LIFESPAN DEV FCD 1351
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Chapter 1419 FINAL REVIEW Chapter 14 Describe Sterbergs Triangle of Love and be able to de ne Infatuation Companionate love fatuous love and consummate love PassionIntimagyCommitment lnfatuation present absentlow absentlow Companionatelove absentlow presentpresent Fatuouslove present absentlow present Consummate love present presentpresent Discuss relationships and attachment style 0 Secure Attachment Style I Easy to get close to others happy and confident about future success of relationships 0 Avoidant Attachment Style I Hesitant about getting involved in romantic relationships tend to distance themselves I Have higher breakup rates and often feel lonely o Resistant f 39 Stvle I Become overly invested in relationship s repeated breakups with the same partner I Less trusting jealous and possessive Understand malefemale development and gender issues Women s Developmental Issues 0 Women interact with others in ways that foster the other person s emotional and social development quotrapportquot talk Men s Developmental Issues 0 Male rolestrain Men experience stress when they violate men s roles but harmed when they conform to male role expectations I On average women live 5 years longer than men men have higher rates of stressrelated disorders alcoholism etc MaleFemale relationships I Traditional male role produces expectation that men should be dominant and powerful difficult to have equal relationships I Women often complain that men do not express their feelings and thoughts MaleMale relationships I Men lack nurturing positive male role models Emphasis on competition rather than cooperation quotreport talk What makes marriage work 0 Visibly show affection and communicate minimal negativity Couple perceives themselves as quotinterdependentquot rather than quotindependentquot Social homogamy Couple has similar interests and agree on role distribution 0 Letting your partner in uenceyou Willingness to share power and respect each other s view Iohn Gottman 0 Challenges Children money developing a separate identity allocating time for spouse friends and family Discuss the transition to parenthood and factors in quality adjustment 0 Factors in Quality of Adjustment I Communication that has led to effective family planning and marital adjustment prior to birth High degree of commitment to becoming a parent Good health of the mother and a calm problemfree baby I Willingness to share responsibilities involving parenting occupation and household maintenance I Ability to work toward resolving con icts in healthy ways Explain the family Ilfe cycle in terms of the siX stages discussed in class 0 Single Young Adult I Youth moves into adulthood and eXits family of origin I Formulate personal life goals become more independent I Accept emotional and financial responsibility for self 0 New Couple Two individuals from separate families form new family system Commitment to the new system Requires a realignment with extended families and friends to include the spouse 0 Becoming Parents and Family with Children Requires accepting new members into the system Join in childrearing financial and household tasks Realignment of relationships with extended family to include parenting and grandparenting roles 0 Families with Adolescents Adolescents seek to develop their own identity and push for autonomy Increase family boundaries to include children s independence and grandparent s frailities o The Family at Midlife quotLaunchquot children adapting to midlife developmental changes Accepting a number of eXits and entries into the family system Renegotiating the marital system as a dyad Dealing with disabilities and death of parents grandparents 0 Family in Later Life Accepting the shift of generational roles Retirement and grandparenting key issues Maintaining individual and couple functioning in the face ofphysiological decline Dealing with the loss of spouse siblings and others Chapter 15 Physical Development in Middle Adulthood Understand changes in middle age from past to present Middle Age tends to start later and lasts longer begins 4045 yrs of age amp extends into the sixtiesin 1900 the avg life expectancy was only 47 yrs old avg life expectancy today is 78 Explain the physical changes Vision hearing strength joints bone loss etc Height lose one inch in height between age 3050 Weight Avg body fat is 20 in middle age vs 10 Strength Avg muscle loss is 12 per year after the age 50 joints peak function of joints occurs in 205 in middle years joint stiffness can lead to difficulty in movement Bones bone loss for women is 2x the rate of men Vision accommodation of the eye declines sharply between 40amp59 yrs of age difficulty seeing objects that are close Hearing declines in middle age especially sensitivity to high pitch tones men s hearing declines sooner than women Discuss sexual changes in middle adulthood including menopause hormonal changes in men erectile dysfunction quotmale menopause Male hormonal changes gradual decline in testosterone 1 a year Male adjustment to middle age may be more psychological in relation to declining physical abilities Erectile dysfunction inability to achieve and maintain an erection that results in satisfactory sexual performance ED can result from such factors as smoking diabetes hypertension and cholesterol Know the effects of stress on health Chronic emotional stress is associated w high blood pressure and heart disease Surge of adrenaline when stressed can cause blood to clot which is a factor in heart attacks Stress can cause us to cut back on sleep and to drink and smoke in order to cope w stress Stress can come from emotional events divorce death of spouse etc as well as daily hassles traffic noise waiting in line etc Describe Type A and B behavior patterns hardiness The Three quotC squot Type A excessively hard driven impatient and hostile associated w heart disease Hostility is a key factor for people wheart disease known as not reactors Type B relaxed and easy going Hardiness Three C s COMMITMENT vs alienation CONTROL vs powerlessness Problems are perceived as CHALLENGES rather than threats Discuss the effects of exercise and health in middle adulthood One half middle aged adults are sedentary and among those who are active only 20 exercise levels that lead to health benefits Begin exercise age 50 must overcome barriers of lack of time and energy inconvenience and possible health issues selfefficacy the belief that one can succeed is vital in adopting and maintain an exercise program Exercise lead to a sense of self efficacy Enhanced fitness feels better about one s physical self and which boost self esteem Chapter 15 Part 2 Fluid Intelligence Abstract reasoning tends to decline in middle adulthood Crystalized intelligence accumulated information and verbal skills continues to increase in middle adulthood Memor 0 Some memory decline but mostly due to not using effective memory strategies More decline in recall of information rather than recognition Seattle Longitudinal Study 0 Vocabulary ideas expressed in words 0 Verbal memory encode and recall list of words 0 N umber ability to perform simple math 0 Spatial orientation mentally rotate objects o Inductive reasoning recognize patterns use the information to solve problems 0 Perceptual Speed quickly discriminate visual stimuli reaction Expert Cognition o More skilled pro cient and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person 0 Practical Problemsolving o Intuitive novices follow formal procedures and rules experts rely more on past experience Automatic complex actions and thoughts have become routine process information more quickly and ef ciently Strategic more and better strategies especially for unexpected problems Flexible more willing to deviate from u 1 wirm39u ll tf wit to handwriting can someone verify that it is txbk Career and Work Patllwavs for Men and Women Men most men begin work in early adulthood and work until they retire Women career paths for professional women 0 Regular pursue professional training and work uninterrupted through the years 0 Interrupted career begin regular pattern but interrupt career usually for child rearing and then go back to work full time Work Issues for Men and Women 0 Recognize limitations in career progress decide whether to change jobs or careers plan for retirement Returning Students and education 0 Majority of adult learners are women 0 First year returners feel more selfconscious and inadequate than returning men or traditional age students under 25 Anxiety is due to not having practiced academic learning in a while also negative aging and gender stereotypes Due to demands outside of school middle age women take fewer hours and progress at slower pace than middle age men Role overload is most common reason for not completing education Middle Adulthood and the Search for Meaning Viktor Frankl Survivor of concentration camps during Nazi occupation of Poland Emphasizes each person s uniqueness and the niteness of life Three most distinctive human qualities are spiritually responsibly and freedom Baumeisteramp Vons Quest for meaning is understood as four main needs 0 Need for purpose goals 0 Values 0 Selfef cacy o Selfworth Chapter 16 Social and Personalitv Develonment in Middle Adulthood 1 Describe Erikson39s Generativity vs Stagnation 0 Book we making a personal contribution to family community work and society as a whole or in stagnation Generative people strive to play a role in guiding and encouraging future generations I having a lack of psychological growth in this period oflife Focusing on the triviality of their own activity people may come to feel that they have made only limited contributions to the world that their presence has counted for little Some individuals nd themselves oundering still seeking new and N W potentially more fulfilling careers Others become frustrated and bored Class Notes Adult plans for leaving a legacy for the next generation and achieve a kind ofimmorality Through generativity adults guide the next generation by parenting teaching leading and doing things that benefit the community The opposite of generativity is Explain Kotre39s Paths to generativity 0 Class Notes Biological Adults conceive and give birth Parental Nurturance and guidance of children Work Middle age adults pass skills on to a younger generation Cultural Adults create renovate or conserve some aspect of the culture that survives Discuss Levinson39s Seasons of a Man39s Life transitions times of stability and four polarities mid life crisis Class Notes Levinson conducted extensive interviews with forty middleaged men hourly workers novelist biologists executives Discovered that men also go through a number of developmental transitions that are also separated by times of relative stability 1722 yrs Early adult transition formation ofquotdream Sense of foundation 2228 yrs Establish life structure for early adulthood 2833 yrs Age 30 transition 3340 yrs Culminating the life structure for middle adulthood focus on family and career 4045 yrs Middle adult transition Most come to grips with I Being young vs being old I Being destructive vs being constructive I Being masculine vs being feminine I Being attached vs being separated from others Book MidLife Crisis A stage of uncertainty and indecision brought about by the realization that life is finite Midlife Transition is a time of questioning 4 Describe the Mills College Longitudinal Study including quotmidlife consciousnessquot 0 Class Notes Studied 132 women in college in the late 195039s Studies again in their 3039s 4039s and 5039s Rather than being in midlife crises experienced a midlife consciousness Commitment to tasks and early adulthood Career family or both helped women develop interpersonal skills become independent and work toward goals Some women became pillars of society in their forties and fifties 5 Know Costa and McCrae39s quotBig Fivequot Personality factors Class Notes 0 Emotional Stability I Calm vs Anxious Secure vs insecure o Extroversion I Sociable vs retiring funloving vs sober o Openness I Imaginative vs Practical variety over routine 0 Agreeableness I Trusting vs suspicion helpful vs uncooperative O l Conscientiousness I Organized vs disorganized careful vs careless Explain how marriage can change from young adulthood to middle adulthood and the empty nest syndrome Class Notes Some marriages that started out with dif culty I nearly adulthood turn out better adjusted over time Many earlier con icts brought about by differences in religion ethnicity family background etc have either been worked out or have resulted in breakup of the marriage Couples who survive have worked through power struggles to nally accept their relationship with all its pluses and minuses Most positive outcomes in marriage based on sharing of mutual activities When children mover back home requires adaptation on part of parents and their adult children or Disequilibrium may occur Book De nition for Empty nest Syndrome Refer to instances in which parents experience unhappiness worry loneliness and depression from their children39s departure from home Describe the different grandparenting styles and the changing roles of grandparents Class Notes Grandparenting Styles I Involved Actively engaged in and have in uence over their grandchildren39s lives I Companionate More relaxed informal and playful act as supporters and buddies to grandchildren I Remote Detached and distant showing little interest With Grandparenting Frequent contact with grandchildren predicted high levels of satisfaction with grandparenting Changing Roles 0 Number of children living with grandparents 2010 75 million 15 without permits in home 0 Divorce adolescent pregnancy and drug use are the main reasons that grandparents are back into the parenting role 0 Younger grandparents grandchildren with physical and psychological problems and low family cohesion are associated with stress Chapter 17 Physical Development in Late Adulthood Know life expectancy and life span gender and life expectancy Describe the three theories of aging as described in class 1 Cellular Clock Theory cells can divide a max number of times approx 7580 amp that as we age they become less capable of dividing 2 Free Radical Theory the cells normal metablism produces unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals These molecules can damage DNA and other cellular structures 3 Hormonal Stress theory aging of bodys hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood ofdisease Explain the subperiods of late adulthood primary and secondary aging outward and inward signs of aging Subperiods Youngold 6574 yrs of age OldOld 7584 yrs of age Oldestold over 85 yrs mostly female widowed some functioning at much much higher level than others Primary aging universal and irreversible change due to genetic programming occurs as people get older Secondary aging changes due to illness health habit but not due to increased age itself and not inevitable Outward signs of aging wrinkles age spots getting shorter hair things and turns gray Inward signs of aging decrease in living capacity digestive system is less ef cient reduced ability of heart to pump blood Discuss the aging brain and plasticity sensory development vision etc Prefrontal cortex shrinks with aging decrease in working memory brains of older adults can rewire themselves to compensate for losses plasticity Sensory Development Vision decline begins in middle adulthood becomes more pronounced night driving more difficult less tolerance for glare dark adaptation is slower Hearing decline begins in middle adulthood but usually not much ofan impediment until late adulthood SmellTaste lose some of these senses in late adulthood which can decrease the enjoyment of food Pain less sensitive to pain in late adulthood but can be a problem Describe the late adulthood sexuality including changes in sexual functioning Sexuality is lifelong unless there is disease or beliefthat older people should be asexual two major factors determine previous regular sexual activity and good physicalmental health Changes testosterone decrease in late adulthood takes longertime and more stimulation for men to get a full erection woman in late adulthood produce less natural lubrication making intercourse more difficult Know health issues in late adulthood chronic disorders and the leading causes of death As we age probability of disease or illness increases chronic disorders disorders that are slow to develop but are of long duration Arthritis is the most common leading causes of death in late adulthood heart disease or cancer or cerebrovascular disease stroke falls most common cause of accidental deaths mostly woman over 65 fracture of hip usually die of pneumonia osteoporosis loss of bone tissue esp for women estrogen calcium and weight training all help Discuss health treatment in late adulthood including quality of care 23 of adults 85 gt living in nursing homes or extended care facility quality 13 of homes are seriously de cient failing to meet standards for number of physicians pharmacists and various rehab specialist important factors in health and survival of patients are feelings of control and self determination Know the effects of exercise in late adulthood can minimize physiological changes associated with aging and contribute to health and well being can optimize body composition increasing muscle and bone mass can reduce risk of common chronic disease such as cardiovascular disease diabetes amp osteoporosis can reduce likelihood of mental health problems such as depression can increase longevity can improve brain amp cognitive functioning Explain substance abuse in late adulthood including quot late onset alcoholism sometimes known as the invisible epidemic goes undetected or attributed to other medical conditions often taking multiple medications which increase the risk especially in combination w alcohol late onset alcoholism over 65 due to loneliness Chapter 17 PART TWOcognitive Development in Late Adulthood Explain Baltes concept of cognitive mechanics and cognitive pragmatics 0 Cognitive Mechanics Baltes 0 Hardware of the mind involves speed and accuracy of processing sensory input both visual and motor 0 In uenced by heredity and health decline is likely 0 Cognitive Pragmatics 0 Based on culture analogous to software programs 0 Involves reading writing skills language comprehension Improvement is possible into old age Discuss the changes in memory during late adulthood o Episodic Memory Info about when and where of events 0 The older the memory the less accurate Semantic Memory Knowledge about the world field of expertise everyday knowledge academic and meanings of words 0 May take longer to retrieve but usually can retrieve it 0 Working Memog Allows person to manipulate info when making decisions and solving problems 0 AKA short term memory declines in late adulthood Describe noncognitive factors that affect cognition 0 Health education and socioeconomic status can in uence performance onmemory easies Be able to define wisdom in late adulthood o Wisdom Knowledge about practical aspects of life good judgment how to cope with dif cult problems Discuss the changes in attention during late adulthood o Selective Attention Ability to focus on relevant speci c aspects of experience and ignore the irrelevant o In general older adults are not as adept as young adults Divided Attention Ability to concentrate on more than one activity at a time o The more difficult the competing tasks are the less effectively they perform than younger adults 0 Sustained Attention The state of readiness to defect and respond to small changes occurring in the environment 0 Older adults tend to perform as well as middleages and younger adults Know the changes in language processing during late adulthood 0 Retrieving words from longterm memory Difficulty coming up with right words even words often used 0 Speech contains more pronouns and other nuclear references compared to younger adults 0 Speak slower and pause more often because they need time to search memory for certain words Planning what to say and how to say it more hesitation false starts word repetition and sentence fragments Reasons for changes in language processing 0 Decline in associative memory affects word retrieval 0 Decline in working memory less information can be processed at once Understand depression as it occurs in late adulthood 0 Major Depression o Mood disorder person is deeply unhappy demoralized Symptoms might include poor appetite listlessness and lack of motivation o No evidence that its more common in Late adulthood Predictors Earlier depression poor health lack of social support ad loss of spouse 0 80 of depression in late adulthood goes untreated 25 of suicides occur at age 65 and over Define dementia Alzheimer s disease as well as stages of Alzheimer s o Dementia Any Neurological disorder involving deterioration of mental functioning 0 Alzheimer39s o Involves gradual deterioration of memory reasoning language and physical functioning 0 Most common form of dementia and most serious 0 Deficiency in messenger chemical in the brain that is important to memory acetylcholine 0 Stages of Alzheimer39s Disease 0 Stage 1 Absentmindedness about recent events or newly acquired information 0 Stage 2 Generalized confusionde cits in concentration and STM I Speech seems aimless and repetivitive vocabulary more limited I Read a newpaper article and forget it the next minute 0 Stage 3 Memory loss is dangerous may forget to eat fail to dress properly 0 Stage 4 Need for full time care may be irrational and angry I Cannot communicate or recognize close loved ones 0 O Iliapter Review Social and Personalitv Development in Late Adulthood Social Theories onging o Disengagement Theory as adult39s age they slow down and gradually Withdraw from society Mutual Process Older adult disengages from society and society also disengages from the older adult Reduction of social interaction is inevitable and supposedly increases life satisfaction not supported by research 0 Active Theory the more active energetic and productive adults are the more likely they will experience life satisfaction Older adults should continue middle adulthood roles and ifthey cannot do this find substitute roles to keep them active 0 Socioemotional Selectivity Theory older adults become more selective about their social networks place a high value on emotional satisfaction spend more time with people whom they have rewarding relationships 0 Seletive Optimization with Compensation Selection reduced capacity and loss of functioning leads to reduction of performance Optimization possible to maintain performance in some areas by practice and use of new techniques Compensation when life39s tasks require a level of capacity beyond the current level of adults performance level Erik Erikson39s Integrity vs Despair Late adulthood as a time for looking back at what we have done with our lives Robert Peck o Differentiation vs Role preoccupation older adults mist redefine their worth in terms of something other than work roles 0 Body transcendence vs Body preoccupation older adults must cope with declining physical wellbeing o Ego transcendence vs Ego preoccupation older adults recognize that death is inevitable but gain comfort by realizing that they have contributed to the future through child rearing or vocation Liver Review Looking back at one39s life experiences and evaluating interpreting and reinterpreting them Individual may revise or expand their understanding of the past can also lead to guilt about old mistakes Life review may help prepare the individual for death Life Satisfaction Psychological wellbeing satisfaction with life as a whole Includes zest vs apathy and relationship between desired and achieved goals selfesteem and mood tone Income health active lifestyle and network of family and friends are associated with life satisfaction Stages of Retirement Honeymoon engage in a variety of activities traveling etc Disenchantment not what they want miss stimulation and companionship ofwork Reorientation reconsider options become more engaged in new fulfilling activities 0 Retirement routine stagequot comes to grips with retirement Termination can go back to work or if health is so bad can no longer function independently Living Arrangements in Late Adulthood Continuing care all residents are retirement age with various levels of care 0 may start out in separate residence house apartment and as they age move into assisted living individual housing with medical providers Adult DayCare receive care only during the day but nights and weekends they are at home Skilled Nursing Facilities full time nursing care some residents are chronically ill and some with temporary conditions Ageismprejudice towards others due to age Often seems as incapable of thinking clearly learning new things enjoying sex contributing to community or holding responsible jobs Most frequent form is that of disrespect and assumptions of frailty Double leopardyquot ethnic minority groups might suffer from both ageism and racism Chapter 19 Death and Dying Denial of death in the US o The tendency for the funeral industry to gloss over death and portray lifelike qualities in the dead 0 Use of euphemistic language for the death exiting passing onetc Search for the fountain of youth Rejection and isolation ofthe aged who may remind us of death 0 Medical community emphasize on the prolonging biological life Living Will A document that ensures the right of individuals to chose whether heroic measures should be used to sustain their lives Durable Power ofAttorney Specifies a legal designates lawyer doctor relative or friend who can make healthcare decisions if one is incapacitated Euthanasia Active Death is induced deliberately as by injection ofa legal dose of drugs purposely actively doing something to die Passive A person is allowed to die by withholding an available treatment such as life sustaining therapeutic devices respirator by taking out the device that is keeping them alive Death in Sociohistorical Context Increased complexity of determining when someone is truly dead Brain Death all electrical activity has ceased for a specified period of time NOTE the cortical definition of death is not legal definition anywhere in the US Kubler Ross Stages of Dying Stage 1 Denial amp Isolation Person denies that death is going to take place Stage 2 Anger Denial gives way to anger and resentment Stage 3 Bargaining Hope that somehow death can be postponed Stage 4 Depression Person comes to accept reality of death and a period of preparatory grief or depression occurs Stage 5 Acceptance Person develops a sense ofpeace and acceptance of hisher fate Grieving Process loss of someone else Grief Emotional numbness disbelief separation anxiety despair sadness and loneliness Grief Stages Shock last for the first few days after death sudden shocking death Despair Painful longing for dead person memories and Visual images ofthe deceased as well as sadness and insomnia seeing someone down the street and you swear you saw the dead person you once knew 0 May subside after several months Can persist for 1 or 2 years Recovery Resumption of ordinary activities greater probability of recalling pleasant memories Grieving Process Complicated Mourning 6 months after loss 10 20 have difficulty moving on and believe that life is empty without deceased Relationship Factors May have excessive amounts of anger and guilt grieve for what they never in their relationship Circumstantial Factors I Loss of uncertain example Missing In Action situation I Multiple losses may close down the mourning process Historical Factors Past losses have impact on current one Personality Factors Low tolerance for extreme emotions andor self concept as strong onequot not allowed to experience feelings Social Factors Socially unspeakable suicide from example tendency to keep quiet Other examples drug overdose hard to speak about 0 Absence of social support those who knew deceased and can give each other support Care for Terminally 111 Home Care Stay home and receive caretreatment from family and Visiting medical staff can be hospice care 0 Can be difficult on family members physically and emotionally draining Hospice Care Institution devotes to terminally ill provides warm supportive environment 0 Not about extending lives but making final days pleasant and meaningful Communicating with a Dying Person 0 Be at eye level and don39t be afraid to touch 0 If dying person wants to deny reality of death don39t insist heshe accept it If dying person indicates acceptance of death don39t insist on denial Allow the dying person to express feelings including guilt and anger Encourage the dying indiVidual to reminisce especially if you have memories in common Don39t be afraid to express your love and don39t be afraid to say goodbye