Security Administration CJA 4860
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Supervising uring Special Events Unit Vl 7 Group 3 Assessment gt Five different types of crowds o Acquisitive o Expressive o Spectator o Hostile 0 Escape gt Different characteristics require different planning amp Assessment Cont gt Acquisitive Crowd 0 Motivated by the desire to get something Merchandise Autograph Celebrity Interaction e As long as desires are met quickly and efficiently easily managed r Expressive Crowd 0 Crowd members express their feelings at a protest demonstration or convention 0 Usually well behaved but can easily become hostile if the proper causal factors are present Assessment Cont gt Spectator Crowd 0 Gathers to watch an athletic event or entertainment 0 Emotions can change rapidly o Crowd as a whole continually assessed as to their mood gt Hostile Crowd 0 Motivated by feelings of hate and fear Ready to fight including Strikes Riots Political demonstrations Assessment Cont gt Escape Crowd 0 Try to flee due to emergency situations Fire Mismanagement by protection forces Other sudden disaster events gt Care must be taken to ensure that crowds do not become too large or confined gt Ability to see and hear by all crowd members Assessment Cont gt Five psychological factors of crowd members 0 Security Some people will join crowd because they feel safe in numbers 0 Suggestion By joining a crowd people accept ideas of the leader 0 Novelty Enter a group to get away from normal routine or regular duties 0 Loss of Identity Losing the sense of individuality being in a crowd 0 Release of Emotions In an emotionally charged crowd faults can surface Access Control gt Barriers 0 Tickets 0 Guest List gt Employees 0 ID Cards Numbered or Colored Zones gt GateDoor Access amp Communications gt Types on Communications 0 Radios 0 Phones Cellular Intercompany Bell Line 0 Portable PAs o Whistles 0 Video Monitors gt Lines of Communication should always be open 0 Battery strength 0 Dead Zones 0 Backup Communication Traffic Control gt Proper Equipment And Attire o Flashlight 0 Radio Whistle Attire Fitting to weather conditions Visible Public recognition Reflective body vests gt SignalsSigns When directing traffic signals should be simple and distinct 0 Appropriate sign placement to both manage traffic and project the proper Image gt Emergency Lanes Able to quickly remove injured persons evicted individuals and arrestees Able to bring in fire equipment vendor supplies or additional personnel Emergency Medical Operations gt Security Officer 0 Must be trained in first aid 0 Ability to manage crowd and patient 0 Ability to communicate with medical personnel gt Ambulance Service 0 Golf cartsPatrol vehicles 0 In house ambulances 0 External ambulances 0 Emergency room capabilities amp Evacuation gt Indoor Facility 0 Six foot Clear Zone 0 Equipment secure and out of the way gt Congregation Points 0 Large enough to accommodate everyone and provide for the safety of everyone amp Fixed Posts gt Post orders 0 Every security officer manning the post should know objective and mission of the post 0 Manning orders include what type and how many personnel man it o Duties must be specified in a post order in the event of an evacuation or hostile crowd gt Equipment 0 CCTV monitors 0 Fire extinguishers 0 Officer gear Assigning Security Officer s Posts gt Types of Assignments at Posts V 0 Checking Identifications at an assigned areas 0 Checking tickets or baggage at the spectator entrance 0 Observing crowd behavior at a special event strike or trouble area Examples of Posts 0 Main door 0 Hallways 0 VIP entranceexit o Athlete entranceexit 0 Seating areas 0 Parking lots 0 Delivery entranceexit Pre Event Briefings gt Supervisors to Officers 0 ExplainRemind what is expected 0 Check all uniforms 0 Make sure officers know how to use equipment and all equipment is properly working especially with weapons and communication equipment gt Officers to Supervisors o Clearing up any questions officers may have is an absolute necessity amp Talking to Crowds V V Communication with crowds can prevent problems Steps to Proper Communication 0 o o o o o o o 0 Message is clear and concise Get crowd s attention Sound Whistle or clap Verbal Message May l have your attention Speak slowly and clearly Project voice to back of crowd without yelling Eye contact to express authority Eye contact with everyone Be calm and relaxed No exceptions Be firm Be assertive Be polite Post Event riefing gt Takes place after the event gt Overall summary between the security supervisor and venue management gt Comments and recommendations should be discussed gt Problems that arise should be addressed and fixed for the future amp Special Event Security Hiring Process gt Four Components Selection Applicationinterviewing 0 Testing Training gt Selection Skills needed Smart calm but decisive Assertive with an ability to communicate precisely and professionally Team player Service attitude Mature personality 0 Usually hired en masse without any testing or in depth interviews Should be minimum standards established lt Recruitment can be done in many places Visiting schools Advertising in paperuse of media E mailing Special Event Security Hiring Process Cont gt ApplicationsInterviewing 0 Red flags to look for Indications of being clearly overqualified Unexplained gaps in employment history Gaps in residences Indications of lack of job stability Inadequate references 0 Ask questions that make the applicant think on the spot No yes or no questions 0 Compare answer to resume and application Special Event Security Hiring Process Cont gt Testing 0 Psychological assessment MMPI o Honesty tests Measures trustworthiness and attitude towards honesty 0 Drugs tests Includes alcoholbarbituartes 0 Background checks Includes criminal history Special Event Security Hiring Process Cont gt Training Topics include Crowd Control Safety Patrol Techniques Traffic Control First Aid Emergency Planning VIP Protection Public Relations Delivering Instruction Be patient keep trainee interested and be prepared Determine what must be taught Maintain records of training to know what has been taught and by who Equipment Machine Training Metal detectors CCTV Gear Radios Firearms SEXUAL HARASSMENT UNIT X 3 efinition gt Unwelcome sexual advances requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual39s employment unreasonably interferes with an individual39s work performance or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive work environment amp Circumstances gt Sexual harassment can occur in a variety of circumstances including but not limited to the following o The victim as well as the harasser may be a woman or a man The victim does not have to be of the opposite sex The harasser can be the victim39s supervisor an agent of the employer a supervisor in another area a co worker or a non employee The victim does not have to be the person harassed but could be anyone affected by the offensive conduct Unlawful sexual harassment may occur without economic injury to or discharge of the victim harasser39s conduct must be unwelcome o o o Statistics gt 1997 17000 sexual harassment claims filed with the EEOC gt 2008 13867 reports of sexual harassment 474 million gt 807 million awarded to former UPS employee for accusing a coworker of poking her in the breast gt Astra USA Inc a pharmaceutical company in MA paid 985 million in a sexual harassment settlement E91 7 million 9 1997 494 million Statutory efinitions gtTite V gtTite IX x Title VII v it shall be an unlawful employment practice for an employer i to fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual or otherwise to discriminate against any individual with respect to his compensation terms conditions or privileges of employment because of such indiIidual s race color religion sex or national origin or 2 to limit segregate or classify his employees or applicants for employment in any way which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee because of such indiIidual s race color religion sex or national origin Title VII 77 v v v Part of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 An employer cannot discriminate against a US citizen or US citizens because of their gender An employer cannot fire or refuse to hire a person because of their sex An employer cannot engage in any organization of its workplace orjob applicants in such a way that it might cause a person to be discriminated against because of their sex An employment agency cannot refer or refuse to refer a person for employment or otherwise discriminate against them because of or on the basis of their sex Title VII continued V V An employment agency cannot refer or refuse to refer a person for employment or otherwise discriminate against them because of or on the basis of their sex A labor union cannot exclude or expel any person from membership because of his or her sex Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC gt5 members no more than 3 can be of same political party gtAppointed for five year term by sitting president with consent of the US Senate efinitions within Title V gt PERSON gtOne or more individuals governments governmental agencies political subdivisions labor unions partnerships associations corporations legal representatives mutual companiesjoint stock companies trusts unincorporated organizations trustees trustees in cases under title 1 1 bankruptcy or receivers efinitions within Title VII gt Employee gtAn individual employed by an employer except that the term employee shall not include any person elected to public office in any State or political subdivision of any State by the qualified voters thereof or any person chosen by such officer to be on such officer s personal staff or an appointee on the policy making level or an immediate adviser with respect to the exercise of the constitutional or legal powers of the office Title IX b v V quotin regard to admissions to educational institutions this section shall apply only to institutions of vocational education professional education and graduate higher education and to public institutions of undergraduate higher education Extended Title V to colleges universities and other postsecondary educational institutions No one can be excluded from denied participation in or otherwise discriminated against in any educational program or activity that receives financial assistance from the Federal government Title IX Exemptions gt Religious schools gt Military and merchant marines gt Social fraternities and sororities gt YMCA Young Men s Christian Association gt YWCA Young Women s Christian Association gt Girl Scouts of America gt Boy Scouts of America amp efinitions within Title IX gt Program or activity 0 a department agency special purpose district or other instrumentality of a State or local government or the entity of such State or local government that distributed such assistance and each such department or agency to which the assistance is extended the case of assistance to a State or local government 0 a college university or other postsecondary institution or a public system of higher education 0 or efinitions within Title IX 0 a local educational agencysystem of vocational education or other school system 0 an entire corporation partnership or other private organization or an entire sole proprietorship if assistance is extended to such corporation partnership private organization or sole proprietorship as a whole quot Any organization engaged in the business of providing education health care housing social services or parks and recreation evelopment of Harassment Case Law 1970ZOOl Title V gt 19705 c Griqqs v Duke Power Co 1 971 The Court prohibited any employment practice that can be considered discriminatory unless it can be shown to be related to job performance 0 McDonnell Douqlas v Green 1 973 The Court placed the burden of proof on the complainant A person can t be discriminated against if they are not qualified for a position A person can t be discriminated against if the employer opts not to fill the position x evelopment Of Harassment Case Law 1970ZOOi Title VII gt 19805 39 Aiken v US Postal Service Board of Governors i 983 The Court established that sexual harassment is harassment under Title VII It also stated that a hostile environment may exist because of the harassment and that too is actionable under Title VII Wards Packinq Co v Atonio i 989 The Court ruled that the absence of a demographic group at the workplace is not the fault of the employer if the demographic group is sparsely represented throughout the town municipality or county evelopment of Harassment Case Law 1970ZOOl Title VII gt 1990 1997 Kimzev v Wal Mart Stores Inc 1997 The Court held that a Title VII plaintiff may recover damages for any discriminatory act provided any statute of limitations has not run out erry v Ethan Allen 1997 The Court ruled that is harassment occurs because of as opposed to supervisors or others the employer will be held liable if the complainant can demonstrate the employer had ample opportunity to correct the harassment and failed to do so evelopment of Harassment Case Law 1970ZOOl Title VII gt 1 998 2001 o Dees v Johnson Controls 1 999 The Court established four theories to determine vicarious liability against an employer The supervisor holds such a high position in the Company that he could be considered the employer s alter ego The harassment violates a nondelegable duty of the employer The supervisor uses apparent authority granted by the employer The supervisor is aided in committing the harassment by the existence of his agency relationship with the employer evelopment of Harassment Case Law 1970 2001 Title V gt 1998 2001 c Reinhold v Virginia 1 998 The Court held that assignment of extra work though unfair is not a change in employment status amp evelopment of Harassment Case Law Schools Colleges Title IX gt Gebser v Laqo Vista Independent School District 1998 o The Court ruled that the relationship between supervisor and subordinate can be interpreted the same way as the relationship between teacher and student and those relationships relate to a sexual harassment complaint amp evelopment of Harassment Case Law Schools Colleges Title IX gt Davis v Monroe County Board of Education 1999 o The Court ruled that student student sexual harassment is the responsibility of the school system The Board incurs liability for failing to deal with student on student harassment if it becomes aware of it x Security Administration Presentation Outline Project Management An Overview Definition of Project management The Program Piece The System Piece The Business Piece Jun Yoon Definition of Project management In the Old Days The senior security person on a job was generally given such as lieutenant captain or major Life Went as a daytoday activity and tasks were very manual at best In the 1980 s access control and Closed Circuit Television CCTV systems made their way into the picture Fulfill the function of the human being Turning the corner on a New Century Eectronic systems were getting bigger and better 1 Globalization was causing businesses to improve their Local Area Networks LAN and Wide Area Networks WAN Now began monitoring systems from various parts of the US ncreased CCTV system Officers Were now able to complete functions remotely such as opening doors and gates as well as communicate with employees in the field and beyond This capability will most likely continue to expand in the future Adds a new dimension to what a protection officer is gfi39 Were now able tr functions remotely doors and gates as v with employees in the fl 79 This capability will most Iik e 32ioand in the future Adds a new dimension to what a protection officer is Cory Hutcherson The people piece and communication The People Piece People are 1 Diversity and the workplace The Project Manager and the People Communication Communication is essential Listening is key Repeat Back Feed Back Meetings Robert Hann Motivation and Organizational Leadership ME Motivation Motivation is one of the hardest thing for a project manager Manager has to first motivate themselves before they can do others First step in the process of motivation is understanding Manager has to have a clear understanding of the expectations of the job and the mission Lots of times motivation means changing the course time for an adjustment Organizational Leadership Leadership is often confused with supervision Leaders are not always supervisors Leadership qualities are Honesty Trustworthiness Dependability Reliability Communication is one of the most important components of leadership Ryan Corcoran The program piece The Program Piece Successful Project management requires three characteristics of a project manager Communication skills if one cannot communicate effectively with his or her employees then tasks will not be completed in a quality fashion Motivation A project manager must themselves be motivated if the wish to be able to motivate their employees Leadership Employees need structure in the workplace lack of leadership will result in poor performance in the workplace The Program Piece Managing the Program is essential because without a program to follow employees will be unsure of their specific tasks The Program Piece The project manager should do their part in keeping the employees in the loop about company operations Having a master list of objectives is the best way to circulate the specific commitments to all of the employees The master list can also be used by the client to check the status of the commitments as laid out in the contract Commitments are not always under contract or in a memorandum they can simply be actions or promises to improve work processes or even to improve the performance of the employed security officers themselves The Program Piececont Once commitments are identified they need to be implemented resources must be put into place to complete assigned tasks Examples of these resources include Increasing staff by hiring employees Providing additional training for current personnel Cross training current personnel as to expand individual responsibilities Cross training when done correctly can improve the worth of both employees and the company by expanding individual skills and capabilities of personnel Christopher Woodall The system piece and business piece The System Piece Project manager Must have a fundamental understanding of the systems Be more of an engineer than a mechanic Logistical expertise The System Piece The Systems Quality of information Retrieval of information Logistics Emergency planning Redundancy Communication Importnce f 39a39m The Business Piece All about business Purpose driven Fine line HiTech Crime Hi Tech Crime Technology has changed the nature of crime to prevent deter and arrest you must understand the nature of the crime Was the computer the target Was the technology inside the computer the target Did the computer facilitate the crime Or has the technology morphed the nature of a traditional crime Computer Crime The computer is the object of the attack however the attack is not physical it is virtual I Virus I Hacking Theft of services Computer Related Crime These types of crimes occur when the offender uses a computer to Commit a traditional crime a The computer is used to commit the crime Stores evidence of a crime m The computer is used to facilitate the crime Software Piracy Technology Crime A crime directed at a technology other than a computer Theft of services cellular telephones cable television Theft of computer components Hi Tech Crime Computer Computer system or capability is the object Viruses theft of system capabilities of the crime Computer Computer facilitates crime or keeps records Traditional Related of crime Some are traditional crimes others Child pornography Narcotics Trafficking are crime created as aresult of computer Non Traditional age Software Piracy Internet Fraud Technology TechnOIOgy is stolen or oth rtech olOgy computer Hardware theft theft of cellular Crime services arestolen telephone service theftof cable television services Criminal Uses of the WWW Email harassment Hacking Credit card fraud Embezzlement Email amp Web site scams Drug trafficking Identity theft Prostitution Email threats Cellular fraud Violation of restraining Terrorismorganized crime orderSDVO injUnCtionS False identification documents Child Pornography Creation Invasion of corporate POSSGSSion 0r diStribUtion assetstelecommunications Online child enticement Advanced fee fraud Nature of HighTech Crime Today On the rise and will continue to be Average bank robbery 5000 Average ID Theft 10200 First responders la ck training knowledge skills and abilities to investigate it True number of hightech crimes committed each year is unknown Computer Crime Viruses I Viruses can spread rapidly in some instances a computer virus can circumnavigate the globe in under an hour infecting millions of computers Computer Crime Hacking Cracking and Whacking Hacking refers to the nonmalicious virtual entry into a software program I May still be illegal A nonillegal aspect might be purchasing a computer game and hacking it to ease your play Cracking refers to the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program system or network Computer Crime Hacking Cracking and Whacking Whacking is the illegal and often malicious virtual entry into a software program system or network via Wireless connection Computer Related Crime The Internet affords a wider net of victims The Internet affords greater anonymity The Internet can connect offenders together The Internet makes jurisdiction issues difficult The Internet is new to law enforcement Computer Related Crime Crimes Against Children Use of Internet Relay Chat IRC to contact children Arrange meetings Engage in sexual talk exchange of images USe of the Internet to exchange ideas on committing crimes against children Use of the Internet to exchange images of children Computer Related Crime Steganography from the greek steganos meaning hidden and graphy meaning writing The process of hiding messages or images inside of the coding of images It is considered the newest challenge to law enforcement s prosecution of pedophiles It may have been used by international terrorist to transmit messages to remote cells 19 Computer Related Crime Fraud The box of rocksquot becomes auction fraud On the street offender uses a sealed package to entice victim On the Internet photographs and descriptions are used The Pigeon Drop becomes the Nigerian 419 scam On the street found money entices the victim On the Internet email is used to describe inheritances overages etc 419 Advanced Fee Fraud Nigeria is considered the 419 capital of the world Fraud named after the Nigerian law that outlaws these scams Scammers typically target businessmen or even church clergy with temptations of big easy money Fund Transfer Scam Victim will receive unsolicited mail from a civil servant Offer to move millions in funds that the Nigerian government overpaid on a contract Once fees are paid the transfer will take place The transfer never happens and the victim is out the fees paid Lottery Scam A relatively new Advanced Fee Fraud scam A winning lottery check is mailed to the victim who is directed to cash it return a portion and keep the rest After cashing it s later discovered to be a fraudulent check and the victim is responsible for all the funds Computer Related Crime Fraud In most fraud were the viictim39 is an active pa rticip a nt the street and the Internet share 5a common theme The victim s thought they were getting something for nothing Identity Theft Identity Theft occurs when someone appropriates another s personal information without his or her knowledge to commit fraud or theft The identity is then used to obtain credit cards phone accounts or even bank accounts in the Victim s name thereby damaging his or her credit Best of all the victim gets the bills Identity Theft Defined The unlawful use of your name address social security number SSN bank or credit card account number or other identifying information without your knowledge With the intent to commit fraud or other crimes A fraud that is committed or attempted using a person s identifying information without authority Identity Theft Scope of Problem Federal Trade Commission FI39C statistics 2002 161896 identity theft complaints received 2004 246570 complaints received I 40 increase 547 million in losses 2008 313982 complaints Common Ways Thieves Steal Identity Stealing information Burglarizing a home from employers Social engineering Hacking into computer Email and Web site systems scams I Dumpster diVing Open source Web sites Stealing mail Shoulder surfing I Stealing wallets or skimming purses Computer Related Crime Software Piracy A very broad category that involves the theft of any intellectual property using computer primarily the internet Illegal music downloads Copy Right infringement Trademark infringement Illegal downloads of music Copying any work including software music written work and providing it to a third person Computer Related Crime Fraud Credit card fraud and theft Email used to Phish An email looks quot 39 like it comes from a legitimate source Asks for personal information which is then to steal the victim s identity or using the victim s credit Personal information is hacked from a legitimate sourCe Technology Crime Theft of components Shoplifting Burglary Hijacking Theft of cellular telephone services Theft of telephone serVice Theft of cable television Legal Aspects of Computer Crime Approximately half of the states modeled their computer crime related statutes after the 1977 and 1979 versions of the Federal Computer Systems Protection Act Independent Component Doctrine The Search and Seizure of computer equipment is protected by the Fourth Amendment Generally a desk top computer consists of a computer monitor printer and other peripheral devices Investigators should consider listing each component separately on the search warrant Jurisdiction One of the most fifficult issues Greatly benefits the offender Offender can Iivevin one state or country and victim in Ianotheri Different laws Poor interagency cooperatiOn UnderReported Federal Bureau of Investigation recently updated the Uniform Crime Reporting to include certain technology related crimes Victims don t know they are victims Companies stand to loose customer confidence if breach is reported Law enforcement is often weak in its response Task Forces Combine investigative and computer expertise Share costs Help solve jurisdictional problems Help the exchange of information and trend identification Protection Theft The recording of serial numbers and periodic audits can detect theft Marking the hardware may help puts thieves on notice Some companies have installed software that if a laptop is stolen it will screencapturepmvidedby bsolutesoftware corp report its location when it connects to the Internet g 393 2 O m 2 Protection Software and hardware is being used to detect intrusions in realtime Software and hardware is used to prevent SPAM and email attachments that might contain viruses Education programs reduce hapless victimization Taggt fy mg in CM Ft Overview GrandJury vs Trial Jury Expert vs Regular Witnesses Preparing for Court SpeakingActing with Confidence Giving Your Testimony Review GrandJury vs Trial Jury Both examine the relevant evidence of a case Grand juries decide whether to indict bring formal charges against a suspect Trial juries determine whether the defendant should be acquitted ofthe charges against himher Grand jury is more closed and relaxed Prosecution and defense attorneys go to trial Sequence of a Criminal Trial Jury selection Opening statements by prosecution and defense Prosecution s case presentation Defense s case presentation Closing statements by prosecution and defense Instructions to jury Jury deliberation to reach verdict Reading of verdict Acquittal or passing of sentence Expert vs Regular Witnesses Expertise Provide Opinion Qualified Hugo Munsterberg 1908 They go on thinking that their legal instinct and their common sense supplies them with all that is neede and somewhat more lawyers judges juries Does the court need experts Yes if the average Juror or Judge does not have the necessary experience and knowledge What makes an Expert Training Work Experience Formal Education Experience as an Expert Passing a Standardized Test Recognition by Academic Institution Recognition by a Professional Organization Relevance Justice Blackmun explained that absent an acceptable showing of such a nexus evidence on the phases of the moon indicating that it was full on a certain night could not be received to show that a particular individual was behaving irrationally on that evening Potential drawbacks of using experts How can we expect jurors to decide between experts when the jurors ignorance is the premise for allowing the expert to testify in the first place Learned Hand 1901 Preparing for Court Begins at the scene Take good notes Review your report Becon dent Be prepared to explain inconsistencies Case Presentation Direct examination the initial questions of a witness or defendant by the lawyer who is using the person s testimony to further his or her case Crossexamination Questioning by the opposing side for the purpose of assessing the validity of the testimony SpeakingActing with Confidence Getstay familiar with the court Know the major players Don t discuss the case in public Treat people with respect be professional amp polite Don t get personal Be on time Dress right An audience remembers 7 of what you say 38 of how you sound 55 of how you look Giving Your Testimony To effectively testify in court Be prepared Look professional Act professionally Attempts will be made to discredit or impeach the testimony of the security officer in court You are not alone 85 of us dislike or fear pubhcspeahng Get OVER IT Inadmissible Statements Opinion unless qualified as an expert Hearsay Privileged communication Statements about character and reputation including the defendant s past criminal record Effective Testimony Speak clearly firmly and with expression Answer questions directly Do not volunteer information Pause briefly before answering Refer to your notes if you do not recall exact details Admit calmly when you do not know an answer Admit any mistakes you make is testifying Avoid jargon sarcasm and humor Tell the complete truth as you know it Using Notes Refer to your notes if you are uncertain of specific facts but do not rely on them excessively Nonverbal Elements in Testimony Important nonverbal elements include Dress Eye contact Posture Gestures Distance Mannerisms Rate of speech Tone of voice Strategies for Testifying Set yourself up Provoke the defense into giving you a chance to explain Be unconditional Do not stall CrossExamination by the Defense The defense attorney may Be disarmineg friendly or intimidatineg rude Attack your credibility and impartiality Attack your investigative skill Attempt to force contradictions or inconsistencies Ask leading questions or deliberately misquote you Ask for a simple answer to a complex question Use rapid fire questioning Use the silent treatment CrossExamination by the Defense Avoid conclusions and nonresponsive answers Answer yes or no questions with Ives lino Review What is important in testifying in court What is the usual sequence of a criminal trial What is direct examination Cross examination What kinds of statements are inadmissible in court How can one testify most effectively I Review When should you use notes when testifying What nonverbal elements can influence courtroom testimony positively and negatively What strategies can make testifying in court more effective What defense attorney tactics should an officer anticipate l l Uniforms amp Image Projection Overview History Effect of Uniform Color Uniform Styles Uniform Materials amp Appearance The Role of Uniforms Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift History 39gt L I xn e e Fu 1 History uniforms No traditional security guards before WWII Maybe a night watchman with a ashhght Meanwhile police were in uniform Effect of Uniform Color 11 w 39I Uniform Color Color has an impact where there is competition confrontation and physical aggression like hockey High visibility can be enhanced by color style and placement Uniform Styles Military look Professional but bulky and cumbersome Best for stationary positions Soft look Indoor positions Nonintimidating Security officer look In between Functional durable easy to maintain Which style would you prefer Uniform Styles Uniform Materials amp Appearance Uniform Materials amp Appearance Button long sleeves Shirts may be altered Pants no cuffs hemmed Footwear shined Uniforms clean and pressed Clean tie Authorizedrequired accessories in place The Role of Uniforms Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift 7 Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift Remind about management goals Update on needed information Free exchange of ideas foster creative thinking Inspect personnel ORIENTATION FOR SECURITY OFFICERS IV2 LAVELLE STACY PRZUIJ IVA SLIGER THOMAS SMITH ANDREA INTRODUCTION Orientation begins prior to the effective date of employment prior to communicating the corporate benefits package and prior to introducing your new hire to organizational staff members quotOrientation of New Employees begins with the posting of a vacancy the invitation to enter the employee screening process and most importa ntly the interview itself PREORIENTATION 0 Your organization depends on YOU to represent the agency s interests and to portray a positive image at all times You must be aware of how you portray yourself your bureau and your organization 0 How you communicate both verbally and nonverbally leaves a lasting impression in the mind of the applicant BEFORE NEW STAFF MEMBER ARRIVES THE NEW STAFF MEMBERS A welcome letter Ajob description Instructions for first day and week When how and where to arrive Who to ask for and a direct telephone number Where to park Suggested attire What to expect for the first few days Orientationintroduction to people job office department and the organization What to expect regarding meals breaks and time for personal business Initial work responsibilities A description of the work setting BEFORE NEW STAFF MEMBER ARRIVES cont 39 THE CURRENT STAFF MEMBERS Distribute an announcement to Current staff Schedule time for all staff to meat the new employees block time for essential meetings with payroll personnel supervisor etc Communicate the new employeesquot role in the organization Why the candidates were selected and a list detailing their experiencevalue they brinig t o the institution Disseminate a photographis possible Get them to know the new officer FIRST DAY OF WORK Issue an employee ID Meet with the employees supervisor Review primary activities Communicate policies procedures bulletins and other governance documents such as working hours staff meetings confidentiality ethics working with supervisors colleagues assistants andor volunteers and managing office conflicts Within First Week of Arrival Set up the employees work area Supervisor should check in frequently to clarify expectations and answer questions that the employee may have Colleagues should also check in to answer questions and offer support A quotpartnerquot mentor or FTO should check in to answer questions and offer support Meet with department business maa na gerpayrollpersonnel to cover the following gt VVVVVVV Time cards Vacationsickpersonal leave policies Keys Review company personnel policies and procedures Complete all necessary paperwork Learn about and submit benefits health life insurance retirement and select benefits Overview of procedures including confidentiality and piracy Meet with company human resource services Within 6 Months of Starting Meet key people in offices within the company Meet on a regular basis with supervisor to discuss issues review job description expectation and performance Partnermentor should continue to check in on a regular basis to answer questions and offer support Have 90 day and 180 day performance review v awatch vUu Why Accidents Happen The Theories of Causation Unit VI2 Page 253 Why accidents happen Accidents occur everyday In 2005 there were 42 million onthe job nonfatal injuries There are nearly 6000 onthejob fatalities each year There are potentially millions or billions of accidents that go unreported Why accidents happen For every serious injury there were 29 minor injuries and 300 accidents resulting in close calls Accidents are unavoidable lts impossible to prevent all accidents but it is possible to decrease the rate of their occurrence Heinrich s Domino Theory Heinrich s Domino Theory o Explains accidents by using the analogy of domino s falling over one another and creating a chain of events If one domino is removed the whole process ceases Heinrich s Domino Theory Five stages of accident causation Social environment Faults of a person Unsafe act or condition Accident itself Injury Heinrich s Domino Theory Social environment o Anything that made lead to producing undesirable traits in people this may include the nature and nurture of someone s background Heinrich s Domino Theory Faults of a person 0 Refers to the personal characteristics that are conducive such as a bad temper Heinrich s Domino Theory Unsafe act or condition Its often the beginning of a specific incident It is closer to the accident in terms of temporal proximity Heinrich s Domino Theory Accident itself 0 When something occurs that is undesirable and not intended Heinrich s Domino Theory Injury 0 The unfortunate outcome of some accidents Ferrell s Human Factor Model Ferrell s Human Factor Model Multiple Specific causes 0 Incompatibility 0 Improper Activities Overload Emotional state capacity load Pete s AccidentIncident Mode Peterson s AccidentIncident Model 0 Expansion of Ferrell39s Human Factor Model Ergonomic Traps Decision to and reasons to choose to err Morality System Failure Management Training Policy The Epidemiological Approach The Epidemiological Approach Different from the theories thus far Relies on collecting additional info to expand our knowledge The Epidemiological Approach Can be observed in the Insurance Company example On the other hand Systems Models Systems Models Focuses on a harmony between man machine and environment Referred to as Risk Taking Driving to work Benefits outweigh the risks Systems Models Similar to Rational Choice perspective Choice is made if the potential benefits outweigh the potential loss Ford example Systems Models Firenze suggests considering five calculated risks and benefits Job requirements The capabilities and limitations of the worker in relation to theirjob o The potential gain upon succeeding 0 The potential consequences upon failure 0 The potential loss of not attempting the task Systems Models In other words a common task previously taken has wellknown risks and benefits while a new task often has more unknown factors The Integration of Theories and General Program implications Integration Theories for accidents do not explain accidents Theories explain what can cause the accident to happen Theories only explain a portion of accidents therefore all theories are incomplete Integration Most theories and models suggest human error as a possible cause of accidents Avoid hiring accidentprone or thoughtless staff Dismiss those who show carelessness in the workplace Integration Socialization and subculture are causes for accidents Have regular training and safety programs A poor employee is always a high risk for causing an accident and can corrupt future staff making the problem grow Safety awareness programs can help with these problems Integration Keep your employees motivated Twofactor theory of motivation aka the MotivatorHygiene Theory 0 Employees should be exposed to motivators positive rewards 390 Hygiene Factors routine parts of a job such as a good working environment Management should understand importance of maintaining a positive subculture and be trained to deal with problem employees Integration Physical environment can also play a role in the cause of accidents Obvious implications 0 Guard rails safety warnings hard hats etc o Ergonomic machine designs Can increase productivity 0 Increase workers comfort 9 Decreases workers stress and boredom 0 Resulting in less human error Integration Think outside the box Offer incentives and rewards to workers who are safetyoriented attention grabber Make sure the program is effective Potential indicators of program effectiveness 0 Statistical analyses of accident rates Surveys of individuals perception of safety 0 Inspections by safety specialists If it isn t working find out how you can fix it If it is working ask the same Adapting Accident Causation to Specific Environments Adapting Accident Causation to Specific Environments Accident causation theories are very general in nature Must be tailored to the needs and circumstances of the specific environment Adapting Accident Causation to Specific Environments o For example The Aviation Industry Their primary concern is prevention Human life in the event of an accident Protecting their public image The need for excessive prevention strategies outweighs the financial burden Adapting Accident Causation to Specific Environments Accidents of the same type often require several different preventative measures Human error and machine failure are both potential causes of accidents Adapting Accident Causation to Specific Environments Fire Safety This is a type of accident prevention that must be considered in virtually all environments 9 Removing 1 of the causes of fireoxygen heat fuel will prevent or stop a fire 0 Is similar to Heinrich s Domino Theory Prevention implication is to remove one of the dominos of accident causation The future of Accidents and Accident causation The Future of Accidents and Accident Causation o Practical implications relating to accidents have 2 parts 0 Main goal prevent accidents 0 Secondary goal be prepared for the inevitable The Future of Accidents and Accident Causation Despite the lack of interest by the public and media accident prevention continues to be an important topic More states are legislating safety standards Knowledge about causation has grown remarkably Video on safety Video1 Accident video Video 2 Another accident video 5 Video 3 Uniforms amp Image Projection Overview History Effect of Uniform Color Uniform Styles Uniform Materials amp Appearance The Role of Uniforms Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift History 39gt L I xn e e Fu 1 History uniforms No traditional security guards before WWII Maybe a night watchman with a ashhght Meanwhile police were in uniform Effect of Uniform Color 11 w 39I Uniform Color Color has an impact where there is competition confrontation and physical aggression like hockey High visibility can be enhanced by color style and placement Uniform Styles Military look Professional but bulky and cumbersome Best for stationary positions Soft look Indoor positions Nonintimidating Security officer look In between Functional durable easy to maintain Which style would you prefer Uniform Styles Uniform Materials amp Appearance Uniform Materials amp Appearance Button long sleeves Shirts may be altered Pants no cuffs hemmed Footwear shined Uniforms clean and pressed Clean tie Authorizedrequired accessories in place The Role of Uniforms Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift 7 Inspecting amp Briefing the Shift Remind about management goals Update on needed information Free exchange of ideas foster creative thinking Inspect personnel