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Date Created: 09/19/14
Chapter 3 Perspectives on Personality 91914 335 PM Three Levels of Psychological Theory Personality perspectives reflect broad areas of interest 0 Biological underpinnings o Psychological Processes Personality Theories sets of related assumptions about personality o Psychodynamic o Humanistic Micro theories specific sets off testable hypotheses o People repress uncomfortable memories o People39s motives direct them in different ways All have different motives o All theoretical levels are informed by Empirical Findings Underlying research Concepts of Personality Wundt 0 Biological Psycho evoutionariy Bio socia o Intra psychic Psychodynamic Trait 0 Social Socia cognitive Cross cutura o Developmental Psycho socia Humanistic positive Study Theoretical Perspectives o Collect together theoretical issues concerning personality that have emerged throughout history o Understanding them provides a context for what one encounters o Personality psychologists are informed by them Overview of Biopsychology o Concerns biological explanations and substrates for psychological phenomena 0 Major Theories Psychoevolutionary 2 How did we get this range of personalities Did caveman have this range What has our evolution occurred in reference to Biopsychological 392 What happens from evolutionary drive Why do we better manage stress What would we do in our personality to change that Central Ideas of Evolutionary Theory Organisms with certain features are better able to adapt to hostile forces of nature 0 Behavioray we all face certain questions Who is my ally My foe What food should I eat Who should I marry Individuals who answers those questions better than others are better adapted 0 Questions are answered differently now Because they better adapt they are better able to survive and reproduce Biological Perspective There are genes in the gene pool that control behavioral differences 0 Adaptation Giraffes once has shorter necks Giraffes with Taller necks better found highgrowing leaves They are therefore more likely to reproduce 0 Second Example There was a selection for larger brains Led to greater capacity to amass resources Greater reproductive success Pre Homo Sapiens 0 Genetic Influences as Viewed through Twin Studies Monozygotic twins 100 genetic material in common Dizygotic twins 50 genetic material in common Cousins aunts uncles 25 Strangers 0 Corpus Collusum Relevant to Personality 0 Corpus Collusum Brain structure the corpus callosum permit communication between two hemispheres When larger better permits a person to integrate emotion and thought It is larger on average in women 2 Better at multitasking Women are better able to integrate some emotional information Intrapsychic Perspective Central ideas of the Trait Approach 0 Consistencies in personal behavior 0 Consistencies are important parts of personality called trait Searching for stable traits 0 Search for an understanding of Traits 0 Gordon Allport The Big Five Traits o Traits on a continuum Central Psychodynamic Ideas 0 Freud Discussed tip of the iceberg things in unconscious that are entering preconscious D ID 2 Ego 2 Superego 0 Central Idea Parts of personality 2 Conscious 2 Unconscious Parts dynamically struggle with one another Dynamics can be changed for the better 0 Example Patient in Psychotherapy The person free associates until unconscious desires are uncovered The person with be mentally healthier by making the unconscious conscious Anna O o Psychodynamic Principles From Freud39s original theory 2 Personality predictable structure unconscious processes 2 Developmental values of childhood determining how we behave as adults 2 Personality is shaped by how one copes with sexual urges The Sociocultural Approach Perspective Central Socia Cognitive Ideas 0 Personality is made up of cognitive structures 0 Those cognitive structures are learned and influence how a person thinks o Bandura Contemporary Psychoanalytic Theories of Personality Development 0 Attempts to remove the sexist elements from traditional psychoanalytic theory as well as re formuate psychoanalytic concepts Social Cognitive Approach Situational Impact Conditional Traits Given X I am aggressive Given Y I am cooperative The Biological Perspective Evolution of Personality 0 Need to belong social anxiety 0 Altruism related to genetic relatedness 0 Universal expression of emotion 0 Sex differences Aggression Jealousy Mate preference The Sociocultural Approach Perspective Trait Stability of the Lifespan o Temperament is the most stable Ideas of the Cultural Perspective o Personality involves learned understanding of the world and attitudes toward it Cultures convey such information Some personality aspects are general over cultures Others differ over cultures Think of individualist and collectivist cultures and the vast differences Ideas of the Cultural Perspective 0 Autonomy vs communal orientation The Tempora Deveopmenta Approach Psychosocial Stage Theories o Idea that children and adults personality develop according to understandable patterns such as life stages 0 Each stage or pattern involves the achievement of certain goals o Erik Erikson for example described eight stages of growth Humanistic Theory Central Ideas o The person is motivated to grow in a healthy fashion o The person develops toward sef actuaization o Key figures Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow Humanistic Perspective 0 A person given a warm unconditionally accepting environment will learn about their real needs and mental The Systems Approach Here 0 The different perspectives cam be translated into a common language 0 Freud39s introject an internalized imagine of another can be translated into cognitive psychoogy s mental model 0 Roger39s real self can be translated into general terminology of emotion and the self concept 0 Different perspectives share concerns that can be described by some basic topics What is personality What are its parts What is its organization OOOO 91914 336 PM 91914 336 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