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Date Created: 09/19/14
PSY Chapter 2 Research in Personality 91914 335 PM Where Do Data Come From Major Types of Externa Source Data o Institutional records Grades marriage certificates newspaper articles etc o Observer Report What other observers say about us Major Types of Persona Report Data 0 Sef judgment Agreeing or disagreeing about with a given statement about oneself o Convergent Report Constructing a response that meets a criterion o Thematic Report Creating responses that reflect themes or ideas o Process Report Pertaining to something going on in your mind at the moment What Research Designs are Used in Personality Case Studies and Obervationism 0 Case Studies Easily understandable Colorful and interesting Hypothesis generation tools Unrepresentative No control o Obervationism repeated intensive study of cases over consistent conditions Review of Correlation o Correlation examines the co reation between two variables Symbol r The r varies from 10 to 10 10 and 10 represent perfect relations 0 represents a random relation Experimental Methods 0 Quasi Experimenta Designs Natural treatment 0 O O O No randomization Creative personalities 0 True Experimental Designs Experimenter appied treatments Randomization What Does it Mean to Measure Personality Measurement of Attributes 0 Measure attributes of the object o For example measurement of Length to right Weight to right Psychometric Theory 0 Theories of How measure Abstract Mental Phenomena o The Central Equation X T e X the obtained test score T the true score E the error score Reliability in Psychical Measurement 0 Things to Remember Measuring a Window for Window Blinds Use a steel tape for accuracy Measure the exact width of the window at 3 different places Make all measurements to the nearest 18 inch Definitions of Reliability 0 Informal that a test measures that it measures with consistency 0 Formal the correlation r between the true score and the obtained score 0 When a mental test is perfectly reliable XT Measurement Validity 0 Definition that a test measures what it is supposed to measure 0 Types of Validity Face 2 A test looks like it measures the right thing for Depression Are you sad Content 2 A test s items accurately sample from the content domain Criterion 2 A test predicts a specific measurable outcome such as life variable Examples marriage GPA occupational success 2 or postdicts it or concurrently indicates it Structural 2 A test measure the number of things it claims to measure 2 Technical Test Factor Analysis How many factors does a test measure Factor an underlying variable Construct 2 A test behaves the way it is supposed to behave according to the theoretical statements over numerous circumstances and tests How do Psychologists Study So Many Variables Multivariate Techniques 0 Multivariate techniques handle multiple variables 0 One crucial kind of technique examines how many things are being measured 0 This class of techniques includes Factor analysis Multidimensional analysis Cluster analysis Logic of Factor Analysis 0 Factor analysis uses correlational logic If multiple variables correlate highly they are the same thing If the variables don39t they are different things 0 Example If happiness and joy correlate highly the same factor If they don39t different factor What does a factor look like 0 O A factor is represented by a column of factor loadings under a roman numeral The factor loading is the correlation between a test item and a factor The test item is to the left Simplified Rules for Interpreting a Factor 0 O Worksheet Step 1 Identify original test items with high positive loadings Step 2 Ask what are the items trying to get at that39s the primary name of the factor Extraversion Step 3 Locate the items loading negatively on the same factor Those tell you the polar opposite label if there is one Introversion Step 4 No high loadings Then the factor is a garbage factor 91914 335 PM 91914 335 PM
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