Domestic Animal Reproductive Physiology
Domestic Animal Reproductive Physiology ABAS 4510
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Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy Terminology Vulva 7 The external genitalia of the female Keeps out large contaminates Everything is designed to protect the fetus Vulva is made up of the dorsal and ventral commissure labia maj era and labia minora Cutaneous Bridge 7 Skin bridge betvve en the rectum and the vulva Cutaneous Bridge I Vulva Dorsal Commissure 7A seam or a line resulting from the site of union of two components ofan organ system The point ofjunotion between the two labia ofthe female external genitalia Two sides of the vulva come together at the dorsal topbackside side Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 2 Ventral Commissure 7A seam or a line resulting from the site of union of two components 0 an organ s stem Thepoint ofjunction between the two labia ofthe female external genitalia Two sides of the vulva come together at the ventral bottom side Dorsal Commissure Labia Maj ora right and le 7 The lipshaped structures forming the lateral boundaries of the female external genitalia Composed of skin and muscle Has hair Hair 0 ump function is to funnel things away from the vulva Labia Minora right and le 7 The lipshaped structures forming the lateral boundaries of the female external genitalia Has no hair and is sometimes lighter in color than the labia majora Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 3 Labia Ma Ia 1 Labia lVLinora Clitoris x w av Clitoris 7A small body of highly innervated erectile tissue located in the posterior extremity of the ventral vaginal floor It is the homologue of the penis It is full of nerve endings for sexual stimulation Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 4 Vestibule 7 The portion of the vagina cranial to the clitoris extending to and including the urethral opening It is common to both the urinary and reproductive systems Primary function is to secrete vestibular uid for lubrication secondary effect is anti microbial Starts after labia minora and ends at the urethral orifice Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 5 Vagina 7 The female copulatory organ that connects the external genitalia to the cervix Holds the penis during copulation Urinary Bladder 7Where urine is stored Urethrai Connects the bladder to the vestibule Urethral Ori ce 7 Opening from urethra into vestibule Suburethral Diverticulum iAn outpocketing of tissue located justbeneath the urethra thatforms a blindpouch with probably no mctionalsigni cance Blind pocked located below the urethral ori ce and goes nowhere De nitive line between vestibule and vagina Ventral Commissure Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 6 Fornix Vagina 7 The cranial portion of the vagina that forms a crypt extending cranially to the cervix Where sperm is deposited in ruminants and horses not pigs Area folds around cervix F ornix Vagina Vagina Urethral Ori ce i 1 Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 7 Cervix 7A stmcture consisting of dense connective tissue with varying degrees of folding and protrusion of the mucosal epithelium The cervix connects the utems to the vagina Last line of defense to protect the uterus physical barrier Main function is protection the cervix is tighter when animal is pregnant cervical mucus turns into cervical plug Cervical mucus is also a chemical barrier Cervix is also a barrier for sperm only the best get through Cervical Rings Cow and Ewe 7 Obstacles for sperm only the best get through lters out deformed dead and weak sperm Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 8 Uterine Body 7 Area between cervix and uterine horns Gestation in ruminant does not take place here so it is not very developed Internal Uterine Bifurcation 7 The internal point in which the uterus splits into two separate horns External Uterine Bifurcation 7 The external point of separation forking of the two uterine horns External Uterine Bifurcation Internal Uterine Bifurcation Ute ne Body Cervix Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 9 Uterine Horns 7 T he portions of the uterus that are the result of the incomplete Asion of paramesonephric ducts Where implantation of the embryo takes place Broad Ligament 7 The ligament continuous with the peritoneum that supports the female reproductive tract consisting of the mesometrium the mesosalpinx and the mesovarium Holds uterus and reproductive track to pelvis Uterine Horns 39J Endometrium 7 The mucosal lining of the uterus Lining of the uterus including body and horns important in the implantation of the embryo Myometrium7 The smooth muscle layer of the utems consisting of an inner circular layer and an outer longitudinal layer Muscle layer that lies under the endometrium Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 10 Caruncles In ruminants a buttonlike area of the uterine endometrium that will form the maternal side of the cotyledonaryplacenta Highly vascular and nonglandular regions of the ruminant uterus that protrude from the endometrial suiface They will form the maternal cotyledon the maternal contribution to the placentome Bumps in the uterine horns Tells What type of placentation occurs attachment of the placentaembryo onto caruncles Caruncles Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 1 l Uterotubal Junction 7 The site where the oviduct joins the uterus Where the uterus ends and oviduct begins Function is to regulate movement of sperm and ovum Oviduct 7 The small usually convoluted ducts Fallopian tubes or uterine tubes originating embryologically from the paramesonephric ducts that transport ova and sperm The oviduct consists of the ampullary and isthmic regions IAI 7 three parts of the oviduct From uterus 71sthmus Ampulla Infundibulum Mesosalpinx 7A portion of the broad ligament that surrounds and supports the oviduct Thin layer of broad ligament that oviduct is in Uterus Utero bal Junction Oviduct Mesosalpinx Ovary Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 12 Isthmus 7A narrow passage connecting two larger cavities The isthmus of the oviduct is ofsmall diameter and connects the large diameter ampulla ofthe oviduct to the utems Ampulla 7 In the female the ovarian onethird of the oviduct characterized by a large diameter and many mucosal folds In the male enlargements in the ductus deferens that open directly into the pelvic urethra Ampullarstthmic Junction 7 The region of the oviduct where the ampulla makes an anatomical transition into the isthmus Site of fertilization Infundibulum 7A hollow mnelshaped structure or passage Catches eggs from ovary De nitive end of female reproductive track Ovary is not part of the track Ovary 7 T he female gonad Produces estrogen and produces ovum Hilus 7A region housing blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves that enter and leave an organ Stem of ovary Supplies blood vessels and nerves Hilus Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 13 Antral Follicle iAn ovarian follicle that contains an antrum cavity Antral follicles consist of an oocyte follicular uid granulosal cells the theca interna and the theca externa Mature follicle About to ovulate Full of uid that protects ovum Corpus Luteum iAn orange to yellow collored transient endocrine structure formed after ovulation from grarmlosal and thecal cells of the ovarian follicle The corpus luteum is responsible for producing progesterone and oxytocin Production of progesterone At spot of hemorrhagrcum Corpus uleum lnclinnul Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 14 Colpus Luk nm ll39mmumull Corpus Hemorrhagicum 7A small blood clot that results from rupture of blood vessels during ovulation Rupture of blood vessels Corpus Albicans 7A white scarlikefibrzms ovarian structure that represents advanced regreassion of the corpus luteum Originates from hemorrhagicum scar generated from hemorrhage pitted and darker in color Female Bovine Reproductive Anatomy 15 Slide Set 3 Chapter6 SEXUAL MATU RATION PUBERTY transition chronological physiological accomplishing reproduction successfully age at puberty Sexual Maturation end of puberty Puberty period of time from sexual immaturity to sexual maturity Maturation of the hypothalamus If able to produce GnRH starts cascade of other hormones If animal can reproduce successfully it is sexually mature Slide Set3 C ha ple r 6 Cam Swine Horszs shaep Gaels Dog Cats Chickens Turkey 12 mo an 13 wk m Male 7ma 111nm 7mn 7mu yum yum ZBwk m mum 21mm 12 ma an 12 wum remzhz Emu 1 ma 7mn 7mn llnm Emu 23ka 13 mum 21 WHEE Slide Set 3 Chapler6 SEXUAL MATU RATlON PUBERTY IN THE FEMALE indicators pregnancy maintenance age at first estrus age at first ovulation threshold blood estradiol levels behavioral responses secondary sex characteristics threshold weight and body composition fatness 0 metabolic requirements signals Pregnancy maintenance is sexual maturity Age at first estrus and ovulation could be sexual maturity Estradiol levels means animal has follicular development Behavior responses standingto be mounted biggest sign does not mean can reproduce yet Secondaw sex characteristics much clearer in the male Slide Set 3 Chapler6 SEXUAL MATU RATION PUBERTY IN THE MALE indicators age at first ejaculation sperm in ejaculate sperm in urine behavioral responses secondary sex characteristics threshold blood testosterone levels Sperm in urine indicatorthat sperm production is at max Its how body gets rid of overproduction Prepubertal males always have less blood testosterone levels Slide Set 3 Chapter6 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS GNRH SECRETION increasing frequency and amplitude initiation of folliculogenesis initiation of spermatogenesis Hygothalamus Hypothalamic Neurons m GnRH center we GnRH center female only As hypothalamic nuclei mature more GnRH produced Hypothalamus repro Male has no surge center ifthey did testosterone would surge Surge when mature causes surge of GnRH Tonic causes normal levels steady levels 3 n Surge Tonic Paraventricular Nuclei PVN Slide Set 3 Chapler6 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS PREPUBERTAL insufflc nt ant pit stimulation to release FSHZLH low frequency GnRH low level circulating estradiol lack of surge center stimulation surge center sensitive to E2 but no stimulation no surge center in the male constant state LH and testosterone Low frequency GnRH FSH and LH low Lack of surge center stimulation because not mature enough Surge center isvery receptive to estrogen feedback Stimulated more by estrogen Tonic not inhibited as much by estrogen More sensitive as hypothalamus matures Slide Set 3 Chapter6 FigureGS Elma Puberty After Puberty and my u n g 1 y 3 quot u i i E l rmmnil a i W 9 i r g l i 0 39 1 0 m 20 JD 5 Days Surges before puberty mean nothing because level not high enough or ordered Surge in GnRH causes surge in LH that causes cascade of events that lead to ovulation lnhibin keeps FSH from surging Levels of GnRH causes levels of testosterone Slide Set 3 Chapter6 INITIATION OF SEXUAL MATU RATION 0 Male no surge center 0 E2 stimulates GnRH surge POSITIVE FEEDBACK 0 E2 inhibits GnRH tonic NEGATIVE FEEDBACK Positive feed back goes up at sexual maturity Negative feedback goes down ah sexual maturity Slide Set 3 Chapter 6 FEMALE DURING PUBERTY MALE Tani enter hemnlas less sensitive Tunic enter become less sensitive m I negative feedhuk Io E1 negative feedback Higher 5mm Seuetinn 1mm Higher mum SECIEtiun tunic enter mm mm center Highernvarian r1 lnueased rsquot amp m Vusitive feedhack nl Elan surge Elllef lnireased FSH cam GnRH levels able to go up as tonic center is less negatively impacted by inhibin GnRH 4 FSH 4 E1 4 in that order always Threshold level of E1 to stimulate surge center Slide Set3 Chapter 6 Figure 64 IB i If l l 4 Before After 2 Puberty Puberty LH Pulse Frequency pulsesZ4 h li 574tarzo23 Months Before and After Puberty Slide is female because there are surges Surge LH starts ovulation Does not happen at peak because it takes time Slide Set3 Chapter6 Fema es have mqn ampmude preuvuv mm mm Manes have sman LH episodes maquot Occur every 2 m 6 hours Te Grated soon anm each LH epvsade 1quot o 11 2 o 2 m w P IaLorv Epwsudes 01 LH once every 5 era weeks and hasa pmsaMe epxsades between ms argc preovmamyy surges Female Female m m K E m w 2 k m lquot pa quot E t i u 20 mm hnurs39 3 Male 2 Male WWWWmN WNM W WWWMW rm mm Testosterone has negative feed back on tonic center Slide Set 3 Chapler6 DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS PULSE GENERATOR nonvital body functions degree of body fat blood glucose and fatty acids LH pulses amp surges anterior pituitary Pulse generator hypothalamic control Body composition effect on puberty only in female Pulse generatortells hypothalamus what state the body is in in relation to energy balance Slide Set 2 Chapter 5 HORMONES Endocrine System endocrine into the blood macromoecues secretion transportation influence feedback or Endocrine Pertaining to the secretion afharmanes by an internal gland that are secreted into the bland Hormones transport signais to organs tissues or other giands through the biood Some hormones transported by carrier proteins produced by g quot h p39 Hormones are the signais from source to target that cause target tissue to do something Target tissue sends feed backto the giand speed up 7 siow down The purpose of feed back is to get target to cha nge something Slide Set 2 Chapter 5 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM RESPONSE Endocrine Hormone substance secreted by glands into the blood for affecting target tissues proteins polypeptides glycoproteins steroids fatty acids Protein amino acids with secondary structure Polypeptide shorter amino acid chains most hormones are polypeptides Steroid cholesterol testosterone estrogen progesterone CLASSIFYING HORMONES HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES PITUITARY HORMONES GONADAL HORMONES UTERINE HORMONES Summary of Reproductive Hormones PP 122173 Hormones are classified by what gland produces the hormone Slide Set 2 Cha pter 5 WHAT IS THE HYPOTHALAMUS HYPOTHALAMIC HORMON ES Structure 3 to 44 amino acids Function release of 39tropic hormones from ant pit Hypothalamus produces hypothalamic hormones It is located at the base ofthe brain and made of modified neural tissue It is the master control of hormones Function of releasing hormones is to cause the anterior lobe ofthe pituitary gland to release 39tropic hormones 39Tropic meansto turn do something For example GnRH Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone tells the anterior pituitaw gland to release gonadotropins LH and FSH Slide Set 2 Chapter 5 Figure 53 Brain PVN Paraventricuiar Nuciei oniy reiated to oxytocin production Surge and tonic centers reiated to reieasing hormones AL Anterior Lobe most active pa r t PL Posterior Lobe reiease of oxytocin Hypotnaiamus is so ciose to pituitary giand to save time in sending messages Slide Set 2 Cha pter 5 HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES GONADOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE GnRH releasing hormone FSH and LH neurohormone decapeptide THYROTROPIN RELEASlNG HORMONE TRH m and grolactin from ant pit CORTICOTROPIN RELEASING HORMONE CRH from ant pit GH RELEASING HORMONE GHRH from ant pit SOMATOSTATIN inhibition not in booklindirectly related to reproduction related to metabolisml Hormones produced bythe hypothalamus rmosl important is GnRH causes gonadotropins to be released from anlrpill D r nestingl Prolactin CRH 7 causes release of corticotrophins g L39 39 39 39 39 muscle tissue the most but targets all n n P D L I n m39geni 8L Somatostatinrnot releasing hormone produced by hypothalamus Target is anlrpil regulates growth hormone Stops release ofGH from anlrpil Somatostatin goes into system lsystemic circulationl then to anlrpil gland Slide Set 2 Cha pter 5 HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES NEUROENDOCRINE REFLEX ygothalamus 39master of reproduction 39 neural control hypothalamus nerve cells MW neurohormones neuropegtides gonadotropin releasing hormone GnRH other releasing hormones oxytocin Neuroendocrine reflex is the link between neural network and blood Hypothalamic nuclei bundled nerve cells Hypothalamus is modified brain tissue nene cells neuropeptides Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 HYPOTHALAMOHYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM HYPOTHALAMUS mmmgumWe Primary Portal Plexus in pituitary stalk Secondary Portal Plexus in anterior pituitary gland Tropic Hormone from Ant Pit Nane tissue gt blood axons connect to primaw portal plexus Plexus bed of capillaries Hormonestravel from hypothalamic nuclei down axons Primaw portal plexus attached to hypothalamic nuclei Secondaw portal plexus hormones in blood diffuse to receptors in antpit that receive message cells produce then dump back into secondary plexus Localized circulation in blood only does not go into systemic circulation 9makes method quick and effective Slide Set 2 ChapterS Neurosecretory 69H m hypothaiamus Secretory drOplet Capmary mews Hypophyseal pona vessels Antenor pHuriary Caleary Posierior pimitary Axon from hvpothalami tonic s surge camels hypothalamin nuclei Slide Set 2 Chapter 5 PITUITARY HORMONES POSTERIOR PITUITARY Oxytocin paraventricular nuclei of hypothalamus stored in 8 released from post pit octapeptide oviductal contractions uterine contractions milk letdown mammary alveolar contraction PVN Paraventricular nuclei synthesize and release oxytocin Oxytocin produced by the hypothalamus specifically PVN Oxytocin stored and released in posterior pituitary in storage vesicles that burst when needed Oxytocin released before parturition milk letdown Contractions in oviduct during fertilization Oxytocin causes strong muscle contractions of smooth muscle Elm 39 DXYTOCINRELEASE PVN 7 tuna 0C Slide Set 2 Chapters PITUITARY HORMON ES W Follicle Stimulating Hormone FSH glycogrotein I affects granulosa cells of ovary causes folliculogenesis stimulates estradiol synthesis Luteinizing Hormone LH glycoprotein affects theca interna cells and luteal cells of ovary I stimulates ovulation formation of CL stimulates testosterone production in the male t Glycoprotein protein with carbohydrate FSH and LH are quot re pun i39ule Iul 39 by pituitary FSH affects granulosal cells of follicle causing follicle to growquot produces estrogen Fnllirla 39 t a I 439 a r I LH causes Luteinization begins process of ovulation Cells to become corpus luteum Iuteal cells FSH gt spermatogenesis in male LH gt production oftestosterone Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 Figu re 92 BEENicy Large luteal cells from granulosal cells Small luteal cells from thecal cells ofTheca Interna Corpus Luteum develops at corpus Hemorrhagicum Luteinization converts thecal and granulosal cells to luteal cells Luteal cells produce progesterone CL is yellow because luteal cells fill with fat Corpus Albicans is scarring over corpus Hemorrhagicum Slide Set 2 Cha pter 5 PITUITARY HORMONES W Prolactin protein female target mammary cells maternal behavior brain I lactation milk synthesis Adrenocorticotropic Hormone ACTH corticosteroids from adrenal gland Thyroid Stimulating Hormone TSH thyroxine T4 amp triiodothyronine T3 from thyroid omatotropin STH O bone growth muscle accretion lactation ACI39H affects Adrenal Cortex to release CRH that affect nutrient metabolism Prolactin stimulates production of milk Affects brain maternal instinctnesting behavior Thyrotropin releasing hormone TRH release of prolactin Thyroid relates to metabolism Somatotropin growth hormone RBST bovine Somatotropin increase lactation OVAR IE5 Estradiol E2 steroid Sertoli cells also produce FSH stimulated synthesis 0 sexual behavior secondary sex characteristics GnRH release positive feedback from E2 Ca metabolism influences mammary gland ducts 0 uterine mass and contractility during estrus GONADAL HORMONES 0 produced by granulosa cells follicle 8 placenta J Sertoli cells found in testes Secondary sex characteristic E2 doesn t allow development of male characteristics More FSH and LH OVARlES mm erggesterong P4 quotprogestationquot 0 produced by corpus luteum and placenta 39 uterine preparation 0 influences alveoli of mammary gland inhibits GnRH quotmaintenance of pregnancyquot 1 O quotl aquot GONADAL HORMONES Progesterone maintains pregnancy Inhibition of GnRH sends negative feedback to hypothalamus Don t want more FSH or LH Prevent cyclicity if pregnancy achieved Slide Set 2 Chapter 5 Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 Figure 9 B P4 momma nwen ilovnlnnmnui in mammary gland 3 pwuuce y LLE 1W9 llumlbuck39 um GHR n ma nynulluam my GHRIl LH w A IFSH are Supprossc H mm FWD 7 nnwngan sr m r nemmnHHrerspmvsmvm ameml v V imwlary u Negative feed back from P4 is because we don t wa nt muscles to move to quotquiet l the uterus for implantation Mucus slows embryo down so it can implant Slide SetZ Chapter 5 GONADAL HORMONES OVARIES lnh bin glycoprutein pruduced by granulusa ells in female produced by Sermll all in male inhibits rsu secretion without altering LH secretion Relaxinquotquot polypeptide pruduced by corpus luteum during pregn ervkal dilation pelvk ligament 51mm Lilerine stretch Ox ocin corpus luteum some RampsW of ovarv Inhibin affects anterior pituitary inhibits FSH without altering LH As we approach ovulation needs LH but no more FSH Oxytocin causes milk letdown so when baby gets here it can eat Let down usually caused by suckling Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 paw 39 Wand Vandbzck Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 GONADAL HORMONES TESTES 15193er dihydrotestosterone steroid produced by Leydig cells spermatogenesis epididymis function accessory sex organs sexual behavior 39 secondary sex characteristics anabolic activity GnRH inhibition reduced LH levels Testosterone produced in response to LH FSH causes spermatogenesis Testosterone is necessawto be present for spermatogenesis to happen GnRH inhibition maintains static levels GONADAL HORMONES TESTES Androsterone Inhibin 05ertoi Ce 5 inhibition of FSH Estrogen I Sertoli cells sexual behavior Androsterone Androgen hormone same thing as testosterone Inhibin probably related to spermatogenesis UTERINE HORMONES PROSTAGLANDINS 7 F2a and E ZOcarbnn fatty acids uterine endometri corpus luteum regression luteolysis quotbreaksquot progesterone block 7 stimulates ovulation 7 enhances uterine contractility E2 only related to parturition Target is CL As CL shrinks progesterone goes down FSH and LH goes up because inhibin reduced Lutalyse is enzyme released for luteolysis Slide SetZ Chapter 5 Slide Set 2 Cha pler 5 Estradiol 1 Structu res Hypotha lam us Anterior Pitu itaw Own CL Uterus Mam maw Brain ABAS 4510 titanLab Exam 1 Review sz tbaak Chapters 1 2 5 5 7 8 9 Lab Information w Eweaw 50w rzpmductivz tract anatomy 125er Matzrml Rzpmductive Behavior 201712 probably only one or two questions mm Rinse a aspaomws mm ii Wig mm mm quotkiwminni me thz fxvz biochzmmal Elmslflcalmns ofhmmmizs Pzptldzs 7 amino acids Glympmtems 7 polypeptide that contain carbohydrate 2701 s 7 h 39 t 1 eslzedfmm clip es em Pmstaglandms 7 lipids dedved from arachidonic acid Nzwohmmones 7 substance released by neuron bf and the 39 39 39 HJ 11 portal system know details HYPOTHALAMOHYPOPHVSEAL PORTAL SYSTEM M i mm mm HYPOTHALAMUS Ti Primary Portal Plexus in pituitary stalk Vi Secandarv Portal Plexus in anteriar pituitary gland Tropic Diormone from Am Pit Hypothalamus produces releasing hormones in hypothalamic nuclei Nerve tissue gt blood axons connect to primary portal plexus Plexus bed of capillaries Hormones travel from hypothalamic nuclei down axons Primary portal plexus attached to hypothalamic nuclei Secondary portal plexus hormones in blood dif39fuse to receptors in antpit that receive message cells produce then dump back into secondary plexus Localized circulation in blood only does not go into systemic circulation 9makes method quick and effective mm quotmm minimum Inan 3 my emu lh I lhIlmlt mu The process afluzemrzanon Flng 92 Luiaiuazaxl39mr Large luteal cellsi from granulosal cells Small luleal cells sfrom lhecal cellsof Theca Interna CorpusLuleum developsalc0rpus Hemorrhagicum Luteinizalion convertslhecal and granulosal cells to luteal cells Luleal cells produce progeslerone CLisvellow because luteal cells ll with fat CorpusAlbicansis scarring over corpus Hemorrhagicum Figure 98 gure 9 a water qiv hmi t umti Hi quoti i M jiliiii 1 mm rmhs man in n M n or nu em ily Iii n mun mitt t Fr r ivArHe tn Mr m39 H nt iL LL i J U 5 mm in Negative feedback from P4 is because we don t want muscles to move to quiet the uterus for im plantatlo Mucus slows embryo down so it can implant Progesterone imaintains pregnach Inhibition of GnRH sends negative feedback to GONADAL HDRMON ES hypothalamus Don39t Want more FSH 0r LH ruliafiiumnliwliil d Prevent cvclicitv ifpregnancv achieved 2151 Gan quotmm or ornrrtv Indicators of a male and female in puberty or that have reached sexual maturation SEXUAL MATURATION SEXUAL MATURATION PUBERTY IN THE FEMALE indicators PUBERTV IN THE MALE indicators 7 pregnancy mm c 7 3g alfirslziawlatiu 7 we 1 rim estrus 7 Sperm in eiasulaxe 7 gealhrsluvulalmu 7 sperm in urine 7 threshold blood unadiwi levels 7 behavioral msqu 7 behlvloral responses 7 smudayysexmm x rislics 7 smudamexmmcmm s threshold hinndmsmstemnzlevzls 7 threshold weight and body campnsilion iamess new Knulkments 7 slznnls Pregnancy maintenance is sexual maturity Age at first estrus and ovulation could be sexual maturity Estradiol levels means animal has follicular development Behavior responses standing to be mounted biggest sign does not mean can reproduce yet Secondary sex characteristics much clearer in the male Sperm in urine indicatorthat sperm production is at max lts how body gets rid of overproduction Prepubertal males always have less blood testosterone levels The hypothalamic surge and tonic centers in uence on GnRH levels pre and post pubertal in both the male andfemale DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS l 7 initiation of spermatogenesis Hygothalamus Hypothalamic Neurons 7 tonic GnRH center 7 urge GnRH center female only As hypothalamic nuclei mature more GnRH produced Hypothalamus repro Male has no surge center ifthey did testosterone would surge Surge when mature causes surge of GnRH Tonic causes normal levels steady levels 3 important parts relative to reproduction of hypothalamus Surge Tonic Paraventricular Nuclei PVN DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS PREPUBERTAL 39 39 39 ant pit 39 to release FSHLH low frequency GnRH low level circulating estradiol lack of surge center stimulation surge center sensitive to E2 but no stimulation no surge center in the male constant state LH and testosterone Low frequency GnRH FSH and LH low Lack ofsurge center stimulation because not mature enough Surge center is very receptive to estrogen feedback Stimulated more by estrogen Tonic not inhibited as much by estrogen More sensitive as hypothalamus matures Figure 63 After Puberty only Before Puberty and Rename GnRH Levels annnvn 5mm Luvus a Surges before puberty mean nothing because level not high enough or ordered Surge in GnRH causes surge in LH that causes cascade of events that lead to ovulation lnhibin keeps FSH from surging Levels of GnRH causes levels of testosterone Specific physiological steps that initiate sexual maturation in the male and female The interaction of estrogen GnRH F SH analLH relative to follicular development and the pre ovulatory LH surge in thefemale Details ofthepulse generator Figure 67 Figure 67 Positive energy balance consuming more energy than you need Blood glucose high if positive energy balance Fatb acids high if positive energy balance Leptin hormone produced by fat cells high if positive energy balance Supposed to be signal to stop eating DEVELOPMENT OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEURONS PULSE GENERATOR nonvital body functions degree of body fat blond giucnse and fatty acids LH pulses 8 surges anterior pituitary Pulse generator hypothalamic control Body composition effect on puberty only in female Pulse generator tells hypothalamus what state the body is in in relation to energy balance 874 Relazive aloud Hormone Cnncemratinns 3 1 gure s 4 Follicular Phasa Emu Days Relative m Emu o Figurz 7V7 Cy Shun phampermds Hanwhiter m r rm Mr mm rm w L rmemm Emmmenscs l l l 1 m 1 W e L q 322395 Km 4 237 1m 1 Wm 433331 shoreday breeders light are stimulating nerve przovulatmy Figure 8J3 Figure 513 Ovenan Events Caused by me Preovmmory LH Surge 5 mm mam Wm 21 an and mm f aw Yvnwm mm m dundmnl Mme e 0 mm m man qu mm mm mm Hnmm corn LH dbes nut direct y cause bvmaubn it starts casmde bfevents eadfng U n Ovu a un Isjust breakrng membrane bnbume E1 Ts mnverted L7 Pa Them interns ayer ceus expen39ence edema Hmd bqu up CaHagenasei enzyme that breaks dawn mHagen rn quTCMEr membrane Enzymes eat We rrbm rnsbe nut PGEr increase uid PGm 7 cuntracts musces increase pressure HystTane Increases eakfness bf mpmarfss permeabmy AH nbrmbnes are DEHZEd at bva Slide Set 1 Chapter 1 ABAS 45 IO DOMESTIC ANIMAL REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY SPRING 20 I 0 Slide Set 1 Chapter 1 WHAT IS REPRODUCTION quotuniting of nuclear material between cells of different mating types of sexesquot 1968 Involves Processes Involves Hormones Includes the Period from Conception to Birth Involves Copulation Is a Process of Regeneration Is Influenced by Management Includes Behavioral Responses Relates to Animal Production Efficiency think 5 Hormones a substance produced by one or more glands that is transported by the aloud to exert a specific effect upon another argan In other words tissues send signals in the form of hormones to tell other tissues to do something Conception to Birth gt Gestation Regeneration Important in commercial agriculture Management remember that reproduction isnota priority of animals Under poor management animals will stop putting energy towards reproduction first Survival isthe animal s priority Slide Set 1 Chapterl What is REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY physiology anatomy embryology genetics endocrinology biochemistry nutrition behavior management pathology climatology Logos Greek means quotthe study ofquot Physiology the study of fu nction Anatomy the study of structure Embwology the study of embwonic development Genetics the studyofgenes and heredity Endocrinology the study of the endocrine system hormones Biochemistw chemistw of biological organisms Pathology the study of pathogens diseases Cquot logy the 39 of quot 39 quot 39 39heatimnnrtant quot 39 in bullshigh heat can cause a low libido Slide Set 1 Cha pter 1 VARIATION AMONG DOMESTIC ANIMALS age at sexual maturity reproductive season gestation period sexua cyclicity placentation itter size actation Sexual Cyclicity refers to the estrous cycle quotquot quot L 39 39 39 39physical 39 quot L39 the fetal membranes to the endometrium the mucosal lining ofthe uterus that provides the site of metabolic exchange between the dam and the fetus In other words how the fetus is connected tothe dam bythe placenta Lactation formation andor secretion of milk bythe mammaw glands Lactation is also concerned with the number and location ofthe glands Slide Set4 Chapters7 8 and 9 PERIODS OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE ESTRUS 0 lstanding heat 39 high circulating estradiol 39 sexual receptivity 0 ovulation except heifers cows and does METESTRUS 0 cessation of estrus 0 ovulation heifers cows does 39 developing corpus luteum Estrus Dominant hormone Estradiol Dominant structure Follicle Metestrus Dominant hormone Progesterone drop in estrogen Dominant structure CL growing Ovulation occurs vew early Slide Sel4 Chaplers7 8 and 9 PERIODS OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE DIESTRUS 0 fully functional corpus luteum 39 high circulating progesterone 39 corpus luteum regression initiated PROESTRUS 0 corpus luteum regression full 0 reduced circulating progesterone 0 rapid follicular growth 39 increasing estrogen levels Diestrus longest Animals that don t have anestrous have long diestrus Dominant hormone Progesterone Dominant structure Corpus Luteum Proestrus proceeds estrus Dominant hormone Estradiol Dominant structure Follicle siide Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 PERIODS OF THE ESTROUS CYCLE ANESTRUS I no cyclicity 0 pregnancy all species 0 seasonality some species 0 breed effect Most clear anesmis is during pregnach Progeslerone rgt negative feedback to hypothalamus Not all animals have asparl ofeslrouscvde ie ifshortrdav breeder anesmis during longrdav Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 BEL FoLVEsI Rus Cow mm w rudenm m r Ewc um um quotInn Relative blood cancentrations 1 E2 MoNoEsmus mugs mu m hm J Sprmg m Lem mva WMWMM SEASONAL anvssmus Long Day m c SEASONAL poLvssmus Short Day n Some queensare seasonal polyemusuong davl Day of Cycle Relative Hormone CorKentratinns blood Fulllcular Phls Signis unhuHHHmrmwwoi ltgth Day or Cycle 3 5 a 554321 w u1n9mn uuuumnvswwn 114 Relative Hormone Concentrations blood Proestrus Dlestrus h Proastru 39quot 39 wk Metescrus Fi ure 73 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Slide Set4 sllde Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Figgre 84 Follicular Phasn VRDESTRIJS ESTHUS MEI ESTRUS a z o E 2 o a 139 1 E a H 3 m E s E m z 7 0 Z 3 2 Days Relative to Estms o GnRH following trend of LH FSH E2 Follicle produceseslrogen lisgrowing making more E2 Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 sure 7 7 Anestrus Lung phomper ods sprmymmmer Cyclizity sharr phmape nds UnHwmmr s mum 5 WW I m m Pmmm rm rm sewerw Wm M 13 em L MW 4 quotM M i l l ummnm quotr m Kw hwy 1 3m quotw e 1 Mmquot Shortrdav breeders light are stimulating nerve slide Set4 cnapters 7 8 and 9 gure a 2 Recruitment swam Dominance r ml 0 dmm ln l39lnil gruwxll of ovulaan Inllltlcls quotquot 39Zm i i 39 Scull quot MWWW39NNW Mdlnhlbldonwlukhcu i s v Ova Atrgsia 7 l Small lnleJe Medlllm roll lai ng 39allicles Recruit a pool ofselecled follidesnotju51 one Only one follicle will become antral follicle All otherswill die lAues al Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Figure 8 1 Primary Steps Leading to the Preovulatory LH Surge am a slide Set4 cnaprers 7 8 and 9 Figure 513 Ovanarl Evenls Caused by ma Preovulalow LH Surge l scmlm myw Hahn sagglrva mns ry jlm er ruin u iu a rtulnvallw nil r in 39 rm in nu rum 1 rain WM W n ramnanquot Ovulation isjusl breaking membrane offollicle E2 isconverted to P4 Theca inlema layer cells experience edema i uid build upl quot y 39 39 memuldllel Enzymeseatwall from ins39de out Peirincrease uid Perearconrracrsmuscles iincrease pressurel Hvslimine increases leakiness ofcapillariesipermeabilirvl All hormones are localized at ova Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 nuarian smnmh muscla nonn book Antra FoHTde Mgigranubsa ceHs Tx39iTHeca Interns ceHs Produces coHaganase isped caHy breaks tumca a bugw nea Where weak spot develops rsl iswhere rupture occurs Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 gure 9 1 Mn smus CL amnion H mm Rdaxim prngumrnrm levels blood LUTEo LYSIS 1 a Buy of me estrous cycle Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Figure 55 39 a M W n mm mm mum The mm umnuleuwmnam mm V quot Amqma wmnu ue rnbuys m3 M HW JEWW NWquot mm M m 3 mm m mu Th6 may M m u m Wm M 2 my w m H Early Mexesmm u u Emu mu 1 a mum umquot mgmm Nuzmmumy Imam1 m w A 1 mm wmmmmmmqm Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Figure 74 The Annum Reprodumive Cycle of me Bitch LModmed Vmeuhuswu Rum Kusmz anu mmquot 2001 ngvrvgarwszsrngLULMWPWID quot Fnlllculmr Phase u ANEmus zsmus 5 Mn 90 Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Figure 75 Queen m csvus rm mating Mating W 39 Fmgnancy thnlian Relalwe Hormone Concentratians blond 39 4 8 ll 6 20 Weeks Sh de Set4 Chapters 7 8 and 9 Fing 514 The Pamway or human Ovu ahon r m vmmr av 1 m m m m 3mm Wm m mm W m c m a m new L E Wm
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