Introduction to Music
Introduction to Music MUS 1030
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rogelio Reichert DDS on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MUS 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Thomas Price in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/212922/mus-1030-middle-tennessee-state-university in Music at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapters 20 21 The Middle Ages ampRenaissance STUDY GUIDE TEST 5 The dates are 10 points each Middle Ages 450 1450 Other dates are listed for the beginning of the Middle Ages 476 500 Renaissance 1450 1600 450 80 P hagoras String Ratios mathematics of music divine ratios Greek Heritagemeasurements ofthe length of string per pitch interval and worked out the mathematics of STRING RATIO died 500 BC 500 AD Boethius De institutionemusica Boethius translated numerous Greek documents on a variety of subjects These served as the bridge between the music of ancient Greece to the European world At the time his book was the primam source for Music Theom From 590 604 AD Gregory the Great served in the position as pope He is generally given the credit for ordering the simplification and cataloging of music assigned to specific celebrations of the church calendar Hildegard of Bingen One of the best known female composers ofsacred music in the medieval period Her best know musical works are a collection of sacred songs Symphonia and the musical play Ordovin utum Play of Virtues the earliest complete morality play from the medieval period The Mass The most solemn service of the medieval Christian church The commemoration and symbolic reenactment ofthe Last Supper of Jesus The Mass Ordinagg the parts ofthe Mass that are the same from day to day The Mass Proper the parts of the Mass that very depending on the day ofthe year The earliest polyphonic works were called organa They had unmeasured rhythm with 2 melodies moving at the same time The voice partsassumed rhythmic independence Mensural Notation A new type of notation developed in which the relative time values of notes were indicated with precision measured Guillaume de Machaut One ofthe most important composers of the 14th centuryHe took holy orders but never became a priestHe was employed as a scribe and private secretary by several aristocratsHe wrote the earliest polyphonic setting ofthe Ordinary of the Mass Mess de Nostre Dame The Middle Ages witnessed the growth of a rich tradition of nonreligious secular musicSecular texts were written in the vernacular everyday languages oftheir country of origin The most important early secular music was written by poetmusicians called troubadoursin southern France trouveres in northern France and minnesingers in Germany These were often members ofthe nobility who performed for family and friends not in public Lower class musicians who performed in public traveling street performers were called minstrels or iongleurs French for juggler Beatriz of Dia A troubadour in the late 12th century She was a countess married to Guillem of Poitiers As a noble woman she was well educated She could read and write both words and music Most of her songs exist only as poems Most ofthe musical notation of her songs has been lost Only 1 of her songs with melody has survived A Chantarlt Is Mine To Sing The Motet French for WORD is an added 2nd independent line of music to the chant of organaOften this second line was sung in the vernacularMost were a combination of sacred and secular texts with the original Latin text sung in the lower voice part By the 14th century they had become longer and more elaborate in its melodic and rhythmic structure The Black Plague 1347 1352 bubonic plague marked a dark era in the Middle Ages wiping out 13 of Europe s population By the end of the Middle Ages the power of the church began to decline Literature such as Chaucer s Canterbury Tales stressed graphic realism rather than virtue and heavenly rewards Renaissance Sacred Music The Renaissance began in what is today known as northern France Holland amp Belgium The composers of this quotnorthern stylequot were sometimes referred to as quotFranco Flemishquot and often wrote music for 4 separate voices Many Masses and motets were still composed with chant melodies as one of the voices but composers did not keeg the chant in the bass They composed new bass lines and placed the chant in a voice above it They sometimes even abandoned chant melodies altogether creating completely new compositions This music is performed a caggella or without instrumental accompaniment The polyphonic style of this music emphasized the true independence of the 4 voices in the work Imitation presenting a melody in 1 voice then repeating it in another was common During the Renaissance the invention of printing widened the circulation of music the of composers amp performers increased Gutenberg Bible 1456 the invention ofthe printing press and printing of Mazarin Bibles Later 1500 the Italian OttavianoPetruchi began to publish books of printed music a slow process as that 3 prints 1 Staves 2Notes and rest 3 Words had to be made The church remained and important patron of music but musical activity gradually shifted to the courts Kings princes and dukes competed for the finest composers A single court might have ten to 60 musicians including singers as well as instrumentalists A court director would compose secular pieces to entertain the nobility ampsacred works for the court chapel The nobility often brought their musicians along when traveling from one castle to another Renaissance town musician played for civic processions weddings amp religious services In general musicians enjoyed higher status amp pay than ever before Composers were no longer content to remain unknown like other artists they sought credit for their work In the Renaissance as in the Middle Ages vocal music was more important than instrumental music During the Renaissance the humanistic interest in language influenced vocal music in a new way amp an especially close relationship was created between words amp music Renaissance composers wrote music to enhance the meaning amp emotion of the text When 1 ofthe words expresses weeping pain heartbreak sighs tears amp other similar things let the harmony be full of sadness wroteGioseffoZarlino a music theorist ofthe 16th century contrast to Medieval Josguin des Prez One of the most in uential composers of the RenaissanceHe composed the Renaissance motet quotAve MariaquotHis style was copied by many other composers He composed music amp taught students The School of Notre Dame while making his primary living as a singer His name was so well known that some composers put HIS name on THEIR works to sell themHe wrote many Masses motets amp a considerable amount of secular music His compositionAve Maria contains changes from polyphonic to homophonic texture amp changes from triple to duple meter When meter changes from duple to triple meter the pulse stays the same Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was one of the other s most distinguished successorsHe returned church music to the simplicity amp purity of earlier times1 5621563 hisPope Marcellus Mass his most famous mass was long thought to have convinced the Council of Trent that polyphonic masses should be kept in Catholic worship While we now know that this work did not play that role it does re ect the council s desire for a clear projection of the sacred text The CounterReformation A reaction by the Catholic Church to the spread of Protestantism The council investigated every aspect of religious discipline including church music Madrigal the principal form of secular music in England Motet A motet is a polyphonic work with four or ve voice parts singing one religious text They are similarto madrigals but with an important difference motets are religious works while madrigals are usually love songs Mass A musical mass is like a motet only longer It also follows the religious service ofthe Catholic Church and is sung in a very specific order Kyrie Gloria Credo Sanctus Benedictus and Agnus Dei It is performed in Latin Word painting Melody written to represent the literal meaning of the text was used in 16th century madrigals Claudio Monteverdi published 8 books of madrigals An active composer ofthe Renaissance who changed his style to that of the next period the Baroque in 1600 ChansonsFrance had strong accented rhythms frequent repetitions and short phrases ending simultaneously in all parts They were usually sung by 3 5 voices with polyphonic and homophonic sections alternating The Lied in Germany Mil means song in German The lied dates from the mid 15th century The early Lieder were heavily influenced by the Netherlands polyphonic style They later provided the Lutheran church with many melodies for Chorale tunes sacred songs Renaissance Instrumental Music In the Renaissance instruments were used in the church social occasions theatrical productions and in private homes During the Renaissance some music was written specifically for instruments most of it was dance music an important part of Renaissance social life 700900 AD For centuries western music was basically monophonic having a single melodic line But sometime between 700 and 900 the rst steps were taken in a revolution that eventually transformed western music Monks in monastery choirs began to add a second melodic line to Gregorian chant In the beginning this second line was improvised not written down it duplicated the chant melody at a different pitch The two lines were in parallel motion note against note at the interval of a fourth or a m 9004200 AD Medieval music that consists of Gregorian chant and one or more additional melodic lines is called organum Between 900 and 1200 AD organum became truly polyphonic and the melody added to the chant became more independent Instead of moving strictly parallel to the chant it developed a melodic curve of its own 1300s Secular music became more important than sacred music in this century Composers wrote polyphonic music that was not based on Gregorian chant including drinking songs amp pieces in which birdcalls barking dogs amp shouting hunters were imitated By the early 14th century a new system of music notation had evolved amp a composer could specify almost any rh hmic pattern Now beats could be subdivided into m as well as three Syncopationrarely used earlierbecame an important rhythmic practice Changes in musical style in the 14th century were so profound that music theorists referred to French amp Italian music as the new art ars nova Latin Modern listeners sometimes find medieval polyphony hoow amp thin because it has relatively fewtriads which in later periods became the basic consonant chords It contains two intervals of a third medieval music theorists considered the interval a dissonance But as the Middle Ages advanced they were used more often amp polyphonic music gradually became fuller amp richer by our standards The texture of Renaissance music is chie y polyphonic A typical choral piece has 45 or 6 voice parts of nearly equal melodic interest Imitation among the voices is common each presents the same melodic idea in turn as in a round Homophonic texture with successions of chords is also used especially in light music like dances The texture may vary with in a piece to provide contrast amp bring out aspects of the text as it develops The listening name that tune is 10 points each 1 Estampie PIPELINE 2 Notre Dame Mass Agnus Dei MachauthttpwwwyoutubecomwatchvbHRAngdxew 3 Fair Phyllis John Farmer PIPELINE 4 Pope Marcellus Mass Kyrie PaestrinahttpwwwyoutubecomwatchvitKeTpK83lY Extra credit 5 scales major minor pentatonic major pentatonic minor blues 5 meters Simple duple triple quadruple Compound duple triple quadruple TEST 1 STUDY GUIDE Part 1 Timbre is determined by the tone color of the instrument N The element of music that is determined by the frequency cycles per second of its Vibration is called Hitch E The distance between two pitches is aan interval 4 A regular recurrent pulsation in music is called abeat V39 The organization of beats into regular groups is meter 6 Largo Broad slow 7 Allegro Cheerful somewhat fast 9 Presto Very quick 9 Adagio Leisurely at ease O The rate or speed of the beat is called tempo Short sections ofmelodies are called phrases N A resting point for a melody is called a cadence LA A group of notes that are played or sung together is called a chord 4 A series of chords is called aan progression UI Pitch is determined by the frequency of its Vibration the faster the Vibration the higher the pitch ON A musical staff generally has Five horizontal lines l Accenting notes between the beats creates an effect called smcogation 00 Melody that ows smoothly is played or sung Legato O Fortissimo Very loud 20 Forte Loud 21 Piano Soft 22 A theme is a melody that may serve as a sta1ting point for an extended work 23 A combination of notes that is considered unstable and tense is called a dissonance 24 A threenote chord is called a triad TBlll N UI N O N l N 00 N 0 LA 0 LA L N LA LA LA 4 LA L O N L 4 ON 1 00 0 O 5 The first note of any scale is called the tonic and is very stable Meter is the organization of beats into regular groups In music the term resolution generally refers to a dissonant chord movhg to a consonant chord The triad built on the first step of a scale is called the m A chord that is broken up and played one note at a time is called an arpegg39o Freedom to move ahead or fall behind the tempo of a piece is called rub ato Mezzo forte means medium loud Mezzo piano Medium soft Crescendo means to become gradually louder Rh hm is the ordered ow of music though time Melody is a series of notes that add up to a recognizable whole Harmony is the vertical aspect of music Part 2 Monophony One melodic line with no accompaniment Polyphony Two or more melodies of equal interest Homophony A single predominant line of music with accompaniment The term key refers to the tonal center of a given composition The Minor scale has a number of lowered notes that give it a sadder sound when compared with the major scale Texture in music describes the interweaving of its vertical and horizontal aspects Temagy form describes threepart music Binary form can incorporate any of these formations AB AABB AAB or ABB The interval that occurs between a white key on the piano and an adjacent black key is a half sten To lower a note by ahalf step place am sign in front ofthe note The only Western scale that is not used as a basis for a particular key because it lacks a home base is the chromatic scale TBllZ N LA 4 UI ON 00 N 00 N E 4 V39 O Shifting from one key to another within a single composition is called modulation The musical texture that is de ned by independence and equality between multiple voices is polyphony The term Counterpoint is used to describe the technique of combining several melodic lines to create a polyphonic work A round or canon results from Imitation A singer accompanying him or herself on a guitar is performing Homophonic texture music The organization of musical ideas in time is m The formal structure that incorporates a beginning section a contrasting middle section and a repeat of the beginning section is called ternary form The term used to describe a central note scale or chord is m A scale that uses all available notes is called a chromatic scale When two singers sing the same pitch even if they are an octave apart they are said to be singing in unison A choir where everyone sings the exact same melody is using Monophony The song Row Row Row Your Boat is an example of Canon Binapy form AB Terna139y form ABA m A polyphonic genre incorporating strict imitation Musical organization that uses the tonic as a sort of home base to provide a sense of completion is called tonality Flats and sharps placed at the beginning of each line of music to indicate what key the work is in are referred to as the key sigpature Part 3 A Hlp is a plucked string instrument Cymbals are a unpitched percussion instrument A Bassoon is a wind instrument Double Bass Stringed instrument m Woodwind instrument Xylophone Percussion instrument TB1l3 gt1 00 0 O N 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Trombone Brass instrument Organ Keyboard instrument The abbreviation TTBB indicates an allmale choir The most common family of bowed instruments today is the string family Brass instruments can be identi ed by their cup mouthpieces The pitch of a woodwind instrument is raised or lowered by covering or uncovering nger holes Chamber music does not need a conductor A note that sounds continuously is called a drone The piccolo is awind instrument The lowest female voice type is the alto The highest male voice type is the tenor The technique of plucking a violin string with the nger is called pizzicato A piano trio has the following instrumentation Piano celloI and violin A large group of instruments from different families is called an orchestra An ensemble made up primarily of woodwinds brass and percussion is a wind ensemble m Woodwind instrument Sackbut Brass instrument Lute Stringed instrument Haggsichord Keyboard instrument Nakers Percussion instrument Chordophones All stringed instruments Aerophones Wind instruments of all kinds Idiophones Solid instruments that are manipulated to produce a sound Membranophones Drums that produce sound by the vibration of a membrane The saxophone was invented in the nineteenth century One of the most powerful forces in twentiethcentury music was the 39 of electronic instruments TB1l4 Study Guide Romantic Era 100 points 100 is perfect 10 points extra credit fl l iii7W ls if k i vquot 39 110 is the HIGHEST GRADE POSSIBLE ONE FREE CAT POINT The Romantic Era Occurred 1820 1900 Erlkonig was written by Franz Schubert The song cycle Dichterliebe was written by Robert Schumann A musical setting of a poem for solo voice amp piano is an art song Through composed form is the form in which new music is used for each new verse of poetry Strophic form is the form in which each verse of poetry is set to exactly the same music Clara Schumann Though an active composer this artist was primarily know as a performer Fr d ric Chopin This composer used Polish dance rhythms to express nationalism in music OOJNCDU39IAOON Franz Liszt This composer increased the difficulty level of piano music amp turned the piano so the audience could see his or her hands 10 Robert Schumann This composer wrote in virtually all piano genres amp considered his or her best piano work to be FantasiestL39icke 11 The sustain pedal was added to the piano during the 1700 s Composers like Mozart used the pedal on occasion Beethoven explored a fuller use of the piano in his works 12 Chopin usually performed in intimate salon settings 13 An m is a study piece for piano 14 One ofthe greatest composers of program music was Hector Berlioz 15 Franz Liszt invented the symphonic poem 16 Romantic program music was structured around dramatic incidents poetic images amp elements in nature 17 Music that is composed for the appreciation of musical sound amp does not tell a story is called absolute music 18 Symphonie fantastique is a program symphony 19 In Symphonie fantastique Berlioz uses something called the id e xe This is a musical theme that appears in all five movements 20 The melody Berlioz inserts into the fth movement of Symphonie fantastique to represent death is from the Dies irae 20 The group of Russian composers who emphasized Russian spirit over Western influence referred to themselves as the Five 22 The composer regarded as the founder ofthe Czech national school was Bedrich Smetana 23 The set of symphonic poems composed by Smetana is called M Vlast TB 30 l 1 2 P Music intended to promote the character amp interests of a nation is referred to as nationalistic 2 01 Tchaikovsky s most performed work is probably The Nutcracker 26 The Russian composer Peter llych Tchaikovsky was the rst to gain international recognition 27 Romeo amp Juliet Peter yich Tchaikovsky 28 Music written to go with a play is called incidental music 2 A piece of program music that is a fairly short singlemovement work for concerthall performance is called a concert overture 0 30 Incidental music can be related to Film music 31 Incidental music is a Music for a play 32 Mendelssohn revived Bach s St Matthew Passion initiating widespread performances of Bach s music 33 The violinist who astounded romantic audiences with his speed amp brilliance was Niccolo Paganini 34 The most popular instruments for romantic concertos were the piano amp violin 35 Mwas written by Felix Mendelssohn 36 Ein Deutsches Requiem was written by Johannes Brahms 3 l Gustav Mahler wrote the song cycles Kinden otenliederamp Das Lied von der Erde 3 G Franz Schubert was an early romantic Austrian symphonic composer also known for his art songs 39 Antonin Dvorak was a late romantic Bohemian symphonic composer who lived in New York for a time 40 Johannes Brahms wrote the fewest symphonies yet is often considered the greatest of the German romantic symphonists 41 Giuseppi Verdi composer brought taian romantic opera to its height 42 The Lone RangeIquot theme was originally written for Rossini s opera William Tell 43 The French literary movement that rebelled against romantic tendencies toward escapism amp artificiality is known as naturalism 44 The operatic movement rooted in naturalism amp realism is called verismo 45 The musical Miss Saigon has the same plot as Puccini s opera Madama Butter y 46 Op ra comigue is Light French opera with spoken dialogue 47 Lyric opera is French opera with plots from romantic drama or fantasy that relied on beautiful melodies 48 Grand opera is French opera with spectacular production elements 49 Verismo opera is latenineteenthcentury Italian opera rooted in realism TB30i2 50 Richard Wagner wrote Der Ring des Nibelungen 51 The composer whose works represent the height of German romantic opera is Richard Wagner 52 The term Wagner used for his operas was music drama 53 Wagner s cycle of four operas based on Scandinavian amp Germanic legends is called Der Ring des Nibelungen 54 Melodies used to identify particular characters objects amp ideas in Wagner s operas are called leitmotifs 55 The bestknown American band composer was John Philip Sousa 56 The division between classical amp popular music occurred in the nineteenth century Impressionist Symbolist Primitive amp Neoclassical Music 57 That dates given in the class notes forthe first half of the 20 century are 1900 1945 58 Debussy s primary goal as a composer was to give pleasure amp appeal to the senses 59 Debussy creates a languid sensual mood in Pr lude a L apr s midi d une faune in part by using irregular nebulous meter 60 Ravel s approach to form is more classically rooted than Debussy s 61 lmpressionistic music emphasizes mood amp atmosphere over structure 62 A frequent subject of impressionistic art amp music is nature 63 expressionism Art that explores inner feelings of conflict amp unrest 64 w A style of art that broke the subject into geometrical planes 65 impressionism An artistic movement focused on the rendering of light rather than the portrayal of realism 66 surrealism The style of art inspired by Sigmund Freud s dream analysis 67 Salvador Dali surrealism 68 Claude Monet impressionism 69 Vincent van Gogh expressionism 70 Pablo Picasso w 71 The 1889 World Exhibition in Parisintroduced nineteenthcentury musiciansto the music ofAsia the Middle East amp Africa 72 In 1874 a group of French painters including Claude Monet had an exhibition in Paris 73 The French impressionist composer Claude Debussy linked the romantic era with the 20th century 74 Debussy turned to the medieval church modes amp the pentatonic scales heard in Japanese music TB30l3 75 Debussy s most unusual amp tonally vague scale is the wholetone scale made up of 6 different notes each a whole step away from the next Unlike major amp minor the wholetone scale has no special pull from ti to do since its tones are all the same distance apart 7 O Stravinsky s use of offthebeat rh hms in The Rite of Spring creates its primitive atmosphere 7 l The work that caused Stravinsky to become an overnight success was The Firebird 78 The premiere of The Rite of Spring ended in a M 7 0 After the premiere of Le sacre du printemps Stravinsky was accused of destroying music as art 80 The Rite of Spring depicts preChristian pagan rites in Russia 81 The impresario amp choreographer who commissioned Stravinsky s great ballets was Sergei Diaghilev 82 Primitive paintings include flat colorful shapes lack of perspective vivid colors amp lack of perspective 83 Claude Debussy s Pr lude a L apresmidi d une faune impressionism 84 lgor Stravinsky s Le sacre du pn39ntemps primitivism 85 lgor Stravinsky s Rake s Progress neoclassicism 86 From about 1920 to 1950 the music of many composers including Igor Stravinsky amp Paul Hindemith re ected an artistic movement known as neoclassicism 87 Neoclassical composers turned away from program music amp the gigantic orchestras favored at the turn of the century They preferred absolute music for chamber groups Eastern European Nationalism 88 The rst composer to make field recordings of folk music for use in his compositions was B la Bartok 89 Each percussion instrument must be played with appropriate sticks mallets or even the player s hands Germanic Expressionism amp the Development of Serialism 90 Schoenberg s students who continued to develop his concept of twelvetone composition were Webern amp Berg 91 The composer who developed serialism was Arnold Schoenberg 92 Alban Berg s greatest work according to your textbook is Wozzeck 93 The student who combined Schoenberg s twelvetone method with the lyricism amp warmth of romanticism was Alban Berg 94 The serialist whose compositions are the epitome of brevity amp economy of material is Anton Webern TB30l4 95 Music with no tonal center is called atonal 96 The system of musical composition that involves the arranging of twelve chromatic tones into a new order amp basing the composition on this new order is called serialism 97 The new arrangement of pitches in twelvetone music is called a tone row 98 Expressionists explored inner feelings rather than depicting outward appearances 99 In the 19th century composers came to use ever more dissonant chords amp they treated dissonances with increasing freedom Extra Credit 10 Points What are the NAMES amp DATES of the first 4 eras studied this semester 6 Points l 1 Ancient until 450 AD 2 Z39he Middle Ages 450 1450 AD 3 1e Renaissance 1450 1600 AD 4 1e Barogue Period 1600 1750AD 5 1e Classical Period 1750 1820 AD 6 quot1e Romantic Period 1820 1900 TB30l5
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