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by: Rae Hartmann


Rae Hartmann
Texas State
GPA 3.9


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About this Document

Class Notes
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Popular in Child and Family Studies

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rae Hartmann on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FCD 3355 at Texas State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/212917/fcd-3355-texas-state-university in Child and Family Studies at Texas State University.




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Date Created: 09/23/15
Defing Fam39ly US census A group of two or more persons related by blood marriage or adoption and residing together in a household Any sexually expressive or parent child or other kin relationship in which people usually related by ancestry marriage or adoption 0 Form an economic unit and care for any young 0 Consider their identity to be significantly attached to the group and commit to maintaining that group over time 0 Fewer people are currently married More are postponing marriage 0 1970 median age for women 208 I Median age for men 235 o 2009 median age for women 259 I Median age for men 281 o Cohabitation as a new family form 0 19902000 72 increase in unmarried couple households 0 50 of first marriages preceded by cohabitation 0 Some cohabitating couples are in gay or lesbian partnerships o 2008 census 565000 same seX couple households 0 A large number ofpeople living alone 264 of households Many adult children live with parents 0 1825 years 56 of males and 46 of females 0 More homes are multigenerational o 9 of children live in home containing a grandparent onefourth of these are grandparents with sole responsibility 0 Parenthood is being postponed and fertility has declined o 36 children per woman in 1957 o 17 children per woman in 1976 0 Last 15 years fertility rate at 20 o More women reaching forties without becoming a mother 0 Nonmarital birth rate is increasing 0 38 of all births in 2010 double that of 1980 o The divorce rate remains stable but high 0 Between 40 amp 50 of recent first marriages o The population is aging o Smaller families and higher divorce less adult children to take care of elderly 0 Higher proportion of men over 65 are married 0 71 than women 41 O O Three societal Trends Impacting Families 0 New communication and reproductive technologies 0 Changed in the racial and ethnic composition of the US 0 Economic uncertainty Choos1ng by default 0 One is not aware of alternatives or takes path ofleast resistance Choosing knowledgeable o Recognize as many options as possible 0 Recognize social pressures 0 Consider consequences 0 Know your values 0 Clarifying values 0 Recheck decisions Family as ace to beong o A setting for developing identity and self concept 0 Rituals are im u ortant in creating family identity o Familisitic communal emphasis on needs and goals of the group 0 Individualistic selffulfillment emphasis on personal happiness distinct individual identity Fam1 y ec 1ne perspectlve 0 Excessive indulgence has resulted in individualism that is less child centered 0 Divorce and unmarried parenting undermine responsible parenthood Family Change Perspective 0 Excessive indulgence has resulted in individualism that is less child centered 0 Divorce and unmarried parenting undermine responsible parenthood Family Change Perspective 0 Marriages is in a constant state of evolution 0 Families are better off than in the past fewer families broken up due to poverty and disease Stuying the amiy gt Scientific study a logical system that bases knowledge on systematic observation Institutional review board experts and community representatives Informed consent right to withdraw Confidentiality Sharing information with participants OOOO Can be done facetoface telephone questionnaires Questions can be openended or closed Can gather a large amount of data Uniformity of data Subjects may say what you want to hear may answer differently based on sex age race People forget or misinterpret the past um 0 Subjects randomly assigned to experimental and control groups 0 Experimental group receives treatment 0 Control group receives no treatment or different treatments 0 Can observe behavior directly 0 More quotcontrolquot over what occurs in study 0 Behavior may occur in an artificial situation kl J i it Researcher lives w1th a fam11y and spends time carefully recording activities conversations etc o Attempts to discern family relationships and communication patterns NWL A v O r 0 New family in its own natural setting 0 Findings can be highly subjective 0 Time consuming typically can observe few families Written summary and analysis of data obtained by psychologist psychiatrists counselors and social workers Vivid detail based on quotreallife experiences Subject to the personal biases n the clinician People in counseling may differ from those who no not attend counseling 0 Study of the sme individuals or groups over an extended period 0 Can study relationship between earlier and later behavior 0 Costly and time consuming 0 Subjects drop out 0 Practice effects o The fam11y1s affected by economic religious cultural and educational institution F 9 l 0 Natural phys1cal biological environment climate soil animals and plants 0 Human built environment nature altered by human actions eg agriculture or industry 0 Social cultural environment cultural values laws economics independent residence become part of kinship 0 Marriage establish an network 0 Families of preschoolers Adapt to new routines schedules and roles 0 Families of primary school children encourage school achievement help children learn responsibility 0 Families with adolescents adapt to adolescents need to individuate from family system 0 Families in middle years quotLaunching children focus on releasing children into work service college etc 0 Aging families adjust to retirement health death of a spouse 0 Family as an institution performs certain functions for society Family structure 0 Form of the family varies according to society EX traditional extended vs modern nuclear family Family functions 0 Raise children responsibly feed clothe shelter and properly train new members 0 Provide economic support earn a living pool resources 0 Give emotional security affection companionship intimacy o Emphasis on internal family dynamics Sense of selfis developed in family 0 Selfconcept basic feeling about oneself one s abilities and selfworth o Identitysense of uniqueness and inner sameness Importance ofmeaning o What a given activity or statement means symbolically Roletaking o How children learn to behave in certain roles behavior and attitudes become internalized 0 People use their resources income attractiveness etc to bargain and secure advantage in a relationship 0 Exchange of quotrewards and costs shares power in uence and commitment to relationship 0 Marriage tends to take place between people of equal social status 0 Relationships based on equal or equitable exchanges thrives o Principle ofleast interest person with less commitment has more power 0 System is a combination of elements that are interrelated and organized as a whole 0 Whole is more than the sum of the parts 0 Systems tend toward equilibrium 0 For change to occur whole family must change 0 quotfamily boundaries who is in and who is not in the family based on rules amp roles 0 quotBoundary ambiguity when boundaries are not clear eg in some stepfamilies 0 Relationships are reciprocal not one way l vll JHilllV fl ll lquot lquot quot Con ict perspective 0 Calls attention to power and the unequal distribution ofpower in families 0 Power within comes from outside the family 0 Con ict theorists look at politics and economics oflarger society Feminist Perspective 0 Gender inequality and patriarchy are major issues Also known as sociobiology or evolutionary psychology Anatomy genetics and hormones affect much ofhuman behavior Behavior evolved in ways to enable survival and continuation of the species Evolutionary heritage successful behavior patterns are encoded in our genes Inclusive fitness protective behavior based on importance of survival of one s genes 0 Gender differences based on hereditary biology 00000 The family in social conteXt Historical perspective Depression couples delayed marriage had fewer children World war II 0 Women went to work at defense plants children in daycare o Postwar family and quotbaby boom 0 Married young and had more children men earned a quotfamily wagequot and moms could stay home 0 quotBaby boomers born between 19461964 and cultural and sexual revolution of 60s Today 0 Men less likely to make quotfamily wage 0 Increase in number ofwives seeking employment childcare In reased longevity 1900 avg life span 47 years child born in 2006 expected to live 78 years Men and women over 65 more likely to live with spouses More likely older individuals live independently due to improved economics and health Pros and Cons Pros Longer marriages longer retirement longer relationships with grandparents Cons More elderly with less young to take care of them economic impact more people on SS and Medicare 0 O O 0 Economy and social class Life chances family economics affects o Opportunity for education and work 0 Schools children attend healthcare 0 Access to technology Class Differences 0 Working class emphasis on traditional gender roles stress obedience and conformity as parents 0 Middle class emphasis on selfdirection and initiative in childrearing Race and Ethnicity Race 0 Implies a biologically distinct group but socalled races do not differ significantly in terms ofbasic biological makeup Ethnicity o Refers to cultural distinctions based on language religion food and history 0 Important to look at diversity within racial ethnic groups Ex Caribbean and African blacks AfricanAmerican Families 0 Higher proportions of black children live in poverty compared to general population 0 71 of births are to unmarried women 0 Marriage is valued but the number if eligible men is low due to incarceration and high mortality rate 0 Families are childfocused single parent families are embedded in extended families friendships and church 0 Rolesharing men and women share responsibilities LatinoAmerican Family 0 More likely economically disadvantaged than white families 0 Educational issues Language difficulties low educational levels of parents pressure to help out at home 623 of Latinos graduate from high school 0 Tend to marry young birth rates highest of any ethnicity 0 Two parent families most common 0 Cultural and economic factors lead to importance of extended families 0 Changing gender roles Latino wives typically enter workforce increasing their autonomy and independence AsianAmerican Families 0 Educational attainment Highest proportion of college grads 0 Highest family income 0 quotModel minority May lead to children who feel they cannot live up to high expectations 0 85 of children live in married couple families 0 Teen birth rate and infant mortality lower than nonHispanic whites 0 High rates of intermarriage less residential segregation o More cohesive less individualistic than white families extended family is emphasized o Worry about children becoming quotAmericanizedquot losing priority of family Native Americans 0 Diversity 500 recognized tribes 0 19th century many tribes removed from lands to reservations children taken to boarding schools 0 one third of native Americans live on reservations city dwellers return for ceremonials occasions and refuge 0 High rates of teen suicide school violence teen pregnancy and drug and alcohol abuse 0 The Indian child welfare act of 1978 gave tribes responsibility for tribal children favors placing them in tribal homes 0 Poorest racialethnic group However 13 of families have incomes of 50000 or more 0 Great respect for elders as mentors and leaders Millers Typology ofUrban Native American Families 0 Traditional retain ways within urban in uence 0 Bicultureblend of native beliefs and the adaptation needed to live in urban setting 0 Transitional lost native American culture and becoming assimilated to white working class 0 Marginal alienated from both American Indian culture and mainstream culture Arab American Families 0 Arab American population is slightly over 15 million 0 Arab terrorist attacks on 911 families and individuals have been subject to harassment intimidation and physical attacks Religion is very important 65 of Arab Americans are Christian 0 Arab American families are made up of parents children and extended relatives 0 Collective achievements of family are a source ofpride and identity 0 Once in US may bring relatives over for long periods of time 0 White Families 0 EuroAmericans largely of European descent 66 of the population 0 Higher incomes but Asian and lower poverty rates 0 More likely to be headed by a married couple less likely to include family members beyond nuclear family 0 Less caregiving of aging family members less reliance on family members as child care providers 0 Lower fertility rates less likely than Hispanic or Black families to have a child under 18 o EuroAmericans have been so assimilated that European ethnic identities are quotvoluntaryquot and quotsymbolicquot 0 White is not always synonymous with middleclass Multicultural Families 0 7 ofhouseholds are multicultural 0 survey reports that families accepting as a whole 0 African American white couples have more difficulty in marriage than Asianwhite or Latinowhite couples 0 Believe that their children are more advantaged than disadvantaged Religion 0 Religion offers rituals for birth coming of age marriage and death 0 Religious affiliation provides families with a sense of community support and values that give meaning 0 Young people who have not been actively religious tend to become so as they marry and have children 0 Any nonmainstream religion has the burden of raising children in a society that does not support their faith 0 Interfaith marriages prove a challenge eg holidays and how to celebrate Gender and the Family 0 SeX biological aspect ofbeing male or female 0 Gender role social attitudes and expectations 0 Gender identity degree to which one identifies with being male or female 0 Transgender A person who has adopted a gender identity that differs from seXgender as recorded at birth Gender and Cultural Messages 0 Traditional Sexism women should be confined to the family and are not fit for leadership roles 0 Modern seXism denies in uence of discrimination and resents complaints about discrimination 0 Traditional stereotypes masculine instrumental confident assertive ambitious o Feminine expressive warm sensitive places concern for others above self interest Masculinities 0 Men must prove being a man and distance themselves from women 0 Occupational financial success or at least able to support a family 0 Expected to be confident and selfreliant Femininities 0 Offer emotional support 0 Attractive not too competitive 0 Good listener and helpmate to her man Professional woman 0 Independent ambitious selfconfident combined with traditional image quotsup erwoman New EXpectation quotSatisfiedsingle Gender Similarities and gender Differences gt Gender similarity 0 Review of46 metaanalysis covering cognitive traits and abilities vernal and nonverbal communication social and personality variables gt Gender Differences 0 Motor performance throwing distance and speed 0 Sexuality especially males greater incidence of masturbation and casual sex 0 Physical aggression Gender Inequality 0 Politics members of congress 19 are women 0 Religion men more often have positions of authority 0 Heath men s life expectancy 75 years women 80 years Education 0 72 of girls graduate high school vs 65 ofboys o 2003 women earned 57 of bachelors degrees 0 women as faculty less likely to be tenured Economy 0 Women make 80 ofwhat men make 0 16 of fortune 500 corporate officers are women Gender and Theories of Socialization gt social learning theory 0 Children learn gender roles by observing and imitating models 0 Children are rewarded and punished based on whether or not behavior is considered gender appropriate gt Selfidentification Theory 0 First comes the child s awareness ofbeing a boy or girl 0 Identify behaviors that are appropriate to their gender in effect socializing themselves gt Gender Schema Theory 0 Children develop a framework about what boys and girls do and interpret new information through the schema 0 Once a child develops the schema it in uences how heshe processes new information Ex a boy s schema might generalize that physicians are male even though he has visited female doctors Settings for Socialization Family 0 Babiestoddler rooms 0 Girlsdolls color pink 0 Boys sports equipment vehicles blue red and white colors 0 Fathers more than mothers enforce gender stereotypes especially for sons 0 Exploratory behavior is encouraged more in boys 0 Girls more likely to cook and do laundry boys paint and mow o AfricanAmerican girls are raised to be more independent boys and girls socialized for employment and childcare Settings for Socialization schools 0 Teachers pay more attention to boys vs girls 0 Teachers call on and encourage boys more often 0 Boys more likely to receive attention can call out in class 0 Boys more likely to be disciplined harshly 0 Girls tend to make better grades have higher educational aspirations and more girls are in AP classes 0 Girls outnumber boys in higher level math and science courses 0 Boys more likely to fall behind grade level be suspended put into special ed have their behavior defined as deviant and medicated Sex and the City gt Sexual Development and Orientation 0 Sexual development young children often exhibit overtly sexual behaviors including touching themselves or playing quotdoctorquot gt Sexual Orientation o Heterosexual attracted to the opposite sex Homosexual attracted to the same sex Bisexual attracted to both sexex Orientation does not predict sexual behavior Sexual orientation is on a continuum not all or none 3900 O I Homosexual Identity May feel different in childhood quotComing out identifying oneself as gay to the public Theoretical Perspectives on Human Sexuality gt o o o gt o o Interpersonal Exchange model of sexual Satisfaction exchange theory Satisfaction depends on costs and rewards ofsexual relationship Comparison level ie what the person expects Comparison level for alternatives what other options available Interactionist Perspective Interpersonal negotiation of relationships in context of sexual scripts Sexual scripts where when how often with whom and why we have sex based on cultural learning Changing cultural scripts gt V Early America quotPatriarchal Sexuality designed to protect male line of descent Men control women s sexuality monogamous marriage ensures that her children are his Women are sexually passive Twentieth Century quotExpressive sexuality 1960s sexual revolution birth control pill became widely available Twentyfirst century quotRisk caution and intimacy 0 First generation to come of age after AIDS epidemic


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