day James Fennimore Cooper making it popular with the audience 0 Lasted only five years Silence Dogood o A contributing writer to James Franklin s paper the widow of a minister wrote 14 letters complaining about the limitless power of the government from April to October 1772 0 National Treasure s plot suggested that the letters had a hidden code 0 Silence Dogood was actually 16yearold Benjamin Franklin began his writing career Benjamin Day Visionary because he was desperate his paper New York Sun 0 First to sell newspapers on a perissue basis rather than by subscription 0 Gave the common man an entertaining product they could afford only a penny beginning of the penny press 0 Emphasized sex crime amp violence Joseph Pulitzer 0 His New York World the quintessential sensational paper 0 Toothless grinning child in his paper dressed in yellow gives nickname for the period yellow journalism 0 Paper the 1St to have separate sports department cartoons promotional coupons amp an expanded Sunday edition 0 Served as an example for Hearst amp others to come Earl Twentieth Centur News a ers 1900s 0 Dubbed jazz journalism newspapers livelyjust like the roaring 20s 0 Tabloidstyle papers popular smaller size more focused on entertainment 0 Graphic shocking photography the norm 0 Most papers did not last past the decade USA Today 0 Debuted in 1982 combining short stories with color amp bold photographs 0 Seemed more like broadcast journalism than print has influenced the look of competitors now even the Wall Street Journal has color pictures on front page 0 Called McPaper by newspaper professionals Magazines as Entertainment 0 Began in 1700s but took a century to become popular 0 Women were the predominant audience issues revolved around children cooking amp taking care of home advice columns amp short stories added 0 Formula still successful Ladies Home Journal 0 Began as Ladies Home Journal and Practical Housekeeper and quickly became the most successful of its kind 0 Most popular aspect is the feature Can This Marriage Be Saved 0 One of the most enduring of all magazines Playboy o Founded in 1953 by Hugh Hefner as Stag Party had to change the name 0 Targeted men content controversial first issue unnumbered since Hefner felt uncertain to its future 0 First centerfold Marilyn Monroe People 0 Founded in 1974 by Time Inc as a new type of entertainment mag o Blended celebrity news human interest stories amp impressive photography 0 Similar publications followed also spawned broadcasting versions that remain popular Entertainment Tonight Books as Entertainment 0 First books were for religious purposes brought by the Puritans 0 Later books provided for educational purposes 0 Audiences were white wealthy men 0 Harvard University established for this demographic audience Dime Novels 0 Debuted in late 1800s making books affordable 0 Similar to penny press full of crime sex and romance 0 Westerns amp detective plots also popular 0 Later lost popularity when other media arrived Paperback Books 0 Pocket Books made paperbacks popular in 1939 followed by Bantam Books 0 Dell not the computer company introduced smaller versions of paperbacks o Sophisticated marketing led to paperback versions sold after hard copies sold 0 Romance novels now a permanent amp popular staple in paperbacks Films as Entertainment 0 Thomas Edison s Black Maria studio introduced the movie theater in America in late 1800s 0 Early films similarto home movies but still of interest to the audience 0 Lumiere brothers developed technology that allowed filming amp projection 0 Silent films dominate until 1920s 18 Notable Film Firsts Porter s Great Train Robbery Griffith s Birth of a Nation Warner Brothers The Jazz Singer Disney s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Lucas American Graffiti amp Star Wars Radio amp Recording Industries 0 Thomas Edison developed the phonograph 0 Initially radio had programming similar to what is now on television 0 RCA dominant two networks followed by CBS ABC much later 0 Eventually radio amp recording industries become inexplicably bound Guiding Light 0 First soap opera on radio 15 years later transferred to television 57 years 0 Began on NBC radio later shifted to CBS television September 18 2009 was its last episode 0 Longest running soap opera production also longest running drama in television history Amos n Andy 0 Created by two white men Freeman Gosden amp Charles Correll in 1928 they provided the voices of the two black lead characters Amos and Andy 0 First syndicated radio program 0 Most popular radio program that became popular on television as well taken off of television due to the stereotypes Television as Entertainment 0 Early programming innovative amp thoughtprovoking 0 First situation comedy Love Lucy was groundbreaking entertainment 0 News established as crucial Edward R Murrow the consummate broadcast journalist Love Lucy 0 First interracial marriage on television 0 First situation comedy 0 First to have three camera setup 0 First to use expensive film stock 0 First to be a syndicated television show Television Firsts 0 Fox Network the 1 to survive in competition with ABC CBS amp NBC now a major 4 h network 0 CBS then NBC the 1 networks to expand news from 15 to 30 minutes in 63 ABC followed in 68 0 Music Television MTV 1 video network debuted August 1 1981 Cable News Network CNN 1 cable news network debuted June 1980 19 o The Amazing Race is the 1St amp was the only reality show to win an Emmy Award for Outstanding RealityCompetition Program since the Emmys began the category in 2002 7 years straight in 2010 Top Cheftoppled the perennial winner Chapter 4 Study Guide Books Why Books Are Unigue Less timelythan other print media Bound amp covered Made to last longer than other print media indepth durable welldeveloped Not heavily supported by advertising most earn profits based on content sales Why Books Are Important After thousands of years still principal repository of culture technical knowledge guidance Can promote powerful ideas inspire great changes A source of entertainment Book Origins Oldest of all mass media Sumerians developed clay tablets Greeks perfected the alphabet Egyptians as early as 3000 BC pounded thin layers of reeds grown by the Nile papyrus Scrolls came first mostly religious few remain such as the Dead Sea Scrolls Led to libraries in Egypt Rome Greece most destroyed by invaders Romans Contributions to Books l 15 to go from scrolls to books with cut pages uniform size writing on both sides Originated sentences then paragraphs Standardized punctuation Created forerunners of uppercase or capital and lowercase letters Chinese Develop Paper Chinese developed paper named for papyrus as early as the 2nd century AD Persians captured Chinese paper makers during 8quotI century secret divulged so Islamic world had paper long before Europeans Paper brought to Spain by the Moors in the 12quotI century finally paper found throughout Europe within a century led to monks handwriting books Johannes Gutenberg Born1 l400 Mainz Germany Moved from one job to another one city to another 15 a goldsmith for religious charms eventually printed indulgences Marco Polo brought back woodblock printing from China In 1455 converted wine press into a printing system Gutenberg Press Didn t invent the press but 15 to use individual interchangeable metal letters Known as movable type because letters could be arranged amp rearranged 1 letter at a time into words amp lines of print In 1456 printed his first book Bible 2 columns beautifully ornate Each copy cost the equivalent of 3 years pay of average worker never sold enough to be profitable Printing press was repossessed Gutenberg died penniless Printing Press after Gutenberg Over next 3 decades presses spread throughout Europe 1 Government set up prior approval for printers Catholic Church set up the 1st office of censorship in Mainz in 1485 city where printing began in 1455 also the 1st to censor 30 years later Why Books Were Nonessential Books not portable so few transported from England Early settlers fighting for survival Worked from sunrise to sunset Candles too precious for night reading Books regarded as symbols of wealthstatus Puritans servants of the Lord Early Printing Press 1st printing press arrived in North America in 1638 18 yrs after Plymouth Rock landing in Cambridge Massachusetts Printing limited to government amp religious books 1st book printed in the colonies 1644 The Whole Booke ofPsaIms Franklin s Poor Richard s Almanack 1732 one of the 15 and one of the few secular books also published Pamela the 1 true novel in North America written in England Printing Before amp During the Revolution Before revolution printers had to have government permission Some jailed if they spoke the truth Printers revolted wthe Stamp Act Pamphlets were at the heart of the revolution By mid 1770s antiBritish sentiment reached its climax Short books pamphlets motivated amp galvanized political dissent Thomas Paine s Common Sense was most popular PostRevolutionary Printing Book industry slow to develop still expensive literacy a luxury often cost the equivalent of a week s salary Compulsory education was in most states by 1900 demand increases Linotype machine allowed printers to set type mechanically typewriterlike keyboard Offset lithography allowed printers to print from photographic plates rather than heavy amp fragile metal casts The First Novels Tech advances lower cost printing amp widespread literacy Harper Bros amp John Wiley amp Sons Beadles began the dimepulp novel frontieradventure stories by 1865 4 million volumes produced Democratized books made a mass medium The Coming of Paperbacks Allen Lane invented paperbacks Penguin Books London 1935 Robert de Graff brought paperbacks to US Pocket Books small paperback versions Paperback sales surpassed hardcover sales by 1960 60 of all books sold were paperbacks Paperback sales today top 1 million volumes a day Books in the 1900s Young new authors popular in 1 half ofthe century Fitzgerald Steinbeck amp Hemingway AfricanAmerican novelists popular in early years DuBois s The Souls ofBIack Folk Later Harlem Renaissance brings other AA writers to the forefront Wright s Native Son amp Ellison s Invisible Man Haley Morrison Walker amp Angelou become bestsellers Esguivel amp Other Latino Authors Laura Esquivel native of Mexico City wrote Like Water for Chocolate in 1990 the story of a Mexican girl s story of forbidden love with recipes film in 1993 largest grossing foreign film in America Rudolfo Anaya US born Bless Me Ultima credited with modern Latino literature movement Isabel Allende s House of Spirits Sandra Cisneros s The House on Mango Street Books amp Their Audiences The least mass of our media More direct relationship between publisher amp reader Less dependent on largest audience More able to incubate new ideas Can be aimed at small groups Makes books unique in our culture Book Categories Book club editions ElhiHigher education Mail order books Mass market paperbacks Professional books Religious books Standardized tests Subscription reference books Trade books University press The Birth of Barnes amp Noble In 1873 Charles Barnes began selling from his home in Illinois 45 years later son moved to New York amp joined forces with G Clifford Noble 1960s Leonard Riggio opened college bookstores later acquired the largest B amp N NY 1st bookstore to purchase advertising time on television 1st to offer NYT bestsellers at a discount rate later acquired others amp began to sell music DVDs amp Starbucks coffee he Birth of Waldenbooks 1933 Lawrence Hoyt opened a rental library 1962 opened his 1st independently owned bookstore Walden 1982 Waldenbooks became the 1st chain to have stores in all 50 states 1971 Borders brothers opened Borders 1992 KMart acquired Waldenbooks amp Borders amp merged the two 1995 Borders bought itself out Now B amp N largest and BordersWalden 2 remain Anatomy of Bestseller New York Times has one of the best known lists editors choose 36 titles that could be bestsellers amp poll 3000 bookstores Wall Street Journal amp USA Today have lists BestSelling Books in History 1 The Bible 67 billion 2 Quotations from Chairman Mao Mao TseTung 900 million 3 The Qur an 800 million A Decade of Change JK I 1990s blockbusters such as John Grisham s Michael Crichton s brought people back to reading Three people who changed the book publishing world JK Rowling Oprah Winfrey Jeff Bezos Rowling amp the Harry Potter Series as of 2009 Of the top 15 bestselling authors only author with more than novel 1999 first three books were on the NYT bestseller s list prompted the paper to create bestselling list for children s literature 23 of all American children have read at least one edition Total estimated revenue generated by HP 15 billion Number of HP books sold worldwide 400 million The total box worldwide office gross of the 15 five HP films 449 billion Passed Star Wars and Bond films to become most lucrative franchise in history Holds the 123 amp 4 of the fastest selling books in history lnitial printing of the 5 h installment 85 million 80 times that of a normal bestseller amp largest initial print run in publishing history lnitial US printing of the 672page HalfBlood Prince 6quot was 135 million 100x the normal best seller largest print run in publishing history sold 9 million the 15 da Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows final 7 h book sold an average of 5000 books per minute 300000 per hour the first day Efforts to ban the book as antireligious amp antiChristian make it the mostchallenged children s literature in the US Potter series has been published in 55 languages including Greek amp Latin Published in more than 200 countries The Oprah Effect amp Her Book Club O Began pushing books in 1993 as a way to discuss a book she loved usually with the author amp selected viewers not very successful Began the book club in 1996 successful but ended once again in April 2002 revived again in June 2003 Toni Morrison has most books recommended Other multiple authors Faulkner Kaye Gibbons Wally Lamb Most recent announced book midSeptember 2009 1st amp only in 09 Oprah now gives advance info to publishers but demands a confidentiality clause Publishers get about a weeks notice to redesign the cover with Oprah s Book Club logo Publishers must print and ship as many as 1 million copies across the country to coincide wthe show s air date overnight bestsellers Beginning wjust 3 books in 96 Oprah s Book Club has grown to 60 titles The books are mostly fiction often about women facing a struggle Even nonfiction books that are plugged by Oprah see an increase in sales One choice Anna Karenina written by Tolstoy amp originally published in 1875 Penguin Books had rights to the new translation preOprah 2000 copies 1 million were rushed to bookstores and sold When she chose Steinbeck s 1952 East of Eden the number of prints jumped from 80000 to 18 million The 2009 choice announced early by USA Today 15 leak and 1 choice in a year her ratings are down 7 Say You re One of Them by Uwem Akpan a Nigerian Jesuit priest teaches in Zimbabwe 5 stories focusing on a different children in different situations 15 short fiction volume chosen by Oprah Entertainment Weekly named it one of the best of the decade prah s Book Club Controversies Author Jonathon Franken not pleased at her selection of The Corrections 4 Suggested that book was a difficult read for Oprah s audience too elitist for the masses Uninvited to Oprah s author dinner Franken wanted private dinner Oprah moved on James Frey s A Million Little Pieces was chosen by Oprah on October 26 2005 Supposedly a nonfiction memoir of his years as an alcoholic drug addict amp criminal Next to the Harry Potter title the book sold more copies in the US in 2005177 millionthan any other title sold most after Oprah s show 35 million total copies sold Substantial portions found to be created initially Oprah supporting Frey weeks later Oprah denounced her support and suggested she felt betrayed 15 time she was publicly burned According to Nielsen Bookscan the sales of Little Pieces amp Leonard exceeded 38 million copies Frey possibly made as much as 58 million total with 43 million in the last months of 2005 with initial allegations another 15 million after admission has not affected Oprah s magic Business Week suggests Oprah s clout is 20 to 100 times that of any other personality Jeff Bezos Began career in an investment firm wanted to sell books over the Internet Left job opened onestop lnternet bookstore Amazoncom had one million titles 6 times larger than physical bookstores Within month of opening had sold books in 45 foreign countries amp all 50 states later added clothing amp consumer goods online Bezos name 1999 Time magazine s Man of the Year by 1999 customers had bought 15 billion of goods Introduced electronic reading device The Kindle that has connectivity to Amazon Kindle 2 in 2009 with new sleeker rounded edges better keyboard still expensive 359 no WiFi access but connected to Amazon Still dealing with competition from Sony Reader amp now iPad Apple s iPad Virtual keyboard mediagames access can connect to iTunes amp store ebookstore 10hour battery on standby for a month 499829 price WiFi amp Bluetooth connectivity through hot spots or access to ATampT for 2999 but cannot make calls iPhone apps can be used May affect gaming industry amp compete with video consoles Likely will affect publishing industry most with ebookstore and partnership with 5 publishing companies it will go headtohead with Kindle Amazon amp Barnes amp Noble s Nook reader Scope amp Structure of Books More than 175000 new titles issued in 2003 19 increase over 2002 Each American spends on average 9769 a year buying books Total sales of book in 1947 just over 435 million 236 billion in 2007 Current Trends in Book Publishing Convergence particularly Internet epublishing publication initially or exclusively online 0 Dbooks book downloaded in electronic form from the Internet to computer or PDA o Ebooks handheld computers resembling books getting more amp more popular 0 Digital epistolary novels stories unfold serially through email instant messages Web sites Conglomeration dominated by a few giants Top Publishers Random House Inc German owners Penguin Putnam lnc HarperCollins Murdoch Holtzbrinck Publishing Holdings 2009 Top 3 BestSelling Books adult nonfiction Act Like a Lady Think Like a Man Steve Harvey 209 Glenn Beck s Common Sense Glenn Beck 609 Liberty amp Tyranny Mark Levine 309 2009 Top 3 BestSelling Books adult fiction The Lost Symbol Dan Brown 909 The Shack William P Young 708 The Time Traveler s Wife A Niffenegger 704 The Rise of Instant Books Books based on current events that get free publicity because of the timeliness Publishers see these opportunities amp then initiate the project OJ Simpson amp Kobe Bryant s trials Michael Jackson s death Sarah Palin s political run examples events surrounding other celebrities have also been fodder for instant books Future of the Book Industry Online bookselling will be more popular Books as we know them will transform On demand ordered in storeby phone printed at store on paper with cover few now but more in future fewer returns Electronic books ebooks transmitted quickly downloaded to customers computer or reader Online Options Reading online companies sell etextbooks with specified time access not downloaded search capabilities note storage Downloading reading from computer can download books using Adobe s Digital Editions or Microsoft reader read on computer screen Download to device digital electronic readers Reader Kindle Amazon cheap or iPad Developing Media Literacy Skills Only 45 of US readers read anything for more than 30 minutes a day Fewer than 12 of all US adults read novels short stories plays or poetry Most aren t illiterate but aliterate Harry Potter changed views of media what lessons does this series have for other media Ethical Issues in the Industry Kaavya Viswanathan Harvard sophomore amp author of How Opal Mehta Got Kissed Got Wild and Got a Life accused of plagiarism Sloppy Firsts amp Second Helpings She received 500000 2book deal wlLittIe Brown book withdrawn from sale and her 2 book deal was canceled Author apologized and assures that any similarities were unintentional Chapter 5 Study Guide News Characteristics of News Timeliness Proximity Human Interest Consequence Disaster Prominence Novelty Conflict Timeliness News once came by ship and Pony Express from Missouri to California lasted fewer than 2 years immediacy was not an issue Technology now makes news instantaneous amp perishable past the 15 day needs a new angle