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by: Theodore Labadie III

AM LIT SINCE 1865 ENG 2360

Theodore Labadie III
Texas State
GPA 3.84

A. Chavkin

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This 80 page Class Notes was uploaded by Theodore Labadie III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENG 2360 at Texas State University taught by A. Chavkin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/212915/eng-2360-texas-state-university in Foreign Language at Texas State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
American Lit Poe 352011 10600 AM First professional writer Buried alive being walled up alive in a tomb Terrible things are just beneath the surface and emerge in horrific ways 0 Revenge 0 Cannibalism o Incest 0 Murder A misunderstood genius in search of a mother Drugravaged wild man Inventor of the detective story His mother died shortly after he was born and his father abandoned him orphan by 2 John Allen took him in 0 Relations between them deteriorated when he was in college because of Poe s gambling debts University of Virginia and romantic entanglements with young women and jealousy of his wife s fondness of her unofficial stepson not legally adopted 0 When Allen remarried he became independent at 22 and decided to write as an editor poet and fiction writer Began to live with relatives in Baltimore Lived with an aunt who became his mother married her daughter at 13 Difficult economic circumstances 0 1847 his wife was dead and two years later Poe was dead substance abuse Found unconscious in a gutter Creator of a new kind of poetry that includes symbolist poetry by French poets Innovator who used gothic horror fiction for serious purposes Pioneer of the American short story emphasizing brevity Psychological literature important literary theorist Pioneer in the realist fiction that dominates 2nd half of 19th century 0 Sets groundwork for Jack London Thomas Woolf Hemmingway Tennessee Williams Plath all died prematurely because of selfdestructive inclination like Poe o Prompted a mythology where its difficult to separate fact from fiction o Tell Tale Heart 0 O O O O O O 0 He is an unreliable narrator Preoccupies himself to convince his audience that he is sane Narrator thinks he is telling the truth but his perceptions are not accurate we cannot rely on him we begin to have our doubts about him Narrators behavior becomes increasingly bizarre though he thinks that the reader will find him clever and sane Narrator reveals himself to be paranoid masochism self delusion amp 0CD Audience can t identify with him at times Satisfaction from making his victims feel pain and terrorizing them Narrator makes it clear that the old man has done nothing to the narrator to make him want to hurt him Obsession with the old man s eye prompts him to stalk him and murder him Lacks a moral context Disconnect between horrific acts he s involved in and his emotional response There s no guilt Narrator reveals his indifference and even the horrific acts make him laugh no ethical regard 1St person narrator s value system is not to be confused with Poe s they are different Narrator does not put the story in a moral context but Poe does he wants the reader to see it Does it by alluding to Shakespeare s Macbeth Illusion is important amp there are a number of parallels between the play and Poe s story Macbeth amp her husband murder their king they become unhinged by the experience the crime O O Macbeth is psychologically trying to wash away the blood of the crime urges her husband initially to murder their guest Afterwards she is horrified by what she has done My god I never would have imagined the old man would have had so much blood in him She has not been in battle like her husband for her it s a theoretical thing Poe s victim is also referred to as the old man Narrator refers to him as the damn spot Poe is alluding to Shakespeare s play so the reader can see the connection and putting it in a larger moral context Indicts the narrator by linking him to the murderess in the play One of Shakespeare s darkest plays Psychological realism which Poe has placed in moral context He s not concerned if you think he s done something evil The Cask of Amontillado O O O O 0 Most anthologized of Poe s Defies interpretation Defines horror Without any logical explanation or real meaning Marie Bonapart Psychoanalytic sees him murdering his father Through the vault symbolic entry into the womb Daniel Hopthin Deconstructionist critics Irreconcilable meaning Narrative point of view Reveals roots of American realism Can be seen as masterpieces of psychological realism Why did Poe tell the story from this point of view a First person narrator and murderer like Tell Tale Heart O O O O O n Unreliable narrator whose values opinions and perceptions should not be confused with the author s n Both stories have narrators who are insane or have some mental illness n Their description of events are not completely accurate Poe is revealing the process in the mind of a murder in both stories Narrator is obsessed and has a mind that is not right Montresor appears to be logical and sane but we should not be fooled by that Continuous use of irony the way things appear and the way things actually are Fortunato is dressed like a fool We are suspicious because he tells us Fortunato has suffered a thousand injuries Thinks he is being persecuted by his friend Fortunato doesn t have a clue that his friend is angry at him and that he s in danger Does not justify what he does to Fortunato Montresor is suffering from paranoia illusions of persecution Freud s definition of paranoia because of an unconscious attachment to a loved object which becomes the focus of hatred and aggression because the person cannot commit himself to the object Unconscious homosexual attraction and he wants to get rid of Fortunato because he doesn t want to deal with the emotion it s disturbing to him Perhaps we should turn back I m concerned about your cough n Tries to plant the notion in his friends mind that he could have turned back so then he realizes why did I continue when I could have gone back Montresor directs the story to you DR Thompson says the you is Montresor s priest confessor on his death bed Smug narrator sadistically gloating over his revenge getting away with murder versus him being obsessed and psychologically ravaged by the death 2 centuries later Montresor becomes his own persecutor because he becomes obsessed He tells it with such graphic detail Poe allows the narrator to damn himself through his own words because he s the unreliable narrator o Bartleby O O 0 Good employee for a while but then preferred not to Eventually the narrator abandons Bartleby and he is taken away to jail where he starves to death Narrator tells us that he s solved the mystery of why Bartleby acts so strangely He worked at the dead letter office amp this explains his bizarre behavior Melancholy depressive temperament important letters that people could not get sent Bartleby over the edge If you consider him a reliable narrator maybe Melville s alter ego you can accept this idea If unreliable whose judgments amp perceptions aren t accurate then you ll have a very different reading of the story Reliable Very few facts he s a mysterious narrator Everything we know is filtered through the narrator s perspective Narrator is a compassionate person who wishes to help Bartleby who is too alienated to be helped He solves the mystery through his realization of Bartleby s depressive temperament nothing can be done to save him Unreliable We cannot accept everything he says at face value Narrator is selfperceptive who does not understand his own motivations He is so selfcentered and conventional that it blinds him to the unconventional to create a person such as Bartleby Narrator isn t able to comprehend someone so unconventional as Bartleby Dead Letter Office is narrator trying to justify his actions Elaborate defense for what the narrator does you ll see after hearing the story that I did everything possible to help this guy He was a lost cause and therefore you the reader should not blame me Comes across as being selfimportant a He brags about the fact that he is the kind of person that his selfconviction is the easy way out a He says the easiest way of life is the best page 18 to abandon Bartleby n He s the kind of lawyer who doesn t fight for justice doesn t address jury He is a safe man good living easy way out not a risk taker John Jacob Aster was the richest man at the time n The narrator is name dropping a He repeats the name a Trying to impress us September 8 Bartleby Bust O O O O of Cicero in his office narrator Ancient Roman a symbol for a high principle statesman who is willing to risk his life for his ideals 19th century lawyer typical But it s ironic that the narrator is bragging about a profound conviction that always takes the easy way out most people would consider to be a flaw but he s too selfcentered He s a kind of lawyer who never addresses the jury Narrator tries to convince Bartleby to do something he wants him to do 0 Narrator doesn t want to ask him something he prefers not to do he just wants to speak to him 0 Bartleby realizes the kind of person the narrator is He tells Bartleby I am your friend you can trust me 0 His recognition of the bust clarifies the narrator s relationship to Bartleby Realizes narrator will eventually betray him Cicero opposed a tyrant Politician who was supposed to be his friend sold Cicero out and was executed This is the key signal that the narrator is unreliable Narrator is symbolic of conventional society Melville found himself in a difficult situation He had a large family that depended on him for financial support He was concerned about not offending the audience Melville raised these issues 0 Narrator decided he will not fire Bartleby but continue to employ him page 28 He is useful to me I can get along with him D But if a friend is in trouble you help a friend a To keep him will cost him little to nothing sees Bartleby in materialistic terms He indicts himself by the language he is using He doesn t talk about him the way that people talk about their friends it s in economic terms Reliable narrator o Compassionate person who does everything he can to save Bartleby Narrator doesn t understand himself not deliberately lying After you hear the story you will see that I did everything to help Bartleby a justification o Marrius was a defeated Roman leader died insane Narrator is comparing Bartleby to Marrius by saying his despair is like Marrius Comparing him to a tragic hero Suffering comparable to Job from the Bible 0 O O O The Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge o First modern American writer o Bierce once defined birth as the first endures of our disaster o Life is war war is life 0 Pessimistic outlook something new in American history and literature Bierce Human beings are ruled by hostile circumstances Crane and Art is the child of pain We are determined by forcescircumstances beyond our control 0 Naturalism literary movement 0 0 Where human beings are evils in the natural world responding to environmental forces they cannot control Present the reality in terms of scientific theory of the 19th century Darwin Marx Freud n Darwin had argued that the struggle for existence is the survival of the fittest Evolution is the process of selection a Marx indicted capitalism and argued for economic determination for all institutions Class struggle was the basic pattern of history a Freud responsible for psychological determinism body being controlled by the subconscious n CENTRAL IDEA forces beyond control Assume life is a cruel trap kept going by needs hunger amp sex Modern approach is highly skeptical and iconoclastic Camus and Niche O Existentialist God is dead Hostile to the desire and hope of human beings All people are metaphorically under death sentence Protagonists must dilute themselves and think the situation is more hopeful than it really is Bad faith May die at any moment through change Life is a game where you never win THEME 0 Many human beings accidents of nature need not to deceive themselves about their fate which is they are metaphorically sentenced to death Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge o Film version does a good job of depicting the plot o Film version Peyton is more sympathetic o Anticapital punishment theme film o Second section we learn that the protagonist is a wealthy slave owner omitted from the film 0 Warning against selfdeception if we are to see the world clearly and understand our situation 0 Believes in the villainous victim that all is fair in love and war film o Film omits bitter irony but captures suspense and slow motion dull lighting 0 Specific images of nature suggests the lapse of time 0 Microscopic view of plants and insects protagonist surprised he is alive o Ends with protagonist brought out of the fantasy o Pessimistic conclusion conveys Bierce s view of the human condition 0 He fought in the civil war and went to Mexico during their civil war amp then disappeared The Yellow Wallpaper 1892 New England Magazine o Typical gothic horror tale grotesque events o Some responded amp rejected it because it made them feel miserable o Allows reader to put himherself vicariously in the shoes of the character amp understand what it s like to be slowly going mad 0 It was meant to make you feel miserable o Designed with a specific goal in mind to protect against the treatment of depressed women isolating them from family and friends and deprivation 0 Author herself suffered from severe postpartum depression and was treated by the standard system of the time O 0 Complete inactivity and overfeeding Prohibited intellectual stimulation Assumptions of the rescuer drive women insane As a feminist depicts subordinate place of women in a patriarchal society controlled by men promotes male values and degrades women Gilman s use of imagery in the story underscores how isolated this woman feels She feels trapped symbolic closing off as the mental illness intensifies O O O O 0 He shuts the windows shutting out the protagonist s feelings Physical objects add to her sense of imprisonment Wallpaper surrounds the room there is no escaping He sees her as a child Sense of haunting fills the text as a symbol of the narrator s displaced self Gilman s woman creeping behind the wallpaper serves as a metaphor O O Terrible entrapment as she becomes the woman behind the wallpaper Symbolizes the women who have accepted the subordinate role of women in society and who are entrapped by it Turn of the Screw There s no agreement among literary critics if the ghosts are real or a figment of the governess imagination Anyone who approaches this story they must encounter the question are the ghosts real or are they imagined by the governess O O 0 We can t answer with absolute certainty because of the way the story is told first person narrator Question that s raised is can we rely on the narrator can we trust what she says Are we getting an accurate picture Is she seeing actual ghosts or is she psychotic Difficult to prove the interpretation because everything we know is filtered through the first person narrator the governess Usually films are told from an objective point of view record what s going on But in the film they try to capture the first person of the governess Freud o Psychological approach 0 They assume the governess is unreliable and we can t trust anything she says Modern consciousness shaped the way people think about the human mind Centrality of pervasiveness of sexual motivation O 0 Importance of dreams in revealing the unconscious Oedipus complex center of neurosis Family issues Brothersister If they aren t solved in childhood there could be negative manifestations in adulthood Governess is suffering from sexual hysteria She imagines the ghosts she despises but is unconsciously attracted to Everything we know about the ghosts is from the governess point of view She is the only one who admits O to seeing it n Governess assumes that Miles sees the ghost at the end a Governess is trying to get Miles to confess that he sees Peter Quint is SHE here He thinks the governess sees Ms Jessel because he knows what happened at the lake o Giving the answer that he thinks the governess wants to hear AntiFreudians o Governess is reliable and we can believe what she says Book 0 Diary Only governess replication of events 0 James includes a prologue in which a group of people are entertaining each other with ghost stories Douglas had met the governess 10 years after the death of Miles Said the governess was infatuated with the bachelor They would argue that the governess at the time of the story was a young innocent woman from a religious background father is country parson She was reluctant to accept initial offer and only did so because she was charmed by the uncle We are told that the governess succumbs to the seduction metaphorically The possibility of the governess establishing a relationship with the uncle is problematic because when the uncle hires her he tells her I want you to take care of all the problems Don t contact me I don t want to be bothered u If she wants to be involved romantically it wouldn t work because she s not supposed to contact him 0 Page 15 Wouldn t it be nice in this romantic setting ifI met someone She s thinking of the uncle She looks up and she thinks she sees him on top of the tower but realizes it s a stranger It s almost as ifI conjured him up Then she s afraid Freudian critics a Victorian woman from sheltered background religious and she s daydreaming unconsciously she thinks it would be nice to meet up with this stranger in a secluded area Then she thinks it dangerous to her reputation as a Victorian woman a Governess is sexually repressed o Angle very erect both hands on the ledge n Sinister dangerous o Governess imagination has a melodramatic and suspicious temperament that s drawn to dark mysteries Stranger appears again She runs outside to confront him and he s gone a Although the man doesn t talk to the governess she is actively convinced that when he was looking in the window he was not looking for her but someone else Miles and Flora n Her absolute certainty is skeptical a Scene concludes when after seeing him in the window goes to the window herself and duplicates the behavior When she does that Ms Gross walks into the room and is startled and runs outside to talk to the governess pg 2021 o I wonder why she should be scared o Governess is suspicious that Ms Gross has not leveled with her that she s keeping secrets involving the appearances of the stranger 0 Chapter 5 The story takes a turn it becomes a ghost story or Freud a psychological tale about a repressed woman The governess describes the man that she s seen twice Ms Gross is able to identify him as Peter Quint who is dead The governess obviously never met Peter Quint but is able to describe him with specific detail so much so that Ms Gross can identify him a Obviously the ghost must be real Film version hideandseek she goes to the attic and finds a locket with Peter Quint s picture and thus projects the image on the stranger D Other film versions include those kinds of details that provide a logical reason as to why she can identify Peter Quint Governess is unreliable n It s possible that she leaves out some details a Arriving at her first job it would be logical for governess to ask one of the servants about the previous governess because she s concerned about how she ll measure up n Scandal involved Ms Jessel and Quint someone would have told her 0 Chapter 6 Governess desires to make a courageous sacrifice Too eager to sacrifice herself and too certain that ghosts are after the children By offering herself bravely by inviting amp surmounting it all she could sacrifice herself for the tranquility of her companions n Governess is absolutely convinced that Quint will come back and that he s after the children It doesn t provoke fear in here but she sees it as an opportunity to sacrifice herself to save the children n She s too eager to play the martyr in battle of good and evil Why no fear o Because of her unconscious desire to impress the uncle to attract his respect and love for her She needs a crisis that allows her to contact him an exception Governess sees Ms Jessel at the lake She believes that the child also sees her but simply pretends not to Gullible and superstitious Ms Gross begins to believe its far worse than I suspected the children are lostquot they are possessed by a demonic evil a Battle between ghosts religious battle of the souls u If she can get them to confess that they re involved with the ghosts then she can save them 0 Chapters 1011 Governess believes that Miles has gone outside to meet with the ghost In the film she sees Miles looking up and she assumes that he s looking at Peter Quint They may be playing a prank on the governess who is highstrung and serious Film takes Miles back to bed and to her surprise he gives her a kiss goodnight happens in the book but much more suggestive in the film a Precocious child gives her a kiss on the lips The governess doesn t do anything And when the kiss ends there s 2 reaction shocks close up of child s face grin and governess face ambivalent but surprised amp confused mouth trembles n End of film after Miles dies the governess kisses child on lips very peculiar because child is dead o It s almost as if the governess initially when he kissed her it awakened sexual feelings that had been repressed Repulsed but intrigued o She kisses him back D Other film versions include certain pieces like this that help explain incidences o Governess in bed dreaming of wandering around at night and she encounters Quint who she s attracted to and afraid of and she finds herself in his arms kissing him 0 She wakes to find Miles by her bed o Governess wanders around the house trying to find the source of strange things she hears Sadistic and masochistic representation of Quint and Jessel making love You hear her say you re hurting me and the children are watching pedophilia and exhibitionism 0 Miles embraces her but almost strangles her Miles has witnessed some things he shouldn t have between Quint and Jessel 0 Chapter 14 Should she contact the uncle Indicates the motivation of the governess 0 Chapter 15 She confronts the ghost you terrible miserable woman and Jessel disappears She reports this to Ms Gross and embellishes She tells her that she suckered the souls of the lost and the damned and that she wants Flora D But the ghost didn t speak at all n Evidence that the governess is not completely reliable about reporting what happens a She tends to embellish especially in this scene 0 Chapter 20 She uses heavy handed tactics to get Flora to admit that she s seen the ghost a Plan backfires and Flora becomes distressed Governess is not phased she sees it as more evidence that Flora actually sees the ghost 0 Final chapter Alone with Miles White face of damnation Quint appears in window Miles asks is she herequot unsealed unseeing eyes Governess points Miles in the right direction Peter Quint you devil a From her point of view Miles confesses n Or he s just trying to please the Governess Miles dies not clear of what Heart attack or the ghost Novel doesn t contain dream scenes or sexual n Doesn t mean film versions are wrong in depicting a ghost story EXAM o 50 question 5 answers 0 Passages list of 5 works identify 0 Lecture questions 352011 10600 AM Project Process of composition Moving through drafts and ending with the poem No one knows the correct order of the drafts you don t have to use the order that he uses Or you can present your interpretation of the poem analyze it and refer to early drafts as points in your paper 0 Figure out the theme and main points of the poem 0 Go through it line by line 0 She uses simies why 0 How does rhyme function 0 Italics ellipses One question you must answer you must use draft material to understand what Sexton is doing in published poem DUE DATE HAS CHANGD T0 WEDNESDAY OCTOBER 29 Wallace Stevens Have generated a wide range of responses 0 Anger at times One of his most famous poems Emperor of Ice cream 0 Ice cream man wrote Stevens a letter because he was enraged 0 Why would you write that about ice cream 0 Doesn t usually explain his poems but he did to this one You re being too literal minded this poem really isn t about ice cream I m using it to talk about other thing Disillusionment at 10 o clock 0 Theme of the importance of imagination 0 When you read it for the first time you wonder if you re supposed to take it seriously It sounds like a joke sometimes 0 Most of his poems have an anecdotal or joke like substance to them 0 If he wrote in more modern times he would probably title it Disillusionment at 1030 Average time that people go to bed these days He suggests that people live quiet lives of desperation Many people experience depression because of modern existence Evoking the monotony and conformity by emphasizing lack of color white nig htgowns O u Spirits of dead people a These people are spiritually dead because of their lack of imagination a They are absorbed in convention common sense routine conformity The old sailor catching tigers in red weather Evokes color vitality and violence Drunken sailor suggests a man with vivid imagination an imagination that allows him to experience the rawness of nature and vitality of everyday life Of Modern Poetry O O O O O O Seems to be a joke should we take it seriously We see Stevens sense of humor The poem does have a serious point He is examining the purpose of poetry the purpose of art How does the imagination function Art poetry and imagination are all interchangeable Common place jar things have changed from 19th century to modern day period Takes the jar puts it in the wilderness and observes that the chaotic wilderness is somehow transformed because of the jar We must be careful not to be too literal minded Stevens is talking about the function of artpoetry Wilderness symbolizes reality it is intrinsically chaotic and random It is formless The jar symbolizes artpoetryimagination He is suggesting that by placing the jar there the wilderness has transformed a Implies that a point of reference is necessary to put order on a world that is random a That is the function of poetryartimagination u EX If you re camping campsite becomes a point of reference to understand the world We see Steven s obsessive theme importance of imagination and human mind to convey meaning purpose and order Biography of Stevens 0 Pennsylvania Met George Santiana who had the assumption that poetry must become the replacement of religious belief It became a central assumption in Steven s poetry Went to Harvard became a practicing lawyer 1909 got married became a professional vice president at an insurance company 2quotd decade of 20th century Stevens led a double life At night and weekends he was an experimental poet Unlike Pound Yeats he had little contact with other poets Unlike Hemmingway he did not appear in front of a large audience Hemmingway appeared on cover of Times Stevens appeared on Pandamodium Financial security in 1934 he began to publish again on a regular basis He wrote numerous letters that his daughter published Major American writer of the 20th century Known for the unusual point of view colorful imagery unique humor probing of human spirit Knowledge of philosophy and culture can see u Impressionism cubism Piccasso George Santiana Single most important influence on his poetry is Stevens reading of 19th century romantic poets Wordsworth Shelley Keats His poetry reveal his romantic interaction between reality and imagination Stevens explores separation between human consciousness and objective reality Can they be surmounted somehow Core of human outlook is found in Modern Poetry Keenly aware of existential alienation profound loss at human condition The death of God the loss of traditional religious belief World without God Sunday Morning he explores the problem of the modern individual s loss of religious belief The issues that this philosophical dedication explore are the heart of Stevens work How does one cope in a world where the old religion becomes a mythology How does one cope with death when there is no after life Called Sunday Morning because woman meditating on these issues is not at church like she should be but rather at home 0 Stevens struggles He seeks to transform and redeem the external world Heightened moment of status a moment of revelation And at other times the attempt of the imagination to order the world fails In any case in Stevens poetry there is an attempt of the never resting mind to continue to understand reality and seeks to redeem it There is a consistency in Stevens cannon The great poems of heaven and hell have been written the great poems of the earth have not been 0 Reputation Top 3 or 4 poets Only late in Stevens life that he received attention When he was alive Stevens was condemned for his unusual style that could range from short whimsical poems with odd points of view to poems with guarding rhetoric to lengthy philosophical poems like Sunday Morning End of his life he was widely recognized and won a number of awards Emperor of Ice Cream What is actually happening here 0 What is the dramatic situation 0 There are different kinds of poems Stevens poems can be very difficult 0 he wanted them this way he wanted readers to use imagination It is very demanding We have a funeral of a poor woman in a low income area of the city 0 This is symbolic Did not write it to protest poverty It was prompted by anxiety Ambivalence over the proper response to death a Do we conceal it reveal it disguise it recognize it Speaker acts as host and tells people to act naturally and enjoy themselves Implicit reality should not be covered up or ignored Come in your usual dress 0 Last line Suggests that instead of an all powerful god king of universe there is only the emperor of ice cream a Symbolize death cold amp sweet and temporary pleasures of this earth 0 2quotd stanza If one tries to pretend otherwise disillusionment will result Orders us to shine our lamp on the corpse and see the real world as it is and not as how it should be When you cover up the corpse feet protrude Order of Key West 0 Passerby happens upon a woman singing in a foreign language Similar to A Solitary Reaper by Wordsworth O The passerby in both poems never learns what the contents of the song 0 might be But this is precisely what is supposed to happen Song itself regardless has an emotion impact among him Relation of reality and imagination Passerby uses his imagination to bring himself into a meaningful relationship with his environment a He can now experience the world more intensely Endow the world with feeling and meaning 0 Stevens explains here at the conclusion that a passionate imagination can provide order and meaning to the form of the sea of reality Snow Man 0 Unusual because the entire poem is one sentence 0 Nothing that is not there and the nothing that is Stevens in this poem is suggesting that the individual cannot be one with nature Inevitably because of human consciousness are going to feel a gap between the human and non human world Suggest in this barren landscape that becomes symbolic of a world that is fundamentally chaotic without any intrinsic meaning Literally there is very little in the landscape the nothing that isn t there Nothing that is there a French philosopher Jean Paul nothingness of the human condition One realizes that the world is absurd irrational and meaningless there is in fact a feeling that nothing becomes a physical presence Camus calls it the absurd Jean Paul calls it nausea Hemmingway calls it nada meaningless at the heart of the human condition a Stevens and Hemmingway did meet one time and Hemmingway gave him a black eye Asked him not to tell anyone William Carlos Williams He was opposed to the wasteland tradition of TS Elliott and Ezra Pound 0 They were different in style 0 Full of obscure references in a highly complex style 0 Includes words and phrases from other languages 0 Allusions to religion history mythology Williams felt that the wasteland was the great catastrophe and led people down the wrong path 0 Williams disapproved of the attitudes of Pound and Elliott o Disapproved of their abandoning America for Europe Williams uses common language of the time Believed he could only write American poetry if he stayed in America 0 He wanted to communicate with the common man with clear precise and direct language There is a constant barrier and reader and his consciousness of O immediate contact with the world No ideas but in things 0 Poet thinks with the poem 0 Must focus on those things which lie under the direct senses under the O nose He wanted to reinvigorate language It had to be disinfected made fresh had to be reborn in order to truly express reality Red Wheel Barrow o Imagism importance of using language of everyday speech and importance of exact and precise images in clear poetry Talked about complete freedom of choosing your subject Avoided abstract rhetoric and vague language Emphasis was on clear images that would focus on a specific image 0 Essence of Williams style He was a pediatrician He works upon the patient thing before him in the particular he can discover the universal 0 Williams and Stevens both emphasize the importance of imagination Landscape of the Fall of Icarus 0 He describes Breugel s painting objectively 0 What s unusual about Williams responding in contrast to the other poets who present an interpretation of the painting or of Icarus what Williams does is that he describes the painting as precisely as he can 0 Williams inspired by impressionist cubists Impressionism tried to render objects of the natural world into an objective representation Cubist represented them in basic geometric shapes Rejected orthodox of his time wasteland to create a radically new type of poetry that was true to the American experience and accepted by basic people This is Just to Say September 24 Hemmingway Became a celebrity appeared in numerous magazines Involved in politics and the events of his time Most famous American writer of the 20th century Personal legend of his own time expert hunter and fisherman Connoisseur of art and cooking Self destructive inclination The Sun Also Rises 0 Success 0 Lost Generation profound disillusionment consequence of the war A Farewell to Arms 0 Hemmingway s Romeo amp Juliet American veteran and a nurse based on his own experience Hemmingway intended to marry her he got a dear John letter that the wedding was off and she fell in love with some Italian 0 Depression of 1930 s Attack of some writers who were not socially aware in their writing Fitzgerald Hemmingway was not attacked because of his style and depiction of the war which he was a part of Nobel Prize for Literature 1954 cover of Time magazine Became a benchmark that other writers used to measure themselves UndenNent shock treatment shot himself his dad committed sucicide o Contradicts everything that his work stands for 0 Has been rationalized in different ways Hemmingway was mentally ill at the time and acted irrationally did not follow the code he expressed in his fiction It s not unusual because it was so widely mimicked o Hard boiled detective literature tough unsentimental personal and matter of fact depiction of violence 0 Graphic violence and sex without moral commentary 0 Hero is something like Hemmingway pro hero o Dispassionately objective dialogue that is fast paced and captures the way ordinary people speak including slang Influenced by Crane ampand Mark Twain especially Huckleberry Finn o All modern American literature comes from one book Twain s Huckleberry Finn 0 Influence of Twain s writing style plain straight forward declarative style Hemmingway known for directness and sentence structure Not any elaborate an in volute sentence structure of Henry James or Faulkner Two short sentences with conjunctive and Short declarative sentences 0 He is not necessary an easy read depends on understatements He has a lot of respect for the reader omits anything that doesn t need to be said meaningful omission Drafts are much longer than final product Gets it down to it s essence Style 0 Simple declarative sentences 0 Leaves out judgments and abstractions o Fatalistic outlook once you make a choice determinism takes over and you must suffer consequences of choice 0 Understatements amp theory of omission Reader can infer Key problem in Big Two Hearted River is never explicitly talked about in the story it s only alluded too In Sun Also Rises they don t talk about Jake s impotence 0 White Elephant You have to read between the lines to understand what s going on between the man and woman 0 Big Two Hearted Protagonist suffers from shell shock WWII battle fatigue Vietnam post traumatic stress syndrome Hemmingway praised as a master of realism o Fantasies that enable author and reader to live vicariously through fiction and protagonist the terrors of the unknown Unconscious fears that plague the human mind mental breakdown loss ofa loved one o Toug hen minds for future pictographies Repetition of characters situations and images suggests that they are trying to cast off the demons plaguing the human mind Exorcism must be ritualistic to work lessens the horrors to keep plaguing nightmares at bay toughen the mind for what lies ahead 0 Mental breakdown remains a distinct possibility Stoicism hard boiled attitude continual wanderings defense mechanisms against despair o Nick s ritualistic activity of camping and fishing is a defense mechanism that allows him to forget about the war Threatens complete emotional paralysis Protagonist is heroic he is a survivor suffered emotional catastrophes and overcame Painful experience causes maturity sense of identity Survivor comes to terms with his past with the help of irony to tolerate life s absurdity takes risks To be truly human you must be willing to lose take risks 0 Way things are and the way they should be Pervaded by irony Allows characters to come to sense with reality at it s worse a Ending of Farewell to Arms Prose 0 Short Happy Life of Francis McCumber Character quotes from Shakespeare a code behind Hemmingway s fiction Maturity comes with overcoming one s fear of death Francis McCumber runs away from an animal he s hunting 0 Depth anxiety he suffered from it after WW1 His life is only a few moments long because after he overcomes his fear of death he is shot by his wife Only lived happy after overcoming the fear Two Hearted River 0 Story only alludes to the problem C Says its about coming back from the war but never explicitly states 0 Psychologically wounded by post traumatic stress disorder Intrusiveness of recollection detachment anxious Tries to block out intrusive recollections hysteria is nearby n This is why he focuses on fishing u Captures nervous tension that Nick can barely keep under control Must focus on details of camping all are of equal importance u 24 hour story None of the details strike one as of great importance u Focuses on the details to forget past haunts him Very delicate state threat of mental breakdown is never far away focuses on nature and ritual of fishing and camping Henry David Thoreau u I went to the woods because I wished to live deliberately u Get in touch with soul and focus on essentials through nature suck out the marrow of life u Thoreau calls for us to simplify our lives and get back to what s important Simplicty 0 Nature has restorative power sanctuary for Nick Allows him to escape brutality of the war Restore himself and regain control of his mind A world without intrinsic meaning or purpose Individual is stranger in alien world fundamental absurdity of human condition nothingness nausea u Parody of the Lord s Prayer Existential assumption is when individual abandons his allusions they are confronted by the absurdity of human condition a Master it by artificial activity fishing Sense of discipline and order Sense of control amp purpose in a world that is random and ruled by chance Camus calls the absurd o The end Swamp symbolizes dark part of his mind and of the past that he must confront at sometime Prepares himself for the journey into the swamp That journey is not for today he concludes September 29 Nada o A story where not a great deal happens Old man is at a caf and two waiters are waiting for him to go home A Clean Well Out of Place Awareness of nothing ness at the foundation of the human condition Existential realizes that the individual is born into a world where anything is possible There is not a God watching over everything it is a world ruled by chance a Forlornness despair alienation u Initial feeling of nothingness Faulkner Style can be complex Long in volute sentences Emily s appearance particular attention to color of her hair it was turning greyer and greyer 74 it was still vigorous iron grey o Critic says The story of a woman who has killed her lover and has laid for years by the decaying corpse 0 Long strand of grey hair is evidence that Emily kept the body in her home for adverse reasons 0 Others dispute this saying her hair was already turning grey when Homer was alive 0 Narrator is careful to distinguish the kind of grey hair at the end of the story not that color at the time Homer was alive She refused to admit he was dead Narrator is careful to indicate that the color of the hair found is a certain type of grey 0 Evidence that she had been sleeping with corpse for a number of years Disagree that it s a horror story 0 It has moral fiber 0 Newspaper story does not explain the why of these events 0 Provides insight into why Emily s tragedy occurs wants to do more than provide a newspaper story here s a strange story make of it what you will 0 Key to his story is his unusual point of view told from multiple first person narrator we is telling the story voice of the communitytownspeople Provides insight for bizarre behavior Key is the way Faulkner decided to tell the story Wants to stress that Emily s relationship to the community helps explain the murder and the grotesque behavior that happens after a Treatment of Emily by townspeople contributes to her behavior 0 Emily s family held themselves a little too high than they really were They are compassionate for Emily they treat her as a special case By doing this they isolate her She was 30 and unmarried Community has smugness and racism at some times Community believes Emily has been jilted by her lover they feel sorry for her but they feel superior to her Put her on a pedestal and idolize her but also view her as pitiful O O 0 Murder Title Judith They ignore her pride Unfortunately the community s treatment of her contributes to her eccentricies and loosen her slim grasp of reality a Inability to accept the death of her father 1885 in a small town in the south A woman who is jilted by her lover would be stigmatized as a fallen woman outcast to be pitied and by some people condemned Woman is a symbol of the ideal in every phase of life at this time Emily was regarded as last representative of the old south and all of it s grandeur This is scandalous because Emily s social class dating someone beneath her and Homer is a Yankee u Cannot fathom that she would be jilted by a Yankee and someone not of her class a It s too much for her to accept In her imbalanced mind it can t happen and it won t happen So she kills him and keeps him like he s her husband Emily is unable to deal with change or accept the past that her father died can t accept that Homer was about to jilt her a His body is a memento a keepsake of her love affair a Woman kept a rose as a memento of a love affair u Homer is a rose for Emily Federly Gives a feminist reading of the story Emily is a victim of patriarchy male society with male beliefs devalues woman s perspective Confinement of women in a patriarchal society Community seeing her as a Lady is a more subtle form of confinement of her father Symbol of the old south why she can get away with murder Emily is invisible to the townspeople They are incapable of imagining her committing such a grotesque murder D However her relationship to her community and multiple first person is a key to understanding the story Fitzgerald 1920 1930 Nobel Prize for his style of writing 0 Stream of consciousness that captures the thought process of the mind Came to be a difficult writer Most important writers of the American 20th century along with Hemmingway Flunked out of Princeton socialite Wrote a novel This Side of Paradise became famous overnight Proposed marriage to Zelda and she told him that while she loved him she wouldn t marry him because he did not have prospects 0 After he got his book published she agreed to marry him Lost Generation of the Jazz Age they became figures of the Jazz Age Best known book is The Great Gatsby pursuit of the American Dream and life in the Jazz Age Tender is the Night 1934 1927 went to Hollywood to make money to support his lavish lifestyle 1930 Zelda had a mental breakdown from which she never recovered 0 Was in and out of institutions for the rest of her life 0 Fitzgerald was an alcoholic Letter to his daughter I not only announce the birth of my young illusions in Paradise but the death of them in Babylon Revisited 0 Babylon can be considered a story of the end of his career It is an appropriate final statement for him Babylon Revisited Title is metaphorical expect readers to understand the reference 0 Known for its wickedness o 1920 stock market boom 0 Excessive drinking 0 Crash wife s death Tries to convince in laws that he s responsible enough to care for his daughter Honona 0 Honor he has squandered In laws represent the old conservative value system 0 Peter rock solid Lincoln self evident 0 Duncan Chafer Loraine Quarrels Isador Duncan famous dancer revolt against tradition o Conform contrite moderate the last thing Charlie wants to do is to associate him with the lifestyle of his friends with Duncan and Loraine Key question is whether Charlie has really changed or not 0 He is a survivor who has the ability to take only one alcoholic drink many of his friends have died from substance abuse 0 Most important thing he does is give the in laws address to the bartender how Duncan and Loraine find him which could be why he wasn t allowed to take the child back In laws could make him pay for his past mistakes forever 3rd person point of view allows the readers to identify with characters 0 Reader is uncertain about what will happen to Charlie 0 He is told by Lincoln that she has changed her mind for the time being 0 They couldn t make him pay forever 0 He is suggesting that his leaving his address ghost to his past revealed Charlie s unconscious desire to return to self destructive extravagance or has he really changed Up to the reader What s implicit is that Fitzgerald s tragic vision 0 No reality can ever match one s imagination o The illusion of it is inevitable Alice Walker Daughter of sharecropper Had undervalued one of her daughters 0 Has overvalued the one that has gone to college Dee s behavior during her homecoming provokes her change of attitude 0 Epiphany opens her eyes to some of Dee s behavior 1St person through the mother 0 Shifting in tenses without any warning 0 Evidence of author s literary incompetence Process by which mother achieves a breakthrough Excited Dee will return home 0 Hasn t been home in a long time very special for the narrator Maggie is apprehensive about her sister s return O O O Narrator says Maggie is ashamed of the scars on her arms and legs as a result of the old house burning down Views her sister Dee with awe and envy Narrator s unconscious feelings toward her educated daughter We find evidence that the mom feels this way she too is somewhat apprehensive about Dee s return Daughter has high expectations for her fantasizes about a reuniting This shows her own lack of confidence or self esteem Uneducated narrator thinks Dee has a low opinion of her and doesn t love or respect Fantasy suggests that the narrator feels some pride or respect for Dee and she as a mother deserves some recognition for her success Johnny Carson shaking her hand a Show of love publicly depth of love Narrator is completely out of character We learn Dee is uncompromising ungrateful and has low opinion of her sister and mother Might have hoped that Dee will become the Dee of her fantasy but at the end she acknowledges that it s not the same kind of person Narrator describes herself as a big boned woman that performs tasks efficiently Dee is embarrassed In her fantasy she is 100 pounds lighter and has pretty skin Mother wants to be thin attractive sophisticated and impressive to Johnny Carson and audience to gain respect from Dee This reveals her anxieties doesn t measure up to her daug hter s expectations Dee is delighted that the house is destroyed by fire Dance around the ashes she hated it that much Narrator s recollection is significant because Dee is watching the house burn instead of helping her sister Dee hated Maggie Dee is less than grateful This is seen in her patronizing attitude toward her and toward Maggie as she tries to educate them Never confronts her difficult daughter or shakes her like she claims she wants to do 0 Narrator never had an education past 2quotd grade 0 Maggie reads to her in a stumbling manner 0 Narrator says she will marry John Thomas amp she will be free to sing church songs to herself Has a low opinion of her daughter Maggie and of herself She used to milk but messed that up by getting hooked in the side She is embarrassed of her house which is a replica of the house that burned down She thinks Dee will want to pull it down 0 Narrator reveals that Dee s attitude was intense enough to drive away friends and boyfriends Here they are 0 Dee and her boyfriend come 0 Dee distancing herself from her roots has increased 0 Dee has always wanted to be in fashion changed her name to an African name which distances herself from her home 0 Dee is the one guilty of what she indicts her family for Quilt and other items have now become fashionable She wants to decorate her residence not as her mother and Maggie do Name change shift from present tense to past 0 Rejection of her family 0 Before psychologically placed herself in a lower position than Dee now has changed her attitude She can look at Dee more objectively and look at her more critically o Boyfriend s attitude is a result of Dee s negative description of the family They share a condescending outlook of Maggie and the mother 0 At dinner Dee is thrilled with everything 0 Narrator and Maggie carry on the inheritance of items everyday Dee just wants them to be in style Visit home is not to see family but to take these objects Quilts have been promised to Maggie in her dowry 0 Dee says Maggie will not appreciate the gift and use them for backwards use 0 Maggie offers to give the quilts to her sister Mother sees Maggie s behavior as resignation of defeat 0 Mother looks at Maggie and she looks like a hanging dog she is used to being defeated She has a breakthrough here She hugs Maggie she has never done before and snatches the quilts living heritage out of Dee s hands to give them to Maggie Q Acknowledges Dee s African name and is symbolically cutting her off from the family Maggie and narrator are appreciative of their roots they are not cut off from their heritage like Dee 0 It s a new day for us but from the way you and Momma live you d never know it Death of a Salesman Are we to consider this a tragedy 0 Some critics applied classical characteristics and said the play did not follow Aristotle s definition of tragedy Protagonist should be in a superior aristocratic position king or ruler Hamlet Falls to ruin because of tragic loss He is an ordinary person so it cannot be a tragedy Since 17th century there have been many tragic heroes that are from the working class 0 Some say it can be considered though it doesn t fit the Aristotle definition 0 Ordinary man with a tragic situation in a modern society 0 Does not evoke feelings of tragedy or pity 0 Does not have largeness dignity 0 He s kind of the anti hero he can be considered a new kind of tragic protagonist for modern times Critics see this play as communist propaganda as an attack on salesmanship values of American capitalism 0 Miller was called to testify in the House of Representatives 0 Criticism of planned obsolescence goods needing to be replaced after a short period of time Everybody s gotta pull his own weight Business is business 0 Miller insisted that the play is not anti capitalism 0 Any work of art cannot be communist propaganda Charlie is not a fanatic Play is not concerned with economic or political matters Focused on the social criticism that is the American Dream Economic success and prosperity 0 Things that Willy wants 0 Willy is not concerned with the more abstract definition ideals of freedom 0 and equality Herold Clurman o the play is a challenge to the American dream and business success 0 Revision for rags to riches story Horatio Ragger wrote 130 popular books for boys all of the same premise One could overcome poverty and become rich and famous 0 Death of Salesman can be a parody of this rags to riches story Some see Willy in a situation as a result of his bad values not the values of society 0 Fault is in Willy o Willy is incompetent 0 Has to have his mistress to get him access into the bars Background 0 1949 appeared on Broadway 0 Won Pulitzer Prize 0 Used revolutionary technique for the time with a succession of episodes that move back and forth through time Stream of consciousness from James Joyce and Faulkner 0 Made much of the action of the play through stream of consciousness with O Willy s dreams and thoughts October 6 Death of a Salesman Miller influenced by one of the most important innovation of 20th century literature stream of consciousness 0 An author describing an unbroken flow of thought and awareness of the waking mind 0 Sometimes use bad grammar and language Highlights material life of Willy Another important movement expressionism was used in this play 0 Early 20th century in Germany Seen primarily in modern drama more in painting heavy reliance on distortion go beyond presenting surface reality interior life Individual s emotional and material existence used distortion and realization Two plays 5 O O O O O O O Realistic drama in present of the play Willy interacting with his boss wife children Drama taking place inside of Willy s head expressionism objectify inner experience of Willy 1 black and white film Nominated for 5 Academy Awards Best Actor Best Supporting Actor Attracted attention Miller sold rights to a filmmaker Miller was not happy with it even though it was nominated for many awards Film follows plotline of play sudden changes result in new ways of looking at the play Political pressures as a consequence of Cold War culture influenced the making of the film Political and social intentions were muted in film version Miller felt the film would not have the same strong emotional impact on audience because of the way it was directed autobiographical Various climaxes were removed flatting out effect undermined the intensity of the play The interpretation of Willy Miller was not happy with it he felt that Willy s character was portrayed as too crazy senile psychotic which is not what Miller intended He felt like the director exaggerated Willy s craziness u Important because if he is crazy his connection to society is not that important Any social commentary can be largely disregarded as ramblings of an unstable person Despite the changes which lessened the social criticism of the play even this milder version is considered to be too radical Producer s solution to conservative criticism of public was to show a 25 minute short film before the film Death of a Salesman The short film made it clear that Willy was entirely atypical and salesmanship was a great profession with many rewards Implied that Willy was a dinosaur no longer relevant Many saw Miller as dangerous 0 Changes are subtle Miller s disillusionment is a product of his disgust with a cowardly response at Columbia Pictures anticipation of criticism We should n t allow Miller s disenchantment to skew our understanding of the film Hostile political climate had some impact on the making of the film Differences in play and film 0 Film undermines subversive content of play by making Willy crazier When Willy is fired film audience interprets it differently than the play Play Willy is absorbed in a reverie hallucinations In the book Willy self absorbed comes out of the reverie after he sees his secretary In the play he is oblivious to everything going on in the subway completely immersed in reverie frightens train passengers a Seen as a belligerent person that might go mad u Unable to distinguish past from present follow stranger onto train thinking it s his brother Ben D Associates him with the occasional mental people you see on the subway Talks to himself in a threatening manner he is in his own world Emphasizes Willy s repressed anger sudden mood shifts help convey image of man on the edge ready to plunge into the abyss of total madness Film does not include important scenes in play reader is absorbed in the contemplation to be a salesman or not Film you just see him disappointed and sees him largely responsible for not accepting Ben s invitation He must blame his wife unconscious way of punishing her when she told him to refuse Ben s offer and become a salesman Not clear in the film that Ben is a father figure to Willy father image of a man with a beard also not in film child hood scenes Loss of his father shapes his behavior Feelings of abandonment feeds on his sentimental needs Lives vicariously through Bif s achievements Traveling allows symbolic leaving of the family and then returning saving the children from the loss and grief Symbolic ritual Willy always wanted his father to return to make the family whole again This background information is excluded from the film Feeling of being temporary about himself means that Willy lacks self esteem and confidence Attempts to mask it by bragging and talks of being a big success Leads him to be a flawed husband and father Willy s character is shaped by his problematic child hood and the abandonment of his father Willy and Ben D u u u u u u n In the play we do not see the suicide The film Willy becomes fearful at the thought of suicide asks Ben for courage and he encourages him to do it Thejungle is dark and full of diamonds Diamond shaped lights increase in size until he is blinded The play Ben s character is more ambiguous Ben suggests his suicide might be seen as a way to defraud the insurance company In the film it is Ben who encourages him that the insurance company will pay up In play it is the opposite Film concludes with different effect on audience than play does Bif and Linda do not speak their lines in the play The final words that the film audience hears is from Charlie s speech and defends Willy You end up with a different interpretation of Willy In the play you hear Linda s cry of grief and we re free All characters have different interpretations of Willy s death film version undermines it should be the answer Charlie s epitaph is key that unlocks Willy s life and death October 8 Death of a Salesman a Requiem of dream silences Charlie Miller uses stream of consciousness to better understand the psychology of a trou bled ind ivid ual Originally wanted to call it the Inside of His Head Includes flashbacks and imaginations of the past encapsulates stream of consciousness approximates the flow of thoughts and sensory perceptions that go through the mind at each moment Interpretation based on interpersonal acceptance and rejection theory 0 O 0 Particular importance between Willy and Bif troubled relationship has upset the family cohesion Unhappiness and undermining of self esteem Feels Willy will reject him and refuses to follow father s plans for him Believes his son could be a great success Willy s dream applies to his son and himself Conflict between Willy and Bif Love withdraw results in shame and guilt children experience inner tension and conflict Feel parent s relationship will be fraught with anxiety inferiority shame and failure they may feel fundamentally rejected and feel anger and resentment in parents We only see glimpses of Bif s childhood but it s though Willy s point of view Love withdraw had produced anger and resentment Willy s parental rejection distorts Bif s character with impaired self esteem and self destructive behavior Bif has become a drifter instead of striving to be what his father wants him to be Bif realizes senior year that his father is not a family man and husband but tries to impose false values on his son Son tries to reach out but is rejected Reconciliation is achieved when Bif tells his father he s going to ask for a loan Tension has dissipated Family becomes optimistic but it is fractured Family Systems Theory o Fathers insistence on intense psychological control over the son undermines the son s personal wellbeing and results in decreased social confidence loneliness and aggression o I can only love you if you do what I say Time 0 Includes chronological events 0 Flashbacks give us insight in the factors and people that shaped the family It was a very different family before when Bif was in high school there wasn t this tension and the sons idolized their father and father worshiped his sons esp Bif football thought he d be a great man Willy teaches them that popularity good looks and a disregard towards ethics is what is required in the business world 0 Stealing is initiative necessary for cut throat business world 0 Disrespect for women who are only sexual objects 0 Willy reveals inadequacy to his wife people don t seem to take to me they seem to laugh at me Feels inferior to Charlie and Ben C Kind of person another business man would make fun of walrus Few men are idolized by their sons like you are When Bif finds father in adultery he s so phased that he fails math leaves home doesn t want to go to college a Emotional cut off Family Systems Theory Works because conflicts are not resolved Bif returns home because it has not worked for Bif a Family has fallen on hard times company has taken away Willy s salary and put him on commission He must swallow his pride and borrow money from Charlie to pay bills All evidence suggests he will become suicidal Bif s return only stirs the pot Linda is concerned about father son tensions Bif tells brother that everything he says father reacts with twist of mockery Difficulty in communication Bif informs father that he intends to visit old boss to ask for loan only time that the conflict is superficially resolved Family becomes more harmonious and there is a newfound happiness and optimism Central Conflict O O O O O O O O 0 Key to understanding conflict is to understand Willy s problematic relationship with his own father Problems with 1951 film that in omitting some of the dialogue they distorted the play and didn t use the information about Willy s background Scare mention of Willy s mother and his lack of attachment to her leads to rejection by his parents recognized that failure of his parents to provide love and support shaped his personality to impaired self esteem and poor management of hostility and aggression His boasting is a mask for poor self esteem emotional instability Tells reader to pay close attention to all references to Willy s father points to Willy s sense of loss and own failure Wanting to be well liked results in more self esteem Willy and sons are adult children The more threatened a family feels the more the members tend to act emotionally to an undifferentiated ego mass they become enablers that produce destructive behavior illusions No one challenges Willy and his lies illusions and unrealistic plans Linda and Happy encourages him Doesn t challenge his father till the end of the play must resist pressure from the family The more the family feels stressed the more they turn to the family for support they can t view it objectively just emotionally System where members are motivated unconsciously regardless of how dysfunctional the family becomes Family systems say enmeshment do not recognize proper boundaries and are too involved in each other s lives a Biff as family hero Built on illusion lies because of differentiation Bowen failure to examine the family objectively and react rationally to problems Instead they star typical roles secrecy react emotionally Members form coalition against another family member People respond to emotion and stress by blaming another Triangles form to relieve tension but also cause problems result in secrets and conflict they are unstable allegiances constantly shifting Willy believes mother and son are ganging up on him Mistress Linda is outside of the triangle Multi generation Transition Process u Willy s unsuccessfulness leads him to bring in Ben to convince him that he s taking the right career path a Does not acknowledge or confront problems no one tells the truth Encourage evading of the truth 0 Biff realizes that his family is dysfunctional and must change or accept it Dysfunction Do not question the system that s always in place Leaves home and confronts father to face the truth that Biff is not qualified to be the business tycoon that Willy wants him to be We learned about Biff s petty crimes Can look at family and father objectively because he is separated Biff says you have the wrong dreams all wrong Happy is horrified and refuses to go out west Doomed to make the same mistakes as his father Happy will follow in Willy s footsteps and be his father s number one man that is his only goal I m going to show you and everyone else that Willy did not die in vein Biff does achieve differentiation Willy does not and neither does Linda D She doesn t understand why he committed suicide a Major factor in Willy s lack of self esteem is his rejection by his father Their low opinion and abandonment of him was justified so n he sacrifices himself for Biff Biff reveals a surprising resilience Biff will not repeat mistakes of father the play implies Rubber thing in basement Willy has become suicidal Linda feels that tension will continue and result in his losing his touch with reality a Willy has had many car accidents u Linda doesn t have the heart to confront him 0 Enmeshment people respect proper boundaries no boundaries father says to son I don t really care what your dreams are I want you to follow my plans for you if you don t I will not love you and write you off o Differentiation well adjusted individual can look at his family rationally and objectively Biff achieves finally at the end 352011 10600 AM PRO Go through poem line by line and figure out what each line means and how it fits all together Early drafts help you figure this out To His Coy Mistressquot What is the dramatic situation Who is the speaker To whom is he speaking to What is the setting 0 Title gives us a clue poem is addressed to the speaker s coy mistress o Coy mistress today has a somewhat different meaning today Today it means a woman who is involved in a sexual relationship with a man Often flirtatious o In his day mistress could simply mean a lady Coy could mean reluctant hesitant How is the poem organized 0 Into three main parts three stanzas 0 Organization of poem is rather ingenious It is organized in the way that a lot of people argue in the way a syllogism is organized Basic premise argument conclusion Basic argument is this we had all the time in the world I would love you the way you deservequot U 2 d stanza gives a qualification premise we don t have all the time in the worldquot U 3 syllogism or conclusion let s make love nowquot Line by line 0 Coyness and reluctance would not be a crime if we had all the time in the world 0 Imagining what he would do if he had all the time in the world A situation where she is walking by the Ganges river collecting rubies and gems that protect one s virginity It was a tradition a philosophy of love courtly love tradition that marveled his alluding to her indirectly U Elaborate code that eXplained how Aristocratic lovers would behave U Idealistic love highly spiritualized a platonic rather than physical love u u u a Male would idealize his beloved and put her pedestal subject to every whim she may have Developed as reaction against the way marriage was around the upper middle classes a political exchange Lover suffers great difficulty and agony because he has this tremendous love that cannot be compromised Love is exalted and worshipped almost like a god for the male speaker He says he will love her forever Use of hyperbole I would love you 10 years before the flood beginning of time began with the Biblical flood As he continues he begins to mock it we are mortal beings and our days are numbered 0 Second Stanza He suggests we don t have all the time in the world a u u u u u u u n In order to convey the point to be as graphic and convincing as possible he wants to make sure he s aware of the passing of time The Greeks believe that the sun rising and falling each day was that a god would drag the sun across the sky with his chariot he can hear the chariot Poem of persuasion he wants her to do what he says We will be dead forever deserts of vast eternity concrete image dead forever They are in some sort of secluded setting if she waits long enough and refuses him they ll both be dead Dramatic monologue of speaker but dramatic reference to decay grotesque image Passion is consuming Compares her to predatory birds of prey Speaker personifying time as a monster suggesting the two would be lovers but they are being chewed up by this monster Devour one another before we are devoured by time Strength male sweetness female Cannon ball used to batter down the gates referred to in line 44 Marvell is perhaps envisioning a castle with a besieging army attempting to break down the walls and conquer the castle loss of virginity Poem is not about seX it is about time the speaker is saying that the only way to defeat time is to participate so passionately in the moment that you aren t aware of the passing of time o Seize the day 0 Reference to Greek mythology we cannot make the sun stand still Zeus had a jealous wife because he was frequently involved in eXtra marital affairs Had such a great time sleeping with another woman that he stopped the sun XXX ee Cummings Poem is rewriting Marvell s To His Coy Mistressquot Ee Cummings is known for his violation of rules of grammar and punctuation In the tradition of carpe diem seize the day 0 Dramatic situation is similar man and woman are viewing ancient statues Tries to convince her to have seX with him before they turn into archaic ruins O Marvell emphasizing participating so passionately in the moment makes life important what Cummings suggest o The urge he suggests is the lovers the only triumph humans can have over time is constructive horizontal business 0 They will end up in the ruined aqueduct it used to lead somewhere lady will be ruined by time also if she waits too long Love Song of J Albert Prufrockquot TS Elliott Wrote is as an undergraduate dramatic monologue specific speaker in a specific setting with a specific listener 0 To His Coy Mistress is an actual speech An alterior monologue is a speech in which the speaker is talking to himself Prufrock is the antithesis of To His Coy Mistress cannot seize the day He symbolizes the spiritual decay of an entire culture He is a middle aged man respectable but timid He requires some significant action Paralyzed by own introspection Ends with futility 0 Line 92 alludes to To His Coy Mistressquot strength and sweetness in one ball They are good compliments to each other Prufrock thinks there is no purpose to his life seems to be content with his empty rationalizations without reacting Free verse form elaborate comparisons Elliott father of modernist poetry Creates his own style Many psychological inferences details 0 O O O O O The idea is that the overall mood with override the fragmented poem Essential metaphor is in the opening lines Suggests inactivity illness lethargy twilight role between light and dark life and death Catfog simile inactivity Feels insecure people are staring at him No real accomplishment Contrasts Prufrock with John the Baptist Pretentious old fool in Hamlet The Wastelandquot O O O O O 0 October 22 William Carlos Williams thought he was taking modern poetry down the wrong path Thought it was elitist poem not intended for the masses He thought it was excessively obscure Some people claim it is the greatest masterpiece in modern poetry Elliott felt compared to provide notes for the poem Disenchanted with modern life loneliness loveless seX Poem in general is religious and critical of the lack of spiritual belief in the modern world felt the world was secular He was not a devout Christian at this point Uses elements of Christianity and Buddhism Suggests the modern world has become a wasteland full of despair and lacking love Influential because is expressed profound disillusionment after World War 1 instead of using one voice Elliott developed new techniques used in movies fading from one scene to another and the collage combination of fragments to eXpress and effect You have a series of fragments of scenes that effectively eXpress the disillusionment of the poem A Streetcar Named Desire All brawn and no brains as he tries unsuccessfully to intimidate Blanche and she unsuccessfully tries too Alex Baldwin is 1990 s type of guy keeps his shirt on doesn t show off muscles and sweat At times he is softspoken and introspective Brando is aggressive loud and threatening Brando is flustered in the scene and doesn t know what to do with the papers But Baldwin isn t flustered or intimidated Plain in her appearance in the way she dresses but is also fierce trying to protect her sister from being abused by Stanley 0 1990 s color version she is much prettier and subordinate to her sister Blanche There is a sibling rivalry between the two sisters in the later version 1995 0 Characters underplay their parts 0 Later you see Stanley explode and rip the radio out of the wall and throw it out the window Brando is explosive he doesn t care that it lands on a bystander Baldwin is much less violent and much less explosive He unplugs it and discards it much less threatening Mitch is slowspeaking and oafish Conception of masculinity and gender roles of the midcentury man is more sensitive gentler versus the first play the men are full of masculinity and testosterone Women are more independent and assertive Blanch is full of pride full of beauty refined southern bell Mitch is sitting at her feet and hanging on her every word Mitch hangs onto her every word Blanch says he s like a boar in a working class but it s ok because she is desperate Two films 0 Black and white Blanch is more timid Color version she knew what she wanted to do Black and white Vivian Lee seemed more sad and in the other version Ann Margaret smiled a lot more and is more aware of what is going on Vivan Lee is regressing and reflecting on the past of being an adolescent October 29 2008 1995 Stella seems surprised by her sister s past and is not as aggressive Lacks the menace of the 1951 film Stella does not fear the Alex Baldwin Stanley Holds a light up to her face like a police investigation Rape occurs in a bright scene 0 Mitch is so distraught that he is seen weeping 1951 scene was problematic head of censor suggested that the scene be removed O O O O 1934 Joseph Green was his job to express a particular moral code he was Catholic Brutality and sexual promiscuity was forbidden Marriage is a union not sexual 1960 s this censorship was discarded All films should be suitable for family entertainment They believed in a simple moral vision the good guys always come out on top and the bad guys always lose Films must make it clear who were the good guys and bad guys This black and white distinction were not obviously in play in Streetcar Williams didn t see it as this simple There s no hero or heroine People are peoplequot Joseph Green rejected Williams code of morality and his justification of Blanche Concerned about references to homosexuality obliterated or obscured wanted rape to be completely eliminated Williams consented to the first demand but he fought for the rape scene He wrote a letter to Green Streetcar is an extremely peculiar moral play in the deepest sense of the word The rape is an integral part of the play ravage of the tender and delicate by brutalquot Green allowed it on the condition that Stanley be punished for it evil must always be punished bad guys must always be caught U Make it seem at the end of the play that Stella and child will leave Stanley we re not going back in there not this time We re never going backquot a Show what leads up to rape and then imply what happens In cracked mirror you see Vivian Lee assume that she is unconscious a You do see a brief symbolic image that s easy to miss if you re not attentive this is not in the play or in any other film version Director cuts from Stanley holding Blanche to him by the gutter as a blast of water rushes by Some of the symbolic cutting in the film seem in retrospect to be a little too obvious It was a forceful cut that would underline the rape explicitlyquot Director Rape symbolizes women are weak and can t handle crisis in reality Men are plenty tough and masculine o 1984 she fights fiercely and Stanley brutally attacks her Rape is about power Women are seen as powerful in this film Baldwin is puzzled by Blanch s actions He pauses when he picks her up waiting for her response for her to defend herself it s very ambiguous When Blanch s illusions are shattered she goes crazy at the end of the play November 3 Sylvia Plath Confessional poets group of American poets who created poetry characterized by eXplicit content matter 0 1950 s roots can be seen in English romantic poetry of Lord Byron and Shelley 0 Period of disillusionment and alienation 0 Several committed suicide SeXton and Plath or had serious depressionmental illness 0 Volume dealt with subjects that were frequently taboo matters of private life that traditionally were not suitable topics for poetry Skunk Hour Lowell confessional poet 0 Most anthologized poem 0 Product of confessional movement 0 Speaker is sick mentally unstable reminiscent of the poet himself 0 Existential alienation o Wrote poem about being dissatisfied with previous poem Distant woolfly difficult Get inspiration from The Armadilloquot by Bishop Mimics stanza structure more accessible more modern 0 His previous style was excessively compleX obscure allusions archaic language 0 Mimics Camus 0 There cannot be a god of objective observation We are only men If God didn t eXist everything would be possible starting point of eXistentialism focuses more on feelings than facts O Camus is influenced by Niche the thought of suicide is a comfort that helps people through a dreadful night For the Union Dead 0 O 0 Daddy 0 O O O O O 1863 middle of Civil War things aren t going well 54 Massachusetts regime attack on Ft Wagner resulted in death of half of regime Proved African Americans could fight as well as other white soldiers Colonel Shaw was only 25 when he died Symbolize the idealism sacrifice and social commitment that is lacking in the present Indicting contemporary society for being flawed Public historic and private Social concerns Civil War with his own private life Alludes to his own private demons alcoholism sexual guilt Red herring Nazi father and partly Jewish mother Confessional mode Knowing her life enriches the poem Her voice is highly emotional controlled hysteria as she tries to cast off her dead father and all he s associated with Rejection of society God life and all that s included in the figure of daddy All those forces which Plath saw as persecuting and dominating Stephen Crane but he did not commit suicide Plath s father died when she was 8 trauma that she has never completely recovered from Partially motivated by an attempt to unite with her dead father Psychologist tell us the importance of a father to a daughter at this age in regard to identity and selfesteem Daughter father relationship at this time will later affect her relationship to other men Plath says he was an autocrat Iadored and despised him and I probably wished many times he was dead She imagined she had killed him Anger and frustration of being under control of her mother who was very ambitious who Plath resented Plath felt he had abandoned her and felt hostile Felt oppressed by her dead father Ability to cope with the memory of her dead father and destroy the image of the oppressive father U Reveals how difficult this is to do Father embodies tyranny o Holocaust imagery class identification associates father with Nazi Death in form of suicide is only escape from personal suicide Plath s father husband all men German father land society God all things persecuting her and which she rejects U Argue that this imagery is inappropriate it is wrong to appropriate this historical event to talk about one s own private problems see it as selfpity Situation of poem is completely imagined he did not abuse her he was not a Nazi U Her strong identification with the Jews is the result of the perception of herself as being persecuted undearly U Plath tries to free herself from ghost of father that persecutes her Sees him as a fascist Not ashamed of suicide attempt call for attention when she shows her scars Dying is an art I do it especially well I do so it hurts like hell Lady Lazerus 0 Title is ironic unlike the biblical figure Plath desires death and destruction of herself O Imagery of concentration camp pervade the poem Cake gold filling gassed after giving cakes of soap for showers that were given out for wedding rings collected gold before trashing the bodies 0 Torn between desire to be a poet and the allAmerican girl When Hughs abandoned her for another woman she became very depressed and revengeful 0 She gassed herself with an oven Most tormented and powerful poems in the post WW2 period November 5 Anne Sexton Both seem perversely intrigued by their own selfdestruction Piercing highly charged and highly emotional Poetry should be a shock to the senses it should almost hurtquot The Starry Night 0 Was mentally disturbed as well 0 It was an eXpressionalistic painting attempts to convey the painter s emotional response to the scene 0 Similar to SeXton s confessionalism both want to reveal the most deep parts in their art 0 Van Gogh s painting conveys a painters ecstatic feelings about eternityquot Spiritual or religious element 0 Inspiration for light belief in eternity celebration of nature SeXton s misinterpretation appropriates his painting not to celebrate life but to celebrate death Celebrate the way that resembles Sylvia Plath or Lady Lazerus She could always escape if things got too difficult Tree represents a drown woman slipping into the hot sky this is how Iwant to die 0 Apocalyptic sky dark forces control the universe SeXton s suicide has no pride The Truth the Dead Know 0 Eulogy for her parents that died 0 Reveals the ambivalence that SeXton feels about the death of her parents Dead are in another country which she cannot go to On the other hand her parents are there they are within her She implies that she has within her the seeds of her own destruction mother s cancer father s alcoholism 0 She will forgo the usual requirements instead of going to the graveyard after the church service refusing the stiff procession of the dead in order to cultivate herself Instead she goes to Cape Cod 0 She envies the dead they no longer have to deal with the problems of life grief and coping o SeXton is weary of life and it s problems 0 Captures the ambivalent feelings of the grieving poet She seems emotionally detached Deals through isolation separation of intellectually knowing what happens with emotional response Person remains detached and does not respond with the proper emotion defense mechanism 0 Her decision to go to the beach is not callousness but the severity of her grief she cannot escape it here The landscape is infected with her loss and grief it becomes funeral in essence O alive 0 The wind is not rejuvenating Reminds her of the death of her parents Nature that should be comforting in Van Gogh s painting is anything but It only embodies her sense of loss reminds her of her mortality She seeks in sexual love a reprieve for her grief and affirmation that she s The image of the dead in stone boats prompted by the unknowability of the dead Implies what the dead are saying despite their silence 0 To understand the proper behavior is one thing and to mimic them is another Roethke 0 Has a religious or spiritual outlook in many of his poems which celebrate life 0 My Waltz Deals with a sensitive subject but with some humor Frequently misread as a nostalgic poem about a boy and his father Lightness and ease that one associates with a waltz Ironic contrast in terror because of the father s clumsy and drunken dance U Boy suffers every time the father misses a step U Drunken man does not know his own strength U Waltz too rough is indicated by the reaction of the mother with a permanent frown on her face Ambivalent in recollection of a childhood episode U A boy who loves his father who is now deceased U Could be child abuse not ill will or malice but the father in his enthusiasm is unaware how his son feels and struggles Poem with rhythm and rhyme captures paradoxical situation U Fear of boy father delighting unaware of the son B Common incongruence father s lack of awareness of his son and wife s disapproval 0 Early years had huge impact on his poetry 0 Father had 250000 acres under glass green house He was fascinated by this plant kingdom Becomes a literary storehouse for images in adult poet 0 Father and father s brother quarreled Green house was sold and father s brother committed suicide and shortly after his father died 0 Graduated from University of Michigan went to law school for a year then transferred to graduate school Suffered manic depressive disorder haunted him for the rest of his life lasted one to siX months Had profound impact on life and poetry 1953 he married a former student 0 O Died of a heartattack when he was middle aged 0 His subject is of English Romanticism he eXplores the mind sometimes it s terrifying sometimes has positive consequences 0 Imagination attempts to affirm the face of threatening reality constant tension between imagination and reality 0 The Waking A compleX French form Lines 1 and 3 are repeated systematically throughout the poem links the stanza together Structure and rhythm perfectly fit the content of the poem Paradoxes repeated both suggest the acceptance of the inevitable mortality and fluX of everyday eXistence Prompted a despaired reaction Middle of the first 5 stanzas reflects acceptance 4 stanza is the most problematical for definition feeling of affirmation reaches a transcendence state End of work poet encourages us to take the lively year he accepts the fact that he s going to die but this makes him more alive and responsive the possibility of eXistence U Final note is of celebration U Different in outlook than that of SeXton and Plath o IKnew a Woman Celebrates erotic love in ravages of the time Marvell To His Coy Mistress Deliberate exaggeration mocks literary convention of the worship of the ideal woman He uses it in the biblical sense carnal knowledge of the lady Woman s key qualities is movement becomes a metaphor for life The lady is the male s mentor or teacher There are many puns double impandras or plays on words Movement of the ancient Greek chorus dance or lovemaking or movements of someone training a horse being put through required training of master woman Relationship of two lovers is eye for eye physical love making Sensuous physicality of woman Final stanza is a celebration of erotic love only way to momentarily transcend death upon existence Other metaphors are the dance harvest metaphor movement and vitality and celebrate concrete physicality of love in contrast to it s opposite death Bishop 0 The Waiting Room Poem based on the 19 century Romantic crisis situation U Spiritual crisis by an event and ponders and then reaches a personal resolution and insight Experienced an existential crisis feels as if she is a person who is a separate individual who will live and die alone Child experiences a sense of vertigo U Becomes strange mysterious and foreign why is she her and not someone else Child overcomes vertigo and returns to everyday world While it is as it always is the emotional and spiritual world of Elizabeth is changed forever Ezra Pound o Arrested for treason for making a broadcast on Eascist radio 0 House of Bedlom Ingeniously organized in the form of a nursery rhyme Similar to The House that Jack Builtquot Has a haunting quality with rhythm and repetition Sad and paradoxical career of Ezra Pound Malicious and cruel streak in character and crackpot theories He joined forces with the Fascists and Nazis antiSemitism Nove mber 1 0 Roeth ke Traditional Hebrew hymn form is not a coincidence U Escaped death through his poet friends who testified for him He was not crazy captures fate of poet if he could have controlled his innerdemons Divided character of Pound some positive negative and neutral U Tragic busy tedious cranky and cruel D But final image is now the wretched man in the House of Bedlom surrounded by the mentally ill Epitomizes in the crazy sailor Bishop suggests the watch has stopped the time has stopped for Pound Lies that Pound publicly proclaimed in public broadcast because of them he is surrounded by the mentally ill Jew walking the plank responsibility of the death of 6 million Jews Sometimes considered a confessional poet 0 Free verse and form In a Dark Time 0 0 Most difficult Key theme that he himself stressed is about the break from the bondage of self from the varies of the real world coming as close to God as possible Attempts to go beyond naturalistic reality Which I is I No simple answer Inner I of imagination seeks dark time depths of psyche Spiritual journey follows needs his other self shadow to follow Exists in between time Extremes of heron bird and sea Surround to protect him becomes them Shadow resembles he is going to die deepening shadow and shade suggest Hades and hell Necessary to descent into darkness to achieve transcend conjuring identity from threshold Soul completes its journey Mind hinders itself Eradicates selfconscious ego heightened awareness eXternal world is finally OVEI COIIIE Mind outside and beyond itself poem turns to love Bellow seize the day Seven parts day of reckoning Past consists of series of blunders Unemployed unable to obtain money from his father Gets last 700 from his psychologist substitute father and financial and spiritual advisor EXwife is harassing him depressed confused needs love and compassion 0 Father and wife failed him 0 Harsh indictment of money obsessed society Father unable to love son who is not financially successful There is a war between pretender soul social self and his real soul 0 One becomes murderous 0 One is true to real soul and casts off pretender soul one can learn to love and seize the day All characters are products of materialistic society pretender soul Dr Adler has climbed up the economic ladder to success He is full of selflove O o Desires to spend his remaining days in peace 0 Refuses to acknowledge obligations to son 0 Provokes his father involuteness He is a difficult son for a father to love But the novel implies that the father is a coldhearted man that has no affection for son or anyone else 0 Begs for affection but rejects him brutally reflecting his hatred for soft son Psychologist o Commonist man hoping to make some easy money 0 Fast talking and eccentric characters 0 Full of good stories and insight o Attracted to him because he s a father figure who promises to save him and one person who speaks of spiritual matters 0 Obtains salvation at end of novel Wilham 0 Only character to cast his pretender soul 0 Distaste for cynicism around him 0 He accepts that society sees him as a failure constantly ponders his life 0 At times he can be a buffoon selfpity and hostility o Idealism that psychologist talks about O O Transcends selfabsorption pursues Scene in subway foreshadows epiphany Wilham has at end of novel He makes the breakthrough Having lost all his money he goes to funeral home confronts a corpse and cries uncontrollably Weeping is not out of selfpity Weeping for all of mankind death and suffering are essential to human condition feels humility and able to come over himself and selfabsorption cast off pretender soul Powerful affirmation of transcendence over purgatory of materialistic society His way of reading it 0 Rejected by eXwife best friend father some people see this as pessimistic and despairing These critics are missing some key allusions and clues in the novel of how the novel is meant to be read Two of the most important allusions are to Wilham Wright and John s poem Wright was a psychoanalyst theory of character armory 1950 s when Bellow was writing Don t think it s an accident that main character is called Wilham From Austria respected thinker for most of his life Concerned with adolescent sexuality availability of contraceptives economic independence for women Controversial figure regarded him as having gone astray Discovered a pool of energy called forgone energy pervaded atmosphere and all living matter Went on to build forgo accumulators U Patients sat inside to harvest energy D Phone booth health benefits claimed they could cure cancer Good in a lot of trouble for making these claims U He was arrested FDA tried defense was his books U Sentenced to 2 years of prison where he died of a heartattack Masochistic suffering in novel goes along with character armory D John Jay Clayton have pointed to importance of Wright s psychology Bellow quoted from Wright s psychology in early drafts Wilahm Wright in Character Analysi In certain patients we need a syndrome from armor from chest Complain about knot in chest lack of initiative inability to use hands freely Cannot rid themselves without giving up longing and cryingquot U Wilham rips off his character armor and starts crying uncontrollably Wright talked about 3 tiered character structure politeness self control and artificiality When layers are frustrated greed lust envy character armor Innertension unable to be expelled Frustration and depletion of love during childhood inability to attract father s love caused masochism Critical conflicts cause chest armory Mechanism vs Functionalism Wright says harmony with natural biology and natural environment by psychologist Based on Wright s ideas 0 Milton s Lycidas Bellow quotes without indicating the source We are told that Wilham is a college drop out B One course that meant something to him is English Tears flowers music funerals and drowning Prompted by the fact that the good friend of the poet had died at sea by drowning U Coming to terms with the death of a young man a good man U His friend has literally died he is resurrected in heaven Gives a religious justification or rationale for his friend s death Borrows the metaphor of drowning and employs it in this novel Water imagery and images of tears flowers and music are referred to in the novel U The key imagery is water that has it s source in Lycidas Borrows key metaphor of dying about spiritual progress Drowning with problems At the end he momentarily sinks but then is able to resurrect himself At the end Wilham is not drowning but spiritually reborn 0 Early drafts of novel Elaborate revision Early version was called One of These Daysquot One of the valuable things you get insight into the characters Pruning adding on to the novel U Three times it s original length and much more complex Bellow s sinful purpose can be seen in core of drafts Final scene D How does one interpret final scene U Final defeat Or spiritual salvation Difficulty with water imagery Difficulty interpreting allusions Keats Shakespeare Shelley what to make of them How to make sense of characters Faces on a playing card upside down either wayquot Public version is much more compleX because he sees the world as complicated Searching for truth that will find order in midst of chaos Topsy turvy world are full of people who are sane and insane at the same time Sophisticated point of view full of irony and successful psychologist fantasies and sensational facts how should we take his stories Jotted notes for himself on back cover Hollywood thread you arequot dreaming selfdeception roleplaying greed cynicism U Evade reality Dream factory I Film 0 See resentment and hostility towards his song 0 Psychologist is conning Wilham Interpretations 0 Fast talking psychologist fraudulent how much are we supposed to believe 0 Problem is distinguishing his wisdom from fraudulence o Bleak work you see protagonists completely defeated 0 Mystery affirmation Bellow suggesting Wilham s spiritual rebirth November 11 Early Drafts o Ere Now Ere Now 0 Mountain of Serenity One should not consider all suffering as unnecessary masochism One can only seize the day when you understand that suffering is simply a part of the human condition O Society 0 O O O O Adler O O O O O Relentless part of decay and aging Prevents one from living intensely and in the present Wilhem s problem living in the past and anxious about the future Escaping inhabitence so selfabsorbed they have no sympathy or love for anyone but themselves Bellow selected a character that s successful to the readers doctor heroic figure taken stereotype and turned it on its head Doctor embodies self centeredness and inability to sympathize Continually challenged by Wilhelm Bellow does a good job at showing how repulsive he is to the proper doctor Relationship of father and son transcends any differences He is a difficult son to embrace but Bellowis critical of Dr Adler s aloofness In Dr Alder s refusal to become involved with his son shows his self centeredness Dr Alder idol of the hotel adores residents worship like a pretty girl Wooling indignation for how madly his father loved himself These were later cancelled and aren t in the final novel Reveal the depth of hostility Lack of rugged individualism and inability to make money Dr Adler has not achieved very much spiritually His advanced age should not have to deal with his son s problems He does not have any real affection for Wilhelm He wonders if his father ever really loved him or if he created a fantasy about his boyhood Wilhelm is a stranger to his father Father s suspicion of him is boundless Soft bastard Dr Tampkin s story about his wife committing adultery Disowns him I cannot believe you are my biological son I reject you Adler He is also a stranger to his wife Tampkin s reference to marriage as an investment is revealing O 0 Love and marriage are defined as a business proposition Tampkin is not above this he is obsessed with making a killing on the market and he is desperate O 0 He is a shadowy figure Resemblance to Wilhelm that is often over looked selfglorifying lies about his Hollywood career Messy room pill taking frantic soul save himself Basic fraudulence separates them Fast talking eccentrics attracted to skeptical of his eccentrics not all what they say is true important for achieving change of consciousness Wilhelm Part of his own society defines himself in terms of success and failure He is a clown and masochist Past humiliation and defeat have badly damaged his pride made him resentful Much energy but wracked by contradictory emotions carefree to selfabasement O O O O O O O O Overweight least attractive unkempt Bellow s ability to make us identify and have sympathy for a pathetic protagonist Ability to love sense of emotions ability to eXperience things intensely he has an idealism that allows him to reject the pervasive cynicism and search for a higher truth beyond materialism Contradictory character Early draft helps eXplain compleX communication Name changing implies he lacks a firm identity Source of Wilhelm s rage and selfhatred is his need for love Death of his mother and eternal love was a personal catastrophe that he has never recovered from Wilhelm s separation from his wife is a terrible crisis in his life Experiences an emotional catharsis absorbed in selfpity He thinks he s pursing Tampkin in the funeral home hoping to confront him about the loss of his money Crying some say out of selfpity simplification and misreading He is crying for himself and all humanity because for the first time he is able to transcend his selfabsorption an undeniable bond to all mankind and the understanding of suffering Forsakes his pretender soul Forced to admit that life itself is the highest good Need for love for life in the face of death love life well because before long you must leave it comes to this realization at the end Imagery of water 0 O Reinforces key theme of work Novel ends with a powerful negation of materialistic society Character armory O O 0 Psychology plays an important role in shaping the novel In the first draft there was a specific reference to write at theory of character armory Tampkin says people believe bad things about themselves when they can t hear feel taste or see Rid themselves of character armory Patients having anXiety They need to rid themselves of character armor Wright says to liberate yourself you must rid yourself of ravering rave and perform genuine crying References to water throughout the novel key metaphor of drowning Waters of the world ruling over him Test Four 352011 10600 AM Love Medicine Short story sequence Can it be regarded as a novel or collection of stories 0 All changes and threads to tie the stories together by the time they get half way through the book it s not an unrelated set of stories but part of a larger scheme 0 Organized them towards a specific time frame 0 There is not a continuous plot with a central protagonist Story is not told in chronological order 0 Narrative point of view 0 Basic characters at different time periods over a 50 year period We don t have a consistent point of view and a continuous narrative Assumption that they can stand on their own Later Erdich put together the stories with a larger scheme in mind 0 Author gathered a section of fragments offers reader to become a corroborator with her find a coherent pattern and meaning 0 Jig saw puzzle all the parts are there but you must put it together to get the whole picture 0 Author helps the reader see the coherence of novel despite the lack of central character and plot Pervasive pattern of images Water imagery unifies novel 0 Title of stories signify importance 0 Crossing water 0 Similar to William Faulkner s As I Lay Dyingquot and Sound of Furyquot Stream of consciousness dislocation of time disruption of chronological narrative use of multiple points of view Faulkner was an important influence What is she doing with these stories 0 Tom Wolf complains that the US is affected by cultural amnesia 0 Contemporary Native Americans have an enormous loss must tell of contemporary survivors while celebrating the cores of culture in the midst of cultural annihilation Does not want to become argumentative 0 But has eXplicit opinions and values o By making us sympathize with Native Americans and making them universal she is doing more than books about protest 0 Challenges romantic notion that they are savages from another era 0 They are complex human beings that have the same problems as us but more because of their grim history 0 Any stereotyping is dehumanizing and should be avoided American Indians as first ecologist or savages limiting Celebration of survival of Native American culture and survival 0 Speaks for NA today 0 Does not explicitly state the marginality the very form of the novel produces in the reader 0 She is a historical novelists Political events influenced the way the NA live day to day which is implicit in Love Medicine Roman Catholicism Great Depression boarding schools Vietnam 0 Concentrates on several NA families over 50 years Lost land culture and religion 0 Existential Irrational must find meaning in a Godless realm or face the consequence S Death of June first story Individual influenced by forces beyond hisher control absurd Camus U Alcoholism sexual promiscuity poverty June s death 0 Arguably a suicide 0 June casts a shadow over the rest of the novel 0 Becomes a means of exploring the victim s life 0 Who killed her What killed her Responsibility and guilt are shared by many individuals embedded in an entire way of life 0 Her life haunts the text symbolic lives of many NA Sexual one night stand and death are told by 3rd person narrator Child abuse is a key theme See anger hostility fighting Next Three Stories 0 Saint Marie 1934 told by Marie great grandma in first chapter Young adolescent at 14 who wants to become a saint Sister Lee conversation tortures her Marie accepts it for sainthood she desires Sister Lee is Indian and has denied her heritage Lowly status brothers in Christ Nectar encounters Marie 0 Attempts to take her into custody for stealing ends up on top of her sexual encounter happens at this point Quite different in two versions of the novel 0 Why would Erdrich tamper with success by producing a new novel Tried to downplay the difference between the two versions They are different The revised version is substantially longer than the original version There are a number of new stories The Island The Tomahawk Factory Luck Made smaller changes throughout the novel polishes language small revisions Makes clear that sexual intercourse does not take place In 1984 the passage was quite different U Indicate that it s improper but it not a rape U Some readers viewed the scene as a rape Erdrich was surprised and discouraged at this interpretation so she revised it Next Chapter 0 Is only one that lacks a date 0 Insight into lulu s character first publication she is too much of a flirt and earth mother 0 Mother abandoned her so we sympathize Lulu has been sent to a boarding school Indian children being punished for speaking their native language She is disempowered Moses Pillager allows Lulu to reconnect with her heritage and roots The Bees 0 June s suicide is foreshadowed other children ask her to hang her Marie saved her life 0 Marie redeems suffering through love 0 Second section is added bonding with her motherinlaw Previously unsympathetic Added to provide insight into that relationship o The Island and Bees use a boat metaphor that they are in a similar situation Emphasize motherhood heritage for the new generation Chipowa words are not found in the earlier novel 0 Husband drinking in a bar car hit by a train and died 0 Hollywood Nectar only interested in 39 forced into stereotypical roles Explains how love affair began years later after marriage to Marie Nectar s accomplishments should be construed as his association with Marie without her he would only be a drunk Carries on his affair with Lulu U Nectar signs letter that kicks her off the land for factory rejects Nectar s advances Nectar decides to leave Marie for good and leaves a letter a He burns down Lulu s house by accidentquot returns to Marie not sure whether she has yet read the note The Flesh and Blood 0 Companion story to st marie 23 years since nun torments ma rie 0 Sr leopolda is still crazy and marie has taken her daughter 0 Narrator is Marie 0 Nector can t remember where he put the note and whether or not marie has seen it 0 Would like to retrieve the note before she can read it o Nectar is selfcentered and has left her a note telling her he s leaving her for lulu The Bridge omniscient narrator and Red Convertible third person 0 Both reveal the alienation of the contemporary Indian by focusing on Vietnam soldier who is psychologically disturbed by events posttraumatic stress disorder 0 He has psychotic episodes Runaway is albert Johnson they have seX Henry suffers form hallucinations and eXtrmeme anXiety attacks 0 Exploration of syndrome impact is on Henry Jr but also on his brother liman The brother cries to help him recover from traumatic war Commits suicide by jumping into a river without warning Liman is shocked and unable to save him and allows red convertible to roll into the river Liman becomes an aimless alcoholic Henry drowns and brother rolls car into river Before the war they had driven around din his red convertible but with brothers help he starts to come around 0 Death profoundly affects alcoholic eXistence of self destruction alcoholism is a huge problem on the reservation Adopted children suffered fetal alcohol syndrome Michael doris is responsible for warning labels on alcohol Louis Owens 0 Church s role is to challenge and disturb remind us who we are and where we came from 0 Jerry nanobush always in trouble with law and spends a lot of time injail is very much like this 0 Jerry is modeled after native American trickster role to challenge and disturb Remind us who we are and where we came fromjerrys name echoes not an accident from the interview Suggested by similarity in names Crown of Thorns Omniscient narrator O o Addresses alcoholism the broken chordquot by Michael Doris her husband shows devastation of alcoholism on reservation during pregnancy 0 Doris book responsible for labels on alcohol 0 Deer tells Gordy he s making a horrible mess of his life kills it hallucinates that he killed June and confesses murder to Sister Mary 0 Believes june is persecuting him and hits a deer suffering hallucinations puts deer in backseat to sell for money for alcohol Deer is not dead Believes deer eyes are june and freaks out Kills deer Junes eyes tell him hes made a horrible mess of his life Goes to sr mary to confess to wifes murder Sr mary finds deer not a woman Love Medicine 0 Lipcha Junes illegitimate son by Jerry o Alienation admits I ve never really done much with my life never owned a tvquot adopted by Marie saved from his own biological mother who wanted to tie him in a sack and toss him in the swamp o Nectar although senile still interested in lulu Old Indian medicine love medicine for Nectar to love Marie again Substitutes turkey hearts for goose hearts Nectar puts it in his mouth and Marie pats his back chokes and dies Bc geese hunt for life but unable to hunt for geese Black humor is a connective thread funny and awful at same time Resurrection o Gordies Relationship with June 0 Ties up loose ends we see gordie crying o Reveals a lot about june The is an addition to the orginal publication Tears o Narrated by Lulu 0 Earth Mother Perspective of her side for the story In the first ed Lulu comes off as a sexually promscuise woman see more reasons for her actions Lulu feels like Nectar betrayed her signing the contract that took away the land Cuts ties with him So stay on land she threatens with paternity suits Her house burns down and she blames nector Lulu moves to senior citizen home bc her eyesight is failing Nectar has not changed greedy and lustful as ever After his death marie and lulu become somewhat friends Tomahawk Factory Added after 1st ed Lyman depressed at loss of his brother and becomes an alcoholic O O Stating that moment returns froms brothers suicide becomes severelly O depressed and spends a yr overcoming suicide Cynicism that allows him to overlook obstacles when attempting SUCCESS Decides to take up where nector left offind suvineer shop Factory destroyed Luck Added after 1St ed Legal gambling on the reservation lyman saw future based on greed and luck 0 0 Future based on greed and luck 0 Lyman justifies greed by saying that NA have suffered under whites O Similar feelings of the author Lyman decides he will make a killing by legalizing gambling O Native Americans are different form other minority groups in that they Want agreements of laws made in the past upheld today versus others who want laws changed Crossing the Water 0 Conclusion not only will gambling help but jerry has escaped from prison 0 Death of June referred to june abandoned by mother abandons her own son 0 Lipsha abandoned grew up with excellent substitute mother Marie He survives because of Marie otherwise would have been neglected and abused like Marie was Interview what allows some characters to survive is explained partially by abuse that some of those characters experience Who is the quotherquot in the final passage Never explicitly named Assumption that reader will understand that refers to June Dorris points out that novel is corroborations of June s life U Refers to June s life starts and ends with her Thought disturbing that Italian translator did not bring june back into novel As a result he mistranslated the novel o Chavkins elaboration on points 0 Some characters such as june self destruct others like marie survive key why is this Erdich herself suggests explanation erdich we focus on child abuse ofjune revealed in love medicine is so severe that it determines her future mother is alcoholic such as tethering to oven to keep her from running away and mothers boyfriend rapes her 0 Reluctance marie agrees to care forjune emotional desolation revealed when june tells other children to hang heronly avoided by sudden chance intervention of mariejune complains that marie has ruined the gameshows june s despair and depression 0 Maries childhoodmother self hating Pauline decided to abort marie and was prevented and after marie is born she abandons her and joins a reservation convenet and cuts herself off from other Indians on reservation and even though part Indian identifies as white O O O O O O O O 0 Marie decides to become a st and identifies as white Emabarrassed by ind blood Sr leopolda is abusive pours boiling water on hermarie not aware that sr leopolda is her mother Lulu s mother is evicted from land severly depressed and sends lulu to govt boarding schoolpressured to assimilate Stop speaking native languageppunishedlulu lonely heartsick and misses mother Abused neglated lulu key in both exp version and 1St edissues revised and refined one original problem that characters were open to interpretationauthor wanted to humanize nat am Were presented in neg terms in litstereotypes author purpose to undermine those stereotypes but inadvertently supported stereotypesny times review described June as a leggy chippawa prostitute Generalized Chippewa woman were loose and men were drunks these reviews prompted rewrite of the book Revision was to so away with misreading and assumptions of critics Theme of rejecting assimilationism Focus on lulu just returned from boarding schoolnew story gives lulu a voice the island gives reader greater understanding of her behaviorher formative years absent form original Unifying devise in novel comparrision lulu and mother fluerworst death is death by drowning Victim becomes wreched ghost forced to wander forevernot sinking but staying afloat methaphor that the river bank has abandoned boat Maries lack of a mother leads her to reconnect with heritage The bees recounts her life and bonding with mother Marie suggests that her mothers chippawas medicine saved her life during the birth Her mother rushes bear Transforms marie in revised becomes self assured and a dynamic leader June in original appears only briefly only as a disreputable womanin revision more detailed betrayal ofjune 0 December 8 Honeymoon ofjune and gordieunion doomed acct also humanizes june Victim of childhood marriage is somewhat insectuousgordie and june elope try to make love in water and they sink water imagry later in cabin try to have sex felt like work went on and on fell asleep during act Later neither desires to have sex again Symbol of union stone caskets Cut off from heritage they are doomed Lovemaking between lulu and moses is positive Conclusion erdich revised to stop misreading of influential reviewers of stereotypesmakes story more sympatheticcrucuial role of mother hood role of child abuse Imp of resisting complete assimilations maintaining content with heritage John Updike Pigeon Feathers Story with autobiographical elements Presents religious crisis of Kern whose family moved from city to country because his mother desires it The father and Kern are not happy with the move and Kern felt alienated O Upset rearranged Kern rearranged his parents books One of the books is HG Wells Outline of Historyquot 0 O O O O O Reads a little notices a shocking passage Wells presents a political agitator hobo in the Roman Empire Jesus survived his own crucifixion by some freak accident people founded their religion on this He is shocked that such blasphemy would be allowed to exist in the human brain Why God would present such blasphemous remarks Why would he let Wells live so long and so well and let him write this David feels everything collapses in a jumble of horror What evidence can be used to counter Wells subversive Vision Prayers answered not really true support for Wells View that religious outlook is merely superstitious Everything around him contributes to his sense of loss alienation distress Experiencing the feeling of the absurd a stranger in an alien universe Camus Bodily decay that David fears grandma has Parkinson s disease Pantheism religious belief that God and the universe are identified his imminence God is embodied in the natural world 0 Too large a wound trying to heal refers to davids feeling of the soul being a belief not a guaruntee 0 Religious anxiety deaf anxiety reaches a crisis point when he is in an outhouse and he envisions himself dying page 123 Nietzsche 0 Similar to Martin Heidegger people experience angst anxietydread in the face of nothingness and nowhere 0 As the individual experiences nothingness Martin believes distractions of everyday life make it seem trivial and disappear o Nothingness then has some positive value for facing this 0 Profoundly influenced by Nietzsche Death of God in face of nihilism Doesn t provide key understanding for life and death Overcome pessimism and nihilism Religious assumptions which Nietzsche calls lies or fictions o Kierkegaard book either orquot Deeper commitment to Christianity but attacked organized religion Individual s relationship to God must be a lonely agonizing experience of solitude not organized religion 0 David experiences on an emotional level what they experienced and analyzed in their philosophies Doesn t see compensations for anxiety like Heidegger does Looks for reassurance that these things exist that when he dies he will not be dead forever Dad s conventional outlook is automatic unthinking not really felt U His constant references to death intensified David s death anxiety U Looks for a sign from Jesus and begs Christ to touch him but attempt is not conclusive Mom reveals that she is not a believer but tries to soothe her son 0 Don t you ever want to rest No not forever David tries to drown his hopelessness in bustle of everyday life 0 Achieves resolution of the problem at end of story His religious crisis is dramatically lessened 0 David is asked to shoot with his new gun from 15 h birthday Not enthusiastic about killing worthless birds but experiences callusness he too can be indifferent kill all things cruel in killing reflection of murderous universe in which he is expected to die 0 Kill or be killed his father says 0 Revelation that is foreshadowed earlier in the story when he notices the intricate beauty of his dog Kills the bird and studies it God s existence from divine must be created by God too complex too beautiful it cannot be an accident it must have a designer Existential despair ocean of horror is cast off David is now rogued in the certainty God would not choose to destroy his whole creation by letting David live forever Who s Afraid of Virginia Wolf Homosexual culture Joke Martha thinks is marvelous mad that George doesn t share her laughter 0 Type of joke academics might share 0 Who s afraid of living life without allusions 0 When George sings it at the end of play this is what George means Virginia Wolf 0 Prolific writer experimenter innovator in fiction 0 Interior monologue and stream of consciousness psychological life of character and subjective character interior life 0 Poetic quality Key traditions of 20 h century theater 0 Theater of the absurd Influence on this play Most important theatrical tradition that influenced this play Avantguard theater that assume the illogical and purposeful nature of existence Violent grotesque outrageous and funny in a dark kind of way dark humor O O O Alby O O Yolking together of dark humor and situations Existential outlook that sees the world of an absurd place where human beings are alienated death loneliness difficulty in communication Deals with themes in a way to shock the audience Alienation rather than identification Tennessee Williams people must embrace allusions to accept everyday reality U Disagrees people would be better off without allusions Theater of uncertainty Epic Theater of Berceht Alienation effect Forced audience to respond intellectually versus responding emotionally and being entertained Absorb ideas of the play Concerned about challenging us to consider the ideas of this play Who s Afraid of Virginia Wolf is sometimes hard to like Theater of Cruelty Artaud U Theater should deal with man s preoccupations in order to deal with them a Affect audience through senses not just ideas for the intellect u Experience of cruelty that underlines ever action D This play cruel things are said and done and it s sometimes difficult to watch The theater of cruelty more and more will be seen and heard of about this theater does not numb us to ideas about the intellect we feel pain we become men again and not robotsquot I don t write reassuring plays not opiates I m not interested in problems that can be resolved at the 3rd act curtain where all you re thinking about is where you parked your car Theater of the Aburd Alby s existential outlook use of black humor shock Theater of Cruelty and Epic theater not to entertain but challenge audience to reflect upon problems of cruelty pain and suffering 0 Understand pain of characters and reflect upon problems he presents Key theme is problem of reality versus allusion Sleeps with Nick 0 O Joy Flash 0 0 George kills son because she cheated and violated rules of son Death of fantasy child what is one to make of it Child represents the allusions that people need to make life bearable False allusions better off without them at odds with Tennessee Williams George and Martha have created child to not feel so alone child who can love them D No matter how comforting George and Martha would be better off without the allusion See world with all indifference and coldness without hopes a pity and consolations Yeats Cast a cold eye on life on deathquot Critic who uses theory of psychologist Eric Burney Games people playquot book Cause and effect influence cannot be assumed because came out after play Helps understand the play better Key ideas games have replaced true intimacy allowed games to distort lives For certain fortunate people there is awareness that arises over the problems of past spontaneity and true intimacy replaces gamesquot Close look at the play 0 0 Play reveals how characters try to dominate others Martha and George Honey and Nick her childlike behavior is how she manipulates Nick All guilty of bad faith or selfdeception Do not accept responsibility for decisions deceive others and themselves is acting in bad faith All suffer sexual confusion Inappropriate crossing of boundaries Both couples have secrets letting outsiders know is undermining of trust and marriage Manifests itself in Martha inviting couple over just to seduce Nick O U Not clear what we are supposed to make of this D Unconscious homosexual attraction between Nick and George D Vicarious seX between Martha links them together Nick sees this as an opportunity to advance his career Martha may try to raise her selfesteem emphasizing her contempt for George who is not powerful like her father shows Martha is on top Ancient city of Carthage Human sacrifice and internal warfare Martha appears to be more aggressive wears the pants in the family George is merely suspicious about her intentions disenchantment with late night guests U Chewing ice cubes like cocker spaniel U Don t stomp on the bit not to make mention of their secret Martha reveals the son 0 Gun 0 Then George feels he is within his rights especially after Martha slept with Nick to kill off their son George is playing a joke but like manyjokes there is an unconscious reveal of his desires He feels murderous towards his wife You see his real feelings towards her There is a lot of joking and pranks in the play which reveals unconscious motivation and feelings of the characters toward one another Film follows play quite closely O O O O 0 Most significant play is that the language of the film version is cleaned up Play is much more graphic and obscene Censorship is operating Leaving the house and goes to cafe in the play it all happens at the house director felt a need to change the scene Some lines are altered and left out o Act 2 title is reference to midevil 0 While offstage helping honey George and nick talk both men reveal secrets about past Nick married honey bc thought she was pregnant hysterical pregnancy not bc of passion or love O O O O 0 George tells story of 15 yr old boy who kills mother and then hits father with a carnot explicit but may be George George encourages nick to reveal secrets that he will use against him later Nick will sleep with Martha if it helps him promote his carreer See nicks contempt for George amd Martha Martha as a bitch in heat and George as a pathetic old grandmom George wrote a novel that marthas dad did not want him to publish About a naughty boychild that killed his mother and father Rivera the earth did not part 0 O O 0 Love Medicine Attended Junior College Transferred to Texas State Story is very short Similar to Love Medicine Book of linked stories Presents a major crisis like pigeon feathers it reveals a religious crisis Different conclusion Updike main character is able to overcome and believe in God because of argument of design Here boy witnesses much suffering rebels against Gods blasphemies God he is not swallowed up by the Earth and is surprised Earth instead is solid and harder than he ever felt it Only ask questions about certain stories Listed on calendar During lecture talked about entire book for context this is still fair game


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