Terrorism and Criminal Justice
Terrorism and Criminal Justice CJA 3750
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Candida Hayes on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CJA 3750 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Clyde Adkison in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see /class/212956/cja-3750-middle-tennessee-state-university in Criminal Justice at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Terrorism amp Criminal Justice Vlewing 911 with 2020 The United States of America suffered great losses at the hands of agents belonging to alQaeda a militant Islamic terrorist group led by Osama bin Laden on September 11 2001 The attackers held no regard for the precious lives that they destroyed and awoke the sleeping giant from its cocooned naive dormancy On that fateful day four commercial passenger jet liners were hijacked by 19 terrorists supported and funded by alQaeda with the intention of using the planes as guided missiles to strike fear and uncertainty into the hearts of every American domestically and abroad The first two planes struck the Twin Towers in New York part of the chain of World Trade Center buildings After the second plane was seen hitting the South tower of the World Trade Center there was no longer any doubt left lingering in the mind of any American we as a nation were under attack The third plane used in the attacks on September 11 2001 was guided into the Pentagon and the fourth plane was headed towards the US Capitol Thankfully and yet also sadly the fourth plane never made it to its intended target the passengers on board were aware that America was under attack and knew that the hijackers had no intentions of safely landing the aircraft and holding the passengers for ransom Therefore they heroically took matters into their own hands and attempted to retake the plane by force but those heroes were only partially successful The plane was forced down into a wooded area in Pennsylvania rather than the Capitol and according to the transcript of United Flight 93 s recorder one of the hijackers gave the order to roll the plane once it became clear that they would lose control of the plane to the passengers There were no survivors from any of the four planes used that day but their memories live on in the friends and family that they were forced to leave behind In all there were 2973 victims that lost their lives as a result of the attacks upon our nation and all 19 of the hijackers were killed At 846 am American Airlines Flight 11 from Boston was crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Center Only 17 minutes later at 903 am United Airlines Flight 175 also from Boston crashed into the South Tower at the World Trade Center Immediately following the striking of the second tower the FAA shut down all New York area airports By 925 am the FAA had ordered the grounding of all domestic ights within the entire United States and ordered all inbound international ights to land in Canada however the realization of the attack came too late to do any good all the planes that were to be used in the attacks were already in the air and already under the control of the agents of alQaeda The Pentagon was to be the next target of the Islamic extremists At approximately 937 am American Airlines Flight 77 barreled through the 3 outer rings of the western wing of the Pentagon in less than 45 of a second The fourth and final plane United Airlines Flight 93 did not successfully make it to its intended destination This was due entirely to the courage of the passengers and crew on board who were armed with the Terrorism amp Criminal Justice knowledge that failure to act in any capacity would certainly mean the death of themselves and would serve bolster the image of the cause which the terrorists were operating under The timeline of events that transpired on September 11 2001 occurred too quickly to gather actionable intelligence and effectively halt the attacks Undeniably steps could have been taken prior to the attacks which may have led to a different outcome but only hindsight is 2020 Instead of looking at what the United States could have done better in preventing the attacks we will examine what actions and proposals proved to be beneficial in the aftermath and how we as a nation have grown and matured since the attacks Information regarding the enemy is a vital part of warfare just as it is vital during times of peace In the years leading up to the start of the War on Terrorism which immediately followed the heinous attacks on September 11 2001 information had been gathered concerning alQaeda Osama bin Laden and even some of the individual terrorists involved in the terror attacks While the hijackings and senseless murders were a shock to all they should not have come as a surprise to anyone within the intelligence communities In February of 1998 Osama bin Laden and four others issued a selfstyled fatwa and publicly declaring that every faithful Muslim should make it their personal mission to kill any American military or civilian regardless of they were in the world as decreed by God This fatwa was brought forth because of American occupation of Islam s holy places and aggression against Muslims according to Osama bin Laden Essentially alQaeda had declared war upon the United States and the fatwa served as a sure sign that violence was headed our way Speaking to members of the 911 Commission an independent and bipartisan panel created by Congress to investigate the September 11 2001 terror attacks former CIA Director George Tenet advised former Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice that there were credible signs of possible attacks in the coming months or even weeks by alQaeda It was suspected that there would be multiple simultaneous and focused attacks with the intention of causing massive human casualties and destroying assets and interests owned by the United States Unfortunately most of the reports indicated that the attacks would be focused overseas rather than an attack on the homeland In response to the increasing number and alarming nature of the reports coming in during the early part of 2001 the Bush Administration began developing a new strategy with the established goal of eliminating the alQaeda threat within three to five years according to the 911 Commission s Executive Summary Former President Bush drafted a directive which would arm the newly created Predator spy drone an unmanned aerial vehicle with a missile On September 4 2001 the chief advisers to the Bush Administration approved the draft directive and endorsed the concept or arming the spy drone for the stated purpose of killing Osama bin Laden as well as his chief lieutenants Terrorism amp Criminal Justice should the opportunity have arisen The directive was awaiting Bush s nal signature on the day of the nowinfamous attacks The information foretelling the attack was present but the dots were not connected in time Zacarias Moussaoui the accused 20th designated hijacker aroused suspicion from authorities after he attended only 57 hours of ight training at Airman Flight School in Norman Oklahoma and then enrolled in simulator training for a Boeing 747400 at the Pan Am International F light Academy in Eagan Minnesota Moussaoui is suspected of being a candidate to replace Ziad Jarrah as a suicide pilot who considered abandoning the plot at one point According the the 911 Commission s Report Moussaoui told an al Qaeda associate that he would complete simulator training before September 2001 On August 16 2001 Zacarias Moussaoui was arrested by agents of the INS and FBI in Minnesota At the time of his arrest he was carrying two knives ight manuals for the Boeing 747 Model 400 a ight simulator computer program ghting gloves and shin guards a piece of paper referring to a handheld Global Positioning System software that could be used to review pilot procedures for the Boeing 747 Model 400 and a handheld aviation radio He would later be charged with siX felony conspiracy charges The United States government had a plethora of opportunities to capture or kill Osama bin Laden prior to the attacks on 911 One such plan was devised in 1996 and required Sudan to make the initial arrest in Khartoum the Capitol of Sudan then tum bin Laden over to Saudi Arabia who would then turn him over to the United States The hitch in that plan laid with the Saudis they refused to accept bin Laden Sudan expelled him to Afghanistan in May of 1996 after Saudi Arabia s refusal to take bin Laden had he been extradited After the bombings of US Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August 1998 which killed 224 people and injured over 4600 the Clinton administration began to more vigorously pressure the Taliban in Afghanistan to eXpel Osama bin Laden according to an article from the Washington Post Authors of the 911 Commission Report stated From 1999 through early 2001 the United States pressed the United Arab Emirates one of the Taliban s only travel and financial outlets to the outside world to break off ties and enforce sanctions especially those related to air travel to Afghanistan These attempts to displace bin Laden ultimately proved fruitless but they serve to demonstrate how the United States was not only aware of the potential danger that al Qaeda and bin Laden posed but that the US made attempts to disrupt the actions and capabilities of both As mentioned previously intelligence is vital and has never been in short supply of the government Another vital asset which was tested and proven as a result of the terrorist attack Terrorism amp Criminal Justice on 911 was the quick reactions of local state and federal agencies as well as their willingness and ability to make hard decisions and effectively coordinate several nationwide efforts simultaneously The FAA is credited for quickly handling the situation the best way that the circumstances would allow by instituting a nationwide alert stopping all ground traffic and ordering all aircraft in the air to immediately land All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on US soil for three days after the attack Aircraft that were in ight prior to the time of the attacks were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico 7 none were allowed into US airspace Arguably one of the toughest decisions that had to be made that day was whether to shoot down passenger aircraft known to be under the control of the thenunknown terrorists The North American Aerospace Defense Command NORAD was the organization with the unfortunate duty to order that the shootdown authorization be given a green light NORAD eventually did give such an order but it came nearly half an hour after United Airlines Flight 93 crashed into the field in Pennsylvania according to the 911 Commission s Executive Summary Immediately following the attacks the FBI launched Operation PENTTBOM Pentagon amp Twin Towers Bombing and did so with ferocious haste According to the FBI website Our ensuing investigation of the attacks of 911017codenamed PENTTBOM 7was our largest investigation ever At the peak of the case more than half our agents worked to identify the hijackers and their sponsors and with other agencies to head off any possible future attacks We followed more than halfa million investigative leads including several hundred thousand tips from the public The attack and crash sites also represented the largest crime scenes in FBI history wwwFBI gov One of the most controversial pieces of legislation to stem from the aftermath of the 911 attacks the USA PATRIOT Act was signed into law on October 26 2001 by President Bush The PATRIOT Act lessens the requirements that law enforcement agencies must meet to search telephone and email communications medical financial and other records without going through the traditional medium of the federal Court system and first obtaining warrants to collected the aforementioned data The act also eases the restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering withing the United States it expands the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to monitor and regulate transactions made especially those involving foreign individuals or assets over the traditional financial networks The range of discretion given to law enforcement and immigration authorities in holding and deporting suspected agents of terrorism was also increased by the PATRIOT Act Finally the act expands the accepted definition of terrorism to include domestic terrorism thus enlarging the number of activities that the PATRIOT Act could be applied to Terrorism amp Criminal Justice The Treasury Department of the United States began issuing subpoenas to SWIFT under the Terrorist Finance Tracking Program soon after it was determined that alQaeda was responsible for the attacks SWIFT is a Belgiumbased nancial records company which operates a worldwide messaging system used to transmit bank transaction information according to the US Treasury s website As a result of the US effort to track the ow of money from terrorist networks operatives and their financiers have been identified and located terrorist networks have been charted and the US is better able to intercept the money and prevent it from being used in the furtherance of the goals of the terrorist networks According to a New York Times article in June 2006 The Terrorist Finance Tracking Program helped lead to the capture of an alQaeda operative known as Hambali in 2003 believed to be the mastermind of the 2002 Bali bombing as well as helped identify a Brooklyn man convicted in 2005 for laundering money for an al Qaeda operative in Pakistan The New York Police Department functioned more efficiently than nearly all other agencies involved in the aftermath of the 911 attacks primarily due to the experience they have in mobilizing and coordinating thousands of officers at one time for crowd control situations Such massive undertakings require an expansive radio network which the Department had become skilled at utilizing Contingency plans for the continuity of government the ability of the government to maintain its structure and ability to effectively perform and the evacuation of leaders were also implemented almost immediately after the attacks The White House was evacuated and the headsofstate were separated for their own safety Congress saw the need to delegate some of the jobs tasked to the CIA Director and as a result passed the Homeland Security Act in November 2002 which former President Bush then signed This Act created the Department of Homeland Security as an executive Cabinetlevel department of the United States and represented the single largest restructuring of the US government in modern history Department of Homeland Security website Relief funds were established to assist the victims of the attacks and their families by providing a different forms of financial assistance One such fund was setup by the federal government to compensate the families of the victims who lost their lives on September 11 2001 By September 11 2003 the deadline given by the government to apply for compensatory funds a total of 2833 applications had been sent from the families of those killed in the attacks and another 3624 applications were sent from various people who were wounded in the attacks Brian Bembaum CBS Terrorism amp Criminal Justice A nal compliment to the people of America was earned through the sel ess acts committed by the civilians police officers re ghters emergency medical technicians and emergency management professionals These parttime service workers and full time heroes demonstrated incredible focus and determination during a chaotic and horrific experience The courageous men and women in uniform bravely put themselves in harm s way overandover with the sole mission of saving as many lives as possible and they did so maintaining a humble resolve Horrible though the attacks were there is no denying that they brought all of the people involved closer together so that neither race nor creed nor nationality mattered It was this spirit that gave encouragement to the friends and family who were damaged in the aftermath of the attacks It was this spirit that was re ected in those who attended the candlelight vigils and memorials around the world In conclusion while it cannot be said that either the destruction of property or the loss of life which occurred on September 11 2001 was a positive it can be pointed out that a lot of good did precede the attacks and a lot of positive things have come about since the attacks Lessons have been learned and steps have been taken to try to comfort the American citizens and to reassure them that their government is doing everything within its power to seek justice and security for its people domestically as well as abroad Works Cited httpwww 39 39 4 com wpJ ticles A103002005Anr22 html httpwwwinfowarscomsaved202agesPri0r KnowledgeUS met talibanhtm Terrorism amp Criminal Justice httpwww vhsnews mm tnries 20040116 Imt39 39 39 591715shtm1 httpwwwibi govpress e1 39 39 39 htm httpwww nvtimes mm 20060623 39 39 4 Mime html r1quot quot 1151121600ampen18 f9ed20f37511d5ampei5094amppaitue 39 httpwww Ilstrens V 39 is4340htm httpwwwdhsg0VXab0utlawslaw regulation rule 0011shtm httpwwwgSf wimu quot 39 39 quot R8 J 39 39Vm from previous u I am naskis summit 2002g8 counter terrorism onnnemtinn since 39 11th hm l ormmderhtml httpwwwlnwnmkv edn facultvproiectsFTrials 39 1 htm httn39 knttke nr nlus misc 91 39 39 html
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