CHEM NON CHEM 1430
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Date Created: 09/23/15
CH 15 Fats and Oils 1 Difference between fats and oils a Fats are solid triglycerides at normal temperatures b Oils are liquid triglycerides at normal temperatures 2 All triglycerides fats and oils are trimesters of glycerol only difference in molecules lie in structures of their fatty acid chains Differences are a The number of carbons in their side chains which determines the length of their side chains b And the number of carboncarbon double bonds in their side chains which affects their degree of unsaturation 3 Unsaturated hydrogen can be added Saturated hydrogen cannot be added Compound containing double and triple bonds are considered unsaturated because its possible to saturate them by adding more hydrogen The doubletriple bonds are taking up the places of the hydrogen Single bond saturated Double bondunsaturated 4 Melting point depends on degree of unsaturation More double bonds unsaturation means lower melting point Low melting point oil 5 High melting point long side chain little unsaturation Low melting point short side chain lots of unsaturation Catalytic hydrogenation is the addition of hydrogen atoms to the double bonds of a molecule through use of a catalyst Can also add to triple bonds Leads to a reduction in 9 double bonds decrease in unsaturation increase in saturation therefore increasing the melting points of triglycerides With few double bonds likely to be solid at room temp known as hardening on vegetable oils because of its ability to raise melting points Important to the production of of semi solid foods margarine chocolate 7 Monounsaturated fatty acid with a single carboncarbon double bond in its carbon chain Mono one double bond 8 Polyunsaturated fatty acid with two or more carboncarbon double bonds Poly many double bonds 9 Iodine number this number represents a triglycerides number of grams of iodine that add to 100g of the triglyceride It is a convenient measure of the extent of unsaturation Size of the iodine number is direct reflection of the number of double bonds Melting points indirectly related to iodine number 10 Oils generally have more unsaturation fats have more saturation Cholesterol a steroidal alcohol that contributes to the development of atherosclerosis hardening ofarteries Present in all animal cells Can lead to high blood pressure heart disease Cardiovascular disease Serum cholesterol is present in the blood a Two origins cholesterol present in our diet cholesterol manufactured by our bodies 57 Avoiding cholesterol means avoiding food with sterol egg yolks red meat cream butter cheeses All fruits and vegetables are cholesterol free because it only occurs in animals H N H W P 0 l H 00 N O Cholesterol generated in our body comes from the liver Manufactures it from saturated fats Other chemicals can react with double carbon bonds too The ability of polyunsaturated said chains to react w oxygen is put to good use in drying oils They are unsaturated vegetable oils used in oil base paints protective films Double bonds occur more often in liquid Geometric isomers are different compounds that have the same four groups bonded to the carbons of their double bonds but with different geometries Cis same side Trans opposite sides All of the unprocessed triglycerides exist in cis geometry Most vegetable oils have cis double bonds in their side chains The polyunsaturation keeps them as liquids Essential fatty acids the fatty acids in our bodies that cannot synthesize from other chemicals and we must obtain from food Ex linoleic and linolenic are members of the omega3 and omega6 groups Label carbons of fatty acid chains w Greek letters Energy in energy out energy stored adipose tissue the fatty tissue of the body it stores chemical energy at about 3500 Cal lb our body converts our unused macronutrients into small globules of fat that end up in the AT cells long term energy is stored through body fat CHEM MIDTERM VOCAB FROM CHAPTERS 12 13 14 20 21 AND 15 CHAPTE o CHAPTE o CHAPTE R 12 Solidsmaintain their own volumes and shapes Liquidsmaintain their own volumes but take the shapes of their containers Gasestake both the volumes and shapes of their containers Plasmaa state of matter in which electrons have been stripped out of their atomic shells to produce positively charged nuclei and negatively charged electrons but without the existence of atomic structure Melting point the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid The liquid returns to the solid state at this same temperature Boiling point the temperature at which a liquid becomes a gas and the gas becomes a liquid usually at normal atmospheric pressure Sublimationoccurs when a solid becomes a gas without rst passing through the liquid state Tropospherethe region of the earth s atmosphere that rises from the earth s surface and that produces the phenomena of our weather Stratosphere lies above the troposphere and holds the ozone layer Mesosphere lies above the stratosphere lonospherea higher region of the atmosphere that contains ionized gases and serves to re ect shortwave radio transmissions trnospheric pressure any pint on the earth s surface or above it is the pressure generated by the combined weight of all the atmospheric gases above poin Kinetic emolecular theory of gases the behavior of gases by assuming that they are made up of point sized perfectly resilient constantly moving chemical particles Boyles law with the temperature and the number of moles of a quantity of gas held constant the volume of the gas varies inversely with its pressure Charles law with the pressure and the number of moles of a quantity of gas held constant the volume of the gas varies directly with its temperature Absolute zero the lowest possible temperature 0 K 273 C GayLussac s law when gases react with one another at constant temperature and pressure they combing in volumes that are related to each other as ratios of small whole numbers Avogadro s lawequal volumes of different gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of atoms or molecules Daltons law the total pressure ofa mixture ofgases equals the sum ofthe partial pressure of each ofthe gases in the mixture Partial pressure the pressure each gas would exert at the same temperature and in the same volume in the absence of all the other gases Henry s law at a xed temperature the quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid depends directly on the pressure of that gas above the liquid R 13 Densitymass per unit volume Units of grams per milliliter or per cubic centimeter Micelles submicroscopic globules or spheres distributed throughout another usually a liquid Colloid made up of particles of one substance dispersed throughout another The particles of the dispersed substance range in diameter from about 107 to 104 cm Hydrolysis the decomposition of a substance or its conversion to other substances through the action of water Saponi cation hydrolysis of an ester carried out in the presence of a base Triglyceridesthe principal organic compounds of animal fats and vegetable oils Fatty acidsthe acids they generate through hydrolysis R 14 Lithospherethe hard rigid shell of our planet The surface layer of the lithosphere forms the earth s crust Hydrosphereall the waters of the earth s crust Atmospherethe body of gases that surrounds the earth Pollutionan excess of a substance generated by human activity is present in the wrong environmental location Primary air pollutant a pollutant that enters the air as the direct result of a speci c activity Secondary air pollutant a pollutant formed by the further reaction of a primary air pollutant Photochemical smog the complex combination of all products resulting from the initial interaction of sunlight and nitrogen dioxide and subsequent reactions involving the birnolecular oxygen of the atmosphere as well as hydrocarbon pollutants T ermal inversion a layer of warm air lies above a layer of cooler air trapping it and any pollutants within it Volatile organic compoundsVOCevaporates to produce air pollution Volatile organic solventsVOS Groundwaterwater within the earth s crust lying just below the surface Biological contaminationresults from the presence of diseasecausing microorganism Thermal pollutionenvironmental harm comes from the warming of a body of water by the discharge of waste coolant Sedimentary pollution accumulation of suspended particles Chemical pollutionthe presence of harmful or undesirable chemicals Eutrophicationa form of water pollution in which plants well nourished by pollutants thrive at the expense of aquatic animals Biochemical oxygen demandBOD estimation of the total of all the biochemical processes that consume oxygenincluding the aerobic activity of the microorganismsand thus indirectly determine the amount of organic material resent xygenmeasures organic pollution in the water and observation of any decrease in dissolved oxygen content Dissolved oxygen de citthe smaller the oxygen the higher the de cit Aquifera large of porous rock that holds fresh water and from which water can be drawn by wells Environmental tobacco smokea hazard to smokers and nonsmokers CHAPTER 15 Fats are solid triglycerides o CHAPTE o CHAPTE Oils are liquid triglycerides Triglycerideesters of glycerol with 3 fatty acids Catalytic hydrogenationthe addition of hydrogen atoms to the double bonds of a molecule through the use of a catalyst Hydrogen also adds to triple bonds if they are present Monosaturated fatty acid a fatty acid with a single carboncarbon double bond in its carbon chain Polyunsaturated fatty acids a fatty acid that contains two or more carboncarbon double bonds Iodine numberrepresents the number of grams of iodine that add to 100 g of the triglyceride Cholesterola steroidal alcohol that contributes to the development of atherosclerosishardening of the arteries Geometric isomers different compounds that have the same four groups bonded to the carbons of their double bonds but with different geometries Essential Fatty acids the fatty acids our bodies cannot synthesize from other chemicals and that we must obtain from our foods Adipose tissuethe fatty tissue of the body It stores chemical energy at about 3500 calpound R 20 Poisona substance that can cause illness or death when it enters our bodies usually as a component of our food or drink or of air we breathe Toxin a harmful substance that has a biological origin Lethal dosethe quantity that causes death LDSO a chemical amount that kills exactly half ofa large population of animals Safety the acceptability of risk Teratogena substance that produces severe birth defects The acceptable daily intakeADl of food additives is 1 of the maximum daily amount of additive that produces no observable effect on laboratory animals R 21 Plastica material capable of being shaped into virtually any form Polymera molecule of very high molecular weight formed be the repeated chemical linking of a great many simpler smaller molecules Monomersthe individual structures that are linked to each other to form a polymer Polymerizationthe process whereby individual monomers link together to form a polymer Thermoplasticsplastics that so en when they are heated then harden as they cool Thermosetsplastics that hold their shape even when they are heated Elastomera substance that stretched easily and returns readily to its original shape Vulcanizationconnects strands of rubber through links of sulfur so that the interconnected polyisoprene molecules retain their orientation when heated and stretched Polyole ns polymers produced by the polymerization of alkenes and compounds closely related to them Plasticizera liquid that is added to a plastic to so en it CH 12 OUTLINE 9155 N 99 53 H H H N H W H 4 Solids maintain their own volumes and shapes Have fixed well distinct volumes and shapes Occupies a specific amount and holds its shape Liquids maintain their volumes but take the shape of their container Fixed volumes but not fixed shapes Gases take both the volumes and the shapes of their container No fixed volume or shape Can change solid to liquid by heating it Plasma state of matter in which electrons have been stripped of their shells to produce positive charged nuclei and negative charged electrons but wo existence of atomic structure What happens when solids melt a Heat kinetic energy movement of particles So the higher the temp the more energy movement of particles Molecules can increase kinetic energy by i Rotational energy rotating faster around their center of mass ii Vibrational energy vibrating faster w no change in center of mass iii Translational energy moving from one location to another b Solids melt to liquids because of increase in translational energy Solids keep their own shapes because trans energy is small Heat causes particles to move Melting point the temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid The liquid returns to a solid at same temp Liquid still has small trans energy When that energy increases they evaporate Boiling point temp at which liquid becomes a gas Sublimation occurs when a solid becomes a gas wo passing through the liquid stage first Atmosphere gases nitrogen makes up 78 a Layers of 39 r 39 39 39 39 r39 b Troposphere region of atmosphere that rises from the earths surface and produces our weather c Stratosphere holds ozone layer d lonosphere higher region of atmosphere contains ionized gases and serves to reflect shortwave radio transmissions Atmospheric pressure pressure generated by the combined weight of all the atmospheric gases above that point At sea level 760mm column of mercury 1 atm MmHg used as unit of pressure Measured w barometer Invented by Torticelli Atm drops rapidly w altitude Kinetic molecular theory of gases explains the behavior of gases by assuming they are made up of point sized perfectly resilient consistently moving particles They behave as ideal gases Theory in 17 h18 h century Gas behavior depends only on kinetic energy of its molecules Kinetic energy depends on temp higher temp more energy Boyles Law volume and pressure are inversely related w the of moles of the gas and temperature held constant a Pressure x volume k constant Charles Law volume and temperature directly related w pressure and of moles constant a Vk xT RD N O b Absolute zero lowest possible temp 0K K Celsius 273 Gay Lussac s Law when gases react at constant temp and pressure they combine in volumes that are related to each other as ratios of small whole numbers Represents balanced equations Avagadro s Law equal volumes of different gases contain equal number of atoms molecules Dalton s law total pressure of a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of each of the gases in the mixture Pressure of gas A gas B pressure of mixture gas Aamp B Daltons law is false Henry s Law at a fixed temp a quantity of a gas that dissolves in a liquid depends directly on the pressure of the gas above that liquid The higher the pressure of the gas above the liquid the more gas dissolves Henrys law explains solubility of a gas in a liquid But doesn t say how fast it comes out Foaming process of C02 called nucleation Breathing blood reaches the lungs carrying C02 CH 13 SOAP AND SURFACTANTS 1 Iquot S F 9 Density of a substance is its mass per unit volume Density is stated in units of grams per millimeter or grams per cubic centimeter It is a fundamental property of matter a Formula massvolume density b Weight vs density a huge tree is less dense than a lead weight Standard density for water is 10 gml big density s sink small float c Surface tension supports dense things from sinking At the surface water molecules become focused toward the sides and downward d Detergent anything that cleans esp that removes oily greasy dirt Soap is a kind of detergent Romans have credit for discovering soap e How soaps are made Surfactants all detergents consist of a hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecule Both tendencies can be accommodated on the surface Surfactant are any substance that accumulates at surfaces and change their properties sharply especially by lowering the surface tension Micelles submicroscopic globules or spheres of one substance distributed throughout another usually a liquid the water s surface becomes filled with surfactant molecules more detergent is added and the molecules become shielded out shielding their hydrophobic tails from water molecules in a different way colloid made up of particles of one substance dispersed throughout another The particles of the dispersed substance range in diameter From 10 to the negative 7 to negative 4 Tyndall effect discovered by john Tyndall Shows the reflection of light passing through a colloid identifying the presence of suspended particles How a soap cleans a Decreasing water s surface tension making it a better wetting agent b Converting greasy and oily dirt into micelles that become dispersed in the soapy water c Keeping the grease micelles in suspension thereby preventing them from coalescing back to large globules of grease that could be redeposited on a clean surface d Soap is a anionic detergent Soap comes from the hydrolysis of naturally occurring fats and oils which are themselves esters a Hydrolysis is the decomposition of a substance or its conversion to other substances through the action of water Heating an ester in the presence of either an acid or base produces a hydrolysis b Saponification a hydrolysis of an ester carried out in the presence of a base Glygcerol is used in lotions Fats and oils are more complex esters Triglyceride principal organic compounds of animal fats and vegetable oils Fatty acids are the acids they generate through hydrolysis Means they have 3 OH groups Consist of straight unbranched chains containing even number of carbons We can produce soap by heating a triglyceride Hard water rich in salts of calcium magnesium and iron In areas where water is very hard you can see gray rings in bathtub sinks known as curd Hard water wastes soap because much of the soap that would be used in cleaning is consumed in curd formation 10 Soft water free of minerals 11 solution to problem caused by hard water is to remove cations that produce hardness water softeners do this by trading cations with sodium ions 12 Alternative for softening water synthetic detergents Types anionic cationic and nonionic 13 Anionic make up bulk of synthetic detergents effective at cleaning fabric that absorb water readily such as cotton silk and wool 4 Nonionic have large numbers of covalently bonded oxygens useful in cleaning synthetic fabrics such as polyesters Most are liquid detergents and produce little foam Used in dishwashing liquids and liquid laundry detergents U39I Cationic ammonium salts effective germicides used in antiseptic soaps and mouthwashes and fabric softeners 16 What s in detergent most important ingredient is anionic surfactant itself Growing concern for environment means shift to nonionic nonionic need less water softeners called builders better concentrations Decreases garbage and waste For years phosphates were perfect builders but defect was good nutrients for algae and plant growth in water Would keep oxygen from reaching marine life Fillers made consumers think they were getting more than they actually were Know what an ester looks like Know hydrolysis is reaction with water Hydrolysis ester water acid alcohol Preparation of ester acid alcohol ester water Know types of synthetic detergent Oil movie the secrets of oil CH 20 OUTLINE 1 Iquot S Equot 9 N 9 5 l l l O 12 Poison a substance that can cause illness or death when it enters our bodies usually as a component of our food or drink or of the air we breathe Toxin a harmful substance of biological origin spoiled foods infectious diseases bee stings snake bites Some hazards more severe than others a Poison prevention packaging act requires medicine to be equipped with safety caps so children wont get into them Dropped accidental child aspirin death rate down from 45 to 26 per year Lethal dose quantity of a substance that causes death LD50 the amount of a chemical that kills exactly half of a large population of animals Reported in the weight of the poison per unit weight of the test animal Ex LD50 of aspirin for mice is 15gkg different methods of administration affect the LD 50 Botulinum toxin A most deadly poison Microbe doesn t survive in human body Killed by high temps Botulism poisoning in the US caused by foods prepared wrong in the home TCCD formed as byproduct of industrial process used as environmental herbicide not made anymore Most lethal synthetic chemical Natural toxins a Muscarine lethal ingredient of deadly mushrooms fungus b Bufotoxin active component of toad venom c Strychnine occurs in seeds of trees in austraila india and used as rat posion d Tubocurarine toxin of curare a plant extract used by south American Indians as arrow poison e Rotenone naturally occurring insecticide found in roots f A atoxin solanine presents in molecular structures of these natural toxins g Aflatoxins produced by a mold that flourishes in peanuts grains wheat corn The harm that any substance does to us depends on its chemical characteristics how much we use of it how we use it how susceptible to its hazards we are as humans and how susceptible we are as individuals Safety the acceptability of risk Defined by William Lowrance Tragic illustration of safety occurred in 1950 s with the drug thalidomide Drug had been developed as a sleeping pill Passed toxicity tests Prescribed to pregnant women in Europe Many babies soon born with birth defects including absent limbs Thalidomide soon found to be a teratogen a substance that produces severe birth defects It did no bad effects to rats but did to humans But even though its bad for pregnancy its good for treating aids FDA food and drug administration operates in executive branch Includes a EPA environmental protection agency regulates chemical pesticides among other matters affecting the environment b OSHMA occupational safety and health administration concerned about exposure to chemicals in workplace 13 l l U39I H H H H N Know i c BATF bureau of tobacco and firearms division of department of treasury has jurisdiction over the chemicals in beer wine liquor and tobacco d USPHA US public health service investigates outbreaks of illness due to food spoilage FDA what it does first determines what proposed additive does determines the acceptable level ofan additive use in food through examination of a The LD50 in at least two species ofanimals b The chemicals maximum no effect level c Long term hazards ifany LD50 represent immediate hazards in using chemical FDA permits no more than 1100 1 of the no effect level in commercially prepared foods This represents The acceptable daily intake AD of a food additive is 1 of the maximum daily amount of the additive that produces no observable effect in lab animals Legacy ofJames Delaney a Lawmakers have given us leeway in standards of safety up to our own judgement But we have a zero tolerance level for cancer as a food additive James Delaney introduced this act in the revision of the food drug and cosmetic act in 1958 Now called the Delaney amendment Saccharin is an artificial sweetener Has no food value Very concentrated Started being used as replacement for sugar in 1907 Demand for soft drinks made it more popular FDA soon discovered it produced bladder cancer In mice But it was taken off the market because of the Delaney amendment Public was upset It was eventually allowed to be used again but a label saying it could be dangerous was placed on it Processed foods must carry labels of ingredients foods from the ground don t in terms on tonnage consumed the mango is the most popular fruit For every gram of synthetic pesticide we eat 10kg of natural pesticides enter our body as natural poisons The body s most effective shield in molecular poisons lies in the liver It can change the poisons chemical structures to harmless with its many metabolic reactions ftoxins are natural or synthetic Ch 21 Outline Midterm 1 5 In 2000 US produced 37 million tons of plastics a Half goes to packaging building and construction materials b 10 to consumer products Plastics and Polymers a Plastics comes from Greek word plastikos substance suitable for molding shaping b Plastic a material capable of being shaped into virtually any form Refers to the property of a material its ability to be shaped c Polymer a molecule of very high molecular weight formed by the repeated chemical linking of a great many simpler smaller molecules Formed of many parts poly Molecular level d Monomer individual structures that are linked to each other to form a polymer One part mono e All of today s commercial plastics are polymers Modes of Polymerization Addition and Condensation Polymers a Polymerization is the process whereby individual monomers link together to form a polymer i b Addition polymerization ex polyethylene account for more than half of plastics produced in Links through covalent bonds Produces two kinds of polymers US They form as their individual unconnected monomers join each other to form a chain in the same way that humans hold hands Every covalent bond is a pair of shared electrons c Condensation polymerization two molecules combine with the formation and loss of another smaller molecule Each of the condensing molecules contributes some portion of the smaller molecule being eliminated and C I y I 1 Polymers can be divided in two different categories based on structure of molecular chain Molecular 3 b Homopolymers consisting of chains in which each link is identical to every other link c Copolymers consisting of chains composed of two or more different kinds of links d Homopolymer represented as XXXXXX or Xn n representing of X s e Copolymers represented as XY n 139 Review addition and condensation refer to how the polymer is formed homo and copolymer refer to the structure of the polymer chain Properties of Polymers a Thermoplastics plastics that soften when they are heated then harden again as they cool b Thermoseis plastics that hold their shape even when heated Ex Bakelite c Elastomers substance that stretches easily and returns to its original state Ex rubber i Cisrubber composed of monomer isoprene keeps the CH2 on one side of the chain ii Transrubber called guttapercha not as elastic as cis CH2 alternates sides of chain Used for covering golf balls surgical equipment electrical insulator Brief History of Polymers and Plastics a Charles Goodyear solved problem of sticky rubber Heated it w sulfur and it stayed elastic b Now called vulcanization the sulfur links keep the long molecules from slipping past their neighbors at high temps preventing the rubber from becoming sticky Goodyear tires c Neoprene homopolymer produced by polymerization of chloroprene which is a monomer 39 quot g isoprene 39 39 39 rubber but has a synthetic substitute More resistant to heat 1 1863 ivory becoming scarce used for jewelry Reward offered for whoever could replace ivory a John Hyattconverted natural polymer into first commercial plastic Formed thermoplastic called celluloid 339 Leo Baekeland developed first fully synthetic polymer Bakelite thermosetting plastic not thermoplastic Forms with phenol and formaldehyde Bakelite is a hard sturdy material resistant to heat The days of major advances in plastics occurring through kitchen accidents ended because 8 a Growing sophistication of scientific equipment techniques b More research programs c Development in 1920 s of comprehensive understanding of molecular structure of polymers 10 Nylon discovered at DuPont by Wallace Carothers a First introduced in toothbrush bristles b Sold in stockings made it a commercial success Less expensive than silk but similar in properties c Used in supplies for WW2 11 PET commercial leader among condensation polymers a Produces Dacron is a polyester Mylar uses it for wrapping material 12 Polyolefin polymers produced by the polymerization of alkenes and compounds closely related to them Makes drinking glasses furniture televisions computer cabinets Helps make Styrofoam 13 Plasticizer a liquid that is added to a plastic to soften it Makes it more flexible 14 Polyethylene accounts for 40 of plastic production a most important US polymer b Low density polymer forms tangled random oriented network of fuzz Results in waxy low melting point makes trash bags c High Density no branches or tangle branches align themselves closely packed Higher melting point Makes bottles that hold liquids and the hula hoop 15 Polymerization of propylene methyl groups can be arranged in three different ways a sotactic all on the same side b Syndiotactic appear on alternating sides c Atactic oriented randomly d First two have higher melting ponts than atactic 16 Not all polymers are organic compounds a Most abundant inorganic polymers are compounds of silicon and oxygen 139 Asbestos is one of these nhaling asbestos produces mesothelioma lung Cancer 17 Plastics have a wide range of chemical properties Ch 14 Outline Pollution amp the Enviornment 1 Lithopshere the hard rigid shell of our planet The surface layer of the lithosphere forms the earth s crust Includes the ground rocks sand pavement Top gases Oxygen 46 Silicon 28 a Hydrosphere all the waters of the earths crust make up the hydrosphere Oxy 86 Hydrogen 11 b Atmosphere the body of gases that surrounds the earth N2 78 02 21 i Earth s crust only 3 of the mass of the planet 2 Pollution occurs when an excess of a substance generated by human activity is present in the wrong environmental location a What counts in pollution is combination of substance and location b Ex ozone ozone is a pollutant in the troposphere but in the stratosphere it is necessary to protect us from the sun c Pollution doesn t necessarily come completely from humans 3 PrimaryAir Pollutants pollutant that enters the air as a direct result of a specific activity Ex sulfur dioxide forms as coal and petroleum products burn a Secondary air pollutant pollutant formed by the further reaction of a primary air pollutant Ex sulfuric acid acid rain b Photochemical smog complex combustion of all the products resulting from initial interaction of sunlight and nitrogen dioxide and subsequent reactions involving the bimolecular oxygen of the atmosphere as well as hydrocarbon pollutants We see it as a brown haze c Thermal inversion photochem smog especially noticed during these periods Occurs when a layer of warm air lies above a layer of cooler air trapping it and any pollutants within it 4 VOC volatile organic compounds can produce air pollution evaporates easily a Ex paint thinners roof tar nail polish lotions sprays ethyl acetate breath freshener 5 Acid Rain the formation of nitric and sulfuric acid as secondary pollutants Destroys vegetation marine life and corrodes buildings sculptures COZ H20 HZCOS Most comes from human activity of burning fossil fuels 6 Options in dealing w pollution alternative energy sources removal of pollutants from products of combustion improvement of combustion process itself enrgy conservation a Electric cars b Removing pollutants from exhausts precipitation filtration and scrubbing removes particulates and aresols which are dispersed in smoke 7 Ozone 03 Can be beneficial or harmful depending on where its at a It is toxic in our lower atmosphere necessary in higher atmosphere at blocking harmful sun rays 8 Only 3 of earths water is drinkable Groundwater water within the earths crust lying just below the earths surface a 67 of all freshwater goes toward irrigation agricultural needs Humans only get 10 9 Several forms of pollution affect our water supplies 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 a b 53 a b a b c a b Where should we throw things away Much of what we throw away ends up in overcrowded a Biological contamination of water results from the presence of diseasecausing microorganisms Necessary filtration must be used chlorine gas used Thermal pollution occurs when environmental harm comes from the warming of a body of water by the discharge of waste coolant Rise in water temp can deprive fish of needed oxygen which is less soluble in warm water Sedimentary pollution results from the accumulation of suspended particles Can be washed into a body of water by runoff Creates greatest amount of water pollution Can be removed by filtration or chemicals Easily removed Chemical pollution results from presence of harmful undesirable chemicals Very harmful can take time for problems to be noticed hard to remove Found in common salts fertilizers household paints Some pollution is beneficial to certain things Nitrates are found in fertilizers are good for plants bad for rivers Will deprive animals from oxygen Eutrophication water pollution in which plants well nourished by pollutants thrive at the expense of aquatic animals Biochemical oxygen BOD D0 and DOD all measures of the aerobic activity of aqueous microorganisms measures of organic pollutants BOD estimates total of all biochemical processes that consume oxygen determines amount of organic material present The smaller amount of the D0 or the greater DOD the greater amount of organic material in the water Aquifer large layer of porous rock that holds fresh water and from which water can be drawn from wells Makes up 97 of freshwater Fossil aquifers are very old rechargeable aquifier Biscayne Pollutants can move from ground to air Chemicals that create hazards on land Insecticides eliminate insects Herbicides eliminate weeds unwanted plant growth Fungicides control plant damaging fungi and used for killin rats DDT used for killing insects harmful to humans and environment Harmful because its resistence to degradation solubility in fat harmful to internal organs reproduction harms species developed resistence Silent spring book about harmful DDT Still manufactured and sold to other countries landfills Japan had huge environmental catastrophe of mercury poisoning in fish Cigarette smoke hazardous Environmental tobacco smoke ETS hazard to smokers and non smokers Environmental catastrophies minimata 1956 love canal 1978 Bhopal 1984 chernoybl 1986 Exxon valdez 1989 gulf oil spill 2010
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