Security Administration CJA 4860
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Candida Hayes on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJA 4860 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Thomas Jurkanin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see /class/212951/cja-4860-middle-tennessee-state-university in Criminal Justice at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Proactive Security Administration Second Edition Chapter 7 Security Issues in Specific Areas Security Issues in Specific Areas Colleges and universities Schools Hospital and health care Laboratories Transportation air and rail Malls and retail Ports Mass trucking Recreation Security Issues in Specific Areas By the numbers 133000 malls and 534000 large stores nationwide 1 million plus office buildings nationwide 349000 food service facilities nationwide 153000 hotels and motels nationwide 305000 public assembly buildings nationwide 307000 churches nationwide 603000 warehouses and storage facilities nationwide 4000 colleges and universities nationwide College and University Security More than 4000 colleges and universities in the United States Campuses are like independent cities a wide range of services are provided to students Client populations generally between 18 24 years of age High numbers of visitors attend special events and athletic activities game day Public colleges have sworn officers private colleges generally have nonsworn and most are armed College and University Security Federal RegulationJeanne Clery Disclosure of Campus Security Policy and Campus Crime Statistics Act Clery Act The Clery Act was originally enacted in 1990 and has been revised several times since Named after Jeanne Clery a 19 year old freshman student at Lehigh University who was raped and murdered in her residence hall room in 1986 Jeanne s parents discovered in the aftermath that there had been 38 violent crimes committee at Lehigh in the previous three years and the students were not notified Clery Act The law s main goal was to ensure that when selecting an institution of higher education to attend current and prospective students as well as their parents would be able to obtain accurate quotof cialquot statistics about how much crime had occurred on a respective college or university campus Cleary Act The act requires all colleges and universities to publish statistics on certain crimes on campus adjoining roadways and properties owned by the educational institution and report security practices in general and in residence halls Clery Act The campus has to report how it will notify the campus community of serious crimes or threats Policy on the admission of registered sex offenders on campus Protocols for the investigation of missing students Reporting violent felony offenses to campus law enforcement and local law enforcement Fire safety procedures Hate crime reporting Crimes on Campus The most pressing problem facing campus police agencies is student alcohol and drug abuse which is the underlying cause of many criminal offenses However campuses experience a microcosm of all violent and property crime offenses Nationally university and college campus crime statistics average 62 reports of violent crime per 1000 students New challenges also include relationship violence bullying stalking hate crimes fraud cases cyber crime and identity theft Other Concern Pandemic Viruses How will the campus operate if large numbers of faculty and students are taken down by viruses such as NlHl Collegeaged students are susceptible to this and other viruses Emergency plans have to address the potential shortening of the academic calendar or going to Internetbased classes if the campus must shut down operations Active Shooter Events and Response The murder of 36 students at Virginia Tech on August 17 2007 had a profound impact on college and university security The Virginia Tech incident was the worst homicide event in the history of American higher education In February 2008 5 students and faculty were killed and 16 wounded at Northern Illinois University Active Shooter Events and ResponseVirginia Governor s Review PanelRecommendations Universities should conduct a threat assessment and then choose a level of security appropriate for the campus The head of the campus police should be a member of threat review team that reviews student conduct and actions that may be a threat to the campus community Campus police must train for active shooter incidents with neighboring police departments Active Shooter Events and ResponseVirginia Governor s Review PanelRecommendations The use of the incident command system should be used for incidents of this nature Regional disaster drills should be conducted to take into account high number of casualties Students faculty and staff should be trained in emergency response Potential Terrorism Incidents on University and College Campuses Because college and universities are open to nonstudents have a wide range of social and research activities and as with MTSU a flight school and have a large population of young adults there is a concern that campuses could be targets of terrorism Foreign students are tracked by the FBI School SecurityBy the numbers TOTAL NUMBER OF K12 SCHOOLS 132656 Elementary 88902 Secondary 27358 TOTAL PUBLIC SCHOOL ENROLLMENT 49293000 Elementary 38751000 Secondary 16451000 School Security Beginning in the mid 1990s a series of well publicized shootingmurders at public schools raised national concern regarding violence and weapons in schools I Feb 2 1996 Moses Lake Wash Two students and one teacher killed one other wounded when 14 yearold Barry Loukaitis opened fire on his algebra class I Oct 1 1997 Pearl Miss Two students killed and seven wounded by Luke Woodham 16 who was also accused of killing his mother He and his friends were said to be outcasts who worshiped Satan School SecurityShootings l Oct 1 1997 Pearl Miss Two students killed and seven wounded by Luke Woodham 16 who was also accused of killing his mother He and his friends were said to be outcasts who worshiped Satan Dec 1 1997 I West Paducah Ky Three students killed five wounded by Michael Carneal 14 as they participated in a prayer circle at Heath High School Dec 15 1997 I Stamps Ark Two students wounded Colt Todd 14 was hiding in the woods when he shot the students as they stood in the parking lot School SecurityShootings I March 24 1998 Jonesboro Ark Four students and one teacher killed ten others wounded outside as Westside Middle School emptied during a false fire alarm Mitchell Johnson 13 and Andrew Golden 11 shot at their classmates and teachers from the woods April 24 1998 I Edinboro Pa One teacher John Gillette killed two students wounded at a dance at James W Parker Middle School Andrew Wurst 14 was charged May 19 1998 I Fayetteville Tenn One student killed in the parking lot at Lincoln County High School three days before he was to graduate The victim was dating the exgirlfriend of his killer 18yearold honor student Jacob Davis School SecurityShootings httpwA 39 39 ipaAO777958htm I April 20 1999 Littleton Colo 14 students including killers and one teacher killed 23 others wounded at Columbine High School in the nation39s deadliest school shooting Eric Harris 18 and Dylan Klebold 17 had plotted for a year to kill at least 500 and blow up their school At the end of their hourlong rampage they turned their guns on themselves School Security The reaction of school districts after the shooting was to create zerotolerance policies for weapons possession and other types of criminal behavior and to increase security presence Establishing perimeter security points CCTV metal detectors policesecurity patrols etc Important element is threat assessment and intelligence gathering identifying potentially dangerous students Training for interpersonal violence reduction for students and crisis intervention skills for teachers and staff School SecurityThreat Assessment Studies show that in major school shooting incidents the attacks were planned and many students had been warned by the suspects that an event was planned and to stay clear of certain areas or simply stay home Schools are urged to create a threat assessment group to review intelligence information and to take action regarding potential treats or students with emotional problems who may need help School Security The National Association of School Resource Officers has estimated that 8000 security personnel are assigned to schools School Resource Officers often are fulltime police officers from local police agencies working on contract with the schools The officers engage the students and to staff monitor and reduce the potential of violence School Securitymportant Components of Security Plan Access Controlsign in procedures for visitors and establishing checkpoints for all entrances Threat Assessmentestablishing relationships with students and staff to identify conduct problems Developing Emergency Plans for Responsedeveloping written plans for response and recovery working with local law enforcement agencies Establishing LockDown Policies and Procedures and Conducting Periodic Drillstraining students and staff how to respond in the event of an incident Hospitals and Health Care 28600 hospitals in the United States 116 million people work in health care Hospitals and Health Care Hospitals and health care facilities encompass a wide range of service delivery models most are operating 247 as with colleges and universities they operate as independent small cities Accessibility to public creates problems patient visitors emergency rooms parking lots and theft Hospital security units must also secure psychiatric wards research labs narcotics supply areas disruptive patients Hospitals and Health Care Johns Hog kins Hospital Shooting Doctor Reported Shot In BaitimoreO9 1610 0933 PM BALTIMORE A man who became distraught as he was being briefed on his mother39s condition by a surgeon atJohns Hopkins Hospital pulled a gun and shot and wounded the doctor Thursday then killed his mother and himself in her room at the worldfamous medical center police said John Hopkins Shooting Harry Koffenberger vice president of security said the hospital uses handheld metal detectors to screen patients and visitors known to be high risk However with 80 entrances and 80000 visitors a week it is not realistic to place metal detectors and guards everywhere Hospitals and Health Care Emergency Room shootouts between rival gangs or individuals seeking to finish the job Psychiatric Units persons who are a danger to themselves and others Staff are vulnerable physical attacks by patients Staff Safety the most pressing concern is for the safety of staff who are often victims of robbery theft and criminal mischief both in the health care facility or adjoining parking lots Laboratory Security Renewed emphasis because of anthrax attacks after 911 and the potential for terrorists to obtain biological weapons from laboratories Labs have a rating based on their types of research ranges from Biosafety 1 to 4 Greater security emphasis for perimeter and internal access inventory and specimen control background checks Hospitals and Health Care Regional Emergency Management hospitals represent an important part of a regional emergency management plan to deal with large numbers of casualties I Hospitals must develop plans for quotmass preventiontreatment outside the patient care system I In the event of a serious incident hospitals may have to deal with hundred of patients Hospitals must be prepared to provide care for victims contaminated by a chemical agent biological agents or pandemics Hospitals and Health Care Triage is the process of determining the priority of patients39 treatments based on the severity of their condition Triage rations patient treatment efficiently when resources are insufficient for all to be treated immediately Airline Transportation Air transportation gets most of the attention because of the attacks of 911 HOW COULD THIS HAPPEN Airline Transportation The September 11 2001 terrorist attacks on the US were a llslap in the face awakening With all of our security experts how could we not have anticipated that our homeland was vulnerable to attack by airplanes flying with thousand of gallons of gasoline and lax security Airline TransportationTSA Wednesday July 13th 2011 25000 TSA Security Breaches Since 2001 quotThe Transportation Security Administration has suffered more than 25000 security breaches in US airports in the past ten years a House subcommittee on National Security is expected to report today Airline TransportationTSA The subcommittee which is under the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform and is scheduled to hold a hearing today on TSA oversight totaled the breaches after reviewing Department of Homeland Security documents on travel starting two months after the Sept 11 2001 terror attacks Airline Transportation Before 911 and the advent of TSA airport security was provided by private vendor s and local airport police Security operations were lax and maintained by employees with little training inadequate background checks and low pay and benefits Transportation Security Today passenger and cargo screeningsecurity is under the control of the Transportation Safety Administration TSA under the Department of Homeland Security TSA has hired 60000 security screeners under federal jurisdiction and deployed at airports nationwide TSA also enhanced the Federal Air Marshal Program I 5000 marshal s have been hired I They are place routinely placed covertly on regularly scheduled domestic and international flights Transportation Security In the wake of 911 airplane cockpit have been locked and secured in flight and pilot have been trained to use and allowed to carry firearms Transportation Security Checked baggage screening for explosives is currently being carried out by personnel and canine units Transportation Security The greatest challenges facing airport security operations involve I Air cargo I General aviation I Airport perimeter I Access security I Air traffic control Malls and Retail Areas Large shopping malls originated in the 1950s and have expanded over the last several decades Shopping malls are private properties with public access Malls and Retail Areas Malls have become the focus of retail activity Security issues include employee theft shoplifting robbery especially in parking lots various frauds at stores including credit card fraud gang and drug activity youth violence child stalking loitering vehicle breakin s and vehicle thefts Malls and Retail Areas A wide range of measures are employed to reduce retail loss I Environmental designcontrol of open spaces store entranceexist monitoring dressing room entranceexist monitoring location of merchandise staff training I Electronic article survey tags I CCTV and oneway glass I Cargo tracking by radio frequency identification RFID on products or in shipping pallets Recreation Security Sporting Events I Super Bowl I College Football Concerts Theme Parks I Disneydraws million of visitors each year Cultural Events Recreation Security Risks Include I Severe weather I Rioting I Illegal drinking I Unruly behavior I Medical emergencies I Possibility of terrorist attacks I Fly over zones by aircraft I Bomb threats I Weapons of mass destruction Gaming Security Casino gambling is a growth industry Casino security requires great attention to crowd control identifying and monitoring suspected cheats and known criminals and monitoring casino employees at gaming tables Gaming Security Major casino corporations Harrah s Bally s Trump River Boat s Native American Las Vegas Reno New Jersey Gulf States Connecticut Illinois and Missouri Most threats are from employee thefts Casinos have an elaborate system of visual and electronic surveillance Port Security Seaports in the US are part of the critical infrastructure in the American economy and present a highrisk security problem Ships present an attractive target especially those carrying cargoes such as gasoline liquid nitrogen munitions and other substances Port Security The US Coast Guard and the US Customs and Border Patrol routinely conduct security checks of ships and cargo Because of the volume of cargo it is impossible to conduct security checks on all cargo Trucking Since the Oklahoma City bombing on April 19 1995 when a truck filled with ammonium nitrate fertilizer and nitro methane exploded killing 168 persons and injuring 680 greater attention has been paid to truck cargoes Timothy McVeigh Mass Transit Mass Transit is a term for commuter trains subways buses that carry people to work and social events Mass transit trains and facilities are prime targets for terrorists Mass transit is also a prime target for robbery Mass Transit Mass Transit Bombings I Barcelon2004 I London2005 In these two incidents 247 people were killed and 2500 were injured On November 27 2009 Chechen rebels blew up an express train outside of Moscow killing 39 Railroads The total number of track miles in the US is estimated at 140 000 Bulk items include a wide variety of hazardous materials including oil anhydrous ammonia propane and nuclear waste products Railway accidents present a major risk Definition of Terms Clery Act a federal law which requires colleges and universities in the United States to annually report on safety practices and certain offense categories that occur on campus property The law was enacted in the early 1990 s to bring about consumer awareness of crime and violence on college campuses General Aviation a term that refers to all private and cargo aviation operations The question facing these concerns is to what extent aviation security procedures enacted after 911 apply to passengers cargo and pilots Definition of Terms Health Care Facility term given to a wide range of health operations and units providing health care This could include a hospital emergency center and long term care facilities Security issues are abundant and include patient staff and visitor protection Mass Transit refers to commuter bus train and subway lines For security discussions passenger stations and repair facilities and train track rightof ways pose a serious challenge for security operations in terms access control and target hardening Definition of Terms Recreation as applied to security operations includes a wide range of operations for sporting events theme parks concerts and events where large numbers of people gather Planning must take into account weather equipment malfunction and use of alcohol by customers and parking and traffic RFID stands for radio frequency identification devices whereby tags and labels are used to track the location and storage of goods and shipping pallets vehicles and even people Definition of Terms School Resource Officer include sworn and nonsworn personnel who provide security at elementary and secondary schools Some officers are trained to provide mediation and counseling for disruptive students and to offer classroom programs on student safety Shrinkage term is used in the retail industry to apply to the loss of goods that can occur anywhere from manufacturer to retail store to store racks Although there is counting error most shrinkage is due to employee and customer theft Definition of Terms TSA stands for Transportation Security Administration and is part of the Department of Homeland Security Because of the events of 911 the TSA is responsible for the aviation security of passengers and cargo which includes screening for weapons and explosives
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