History of the Recording Industry
History of the Recording Industry RIM 3000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Karli Schneider on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RIM 3000 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Michael Alleyne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/212976/rim-3000-middle-tennessee-state-university in Music Industry at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 2 912011 73900 PM Minstrelsy and blackface o First form of musical and theatrical entertainment to be regarded by Europeans as distinctively American o Key Performing groups 0 The Virginia Minstrels 1843 o The Christy Minstrels 1844 both toured England o 1829 Thomas Dartmouth Daddy Rice 0 copied the Jim Crow song and dance from a slave 0 Zip Coon was a stereotype for urban blacks used as a title for sheet music in 1834 o Minstrel show begins in 1840s o Black minstrels were also required to blackup o No full time black minstrel group until the Georgia Minstrels in 1865 o Working class entertainment Jubilee Singers o Popularized African American music inside and outside the US a George White 0 Treasurer at Fisk until he becomes choir director 0 Put up his own savings to keep the school going 0 Led the choir to towns around Nashville asking for donations 0 White was touring his students to prove the value of higher education for freedmen 1873 Britain 18751876 Scotland amp Ireland 18761977 Switzerland amp Holland 1877 England amp Germany 0 18771878 Germany Stephen Foster o The first important composer of American popular song o His work was inspired by and made popular by minstrelsy o One of the first American songwriters to sign contracts for royalties and support himself as a fulltime songwriter o 1847 Oh Susanna sold to a publisher for 100 0 1849 Nelly Was a Lady o 1851 Old Folks At Home Foster s biggest hit selling 100000 copies of sheet music Sold the rights to the song to EP Christy o 1854 quotJeanie With the Light Brown Hair 0 1855 Hard Times Come Again No More o 1860 On 9th August Foster sold all rights to his previously published songs for 1600 o 1864 Beautiful Dreamer The last song he wrote Vaudeville o Began in the 1880s remaining popular into the early 1900s o Black artists rarely had opportunities to perform o Bert Williams amp George Walker 0 Major black performers of blackface Bert Williams o Performed in the black Broadway show In Dahomey in 1903 which also toured England and Scotland o First fulllength black musical ever to be produced for Broadway o Recorded for Columbia in his later years 912011 73900 PM Early Technology Timeline 1877 Edison and Charles Cros separately invented the phonograph Early machines used foil or waxcoated cylinders 1887 Emile Berliner developed the flat gramophone disc Originally intended for office dictation o 1887 Columbia records is formed 0 1901 The birth of the Victor Talking Machine Company later RCA 0 1902 Intro of 12 inch shellac disc 0 1904Doublesided disc was introduced 78 rpm CyHnder 0 Song title and artist are not included on packaging The Disc 0 Enrico Caruso opera singer o 1904 Recorded the first disc to sell a million copies Fred Gaiseberg o The most important talent scout and producer of the early recording era 0 First recorded Caruso in 1902 1855 The phonautograph was invented by Frenchman Leon Scott first machine to record sound 1860 earliest recording Edison s phonograph used features of Scott s phonatuograph Employed tin foil and could only be used a few times Graphophone o Introduced in 1886 by Charles Sumner Tainter working with Alexander Graham Bell 1894 Fred Gaisberg began working with Berliner before becoming a recording engineer in Europe Gramophone o Eldridge Johnson designed the motor for the gramophone o Berliner files patent in 1887 o Berliner s phonograph used discs not cylinders 1906 Victor introduces internal horn for phonograph Victrola Copyright Act of 1909 0 Provided basic protection from infringement o Ensured income for record companies and music publishers Music Publishers 0 The important base of singers and songwriters in New York was known as Tin Pan Alley Tin Pan Alley utilized African American music particularly ragtime Irving Berlin Father of Ragtime Tin Pan Alley s publishers and songwriters influenced the 1914 formation of ASCAP O O 0 Jazz amp Blues Jazz originates in New Orleans at the turn of the century First written blues published around 19131915 Recording soon followed First jazz recordings in 1917 Jazz provided backings for classic blues of the 1920s Jazz 0 Also described as ragtime in its early years p3639 0 African American Scott Joplin was ragtime s best known composer 0 James Reese Europe In 1913 his orchestra became the first black group to sign a contract with a record company His orchestra traveled with the Castles 0 Buddy Bolden One of the first celebrated jazz trumpeters Started the Big Noise Jelly Roll Morton Claimed that he invented jazz First jazz musician to put his work on paper Freddie Keppard First jazz musician offered a recording opportunity 1915 The Original Creole Orchestra Original Dixieland Jazz Band The first musicians to record jazz 1916 O O O Blues 0 The main stream audience was more familiar with the orchestral jazz of Paul Whiteman Became known as the king ofjazz 28 Number One records and 150 Top 10 hits between 1920 and 1934 Tin Pan Alley Developed the structure of the popular song Closely associated with film and broadway Few songs addressed social issues and focused heavily on romance Irving Berlin 0 Made ragtime mainstream with Alexander s Ragtime Band 1911 his first major success Earned 30000 from sheet music sales in its first few years George Gershwin 0 Successful in concert and popular music 0 His Rhapsody in Blue was performed by Paul Whiteman O O 0 Race Records 0 Aterm used in the 205 to describe recordings by and mainly for African Americans 0 Most established mainstream record companies set up separate labels for black music 0 Blind Lemon Jefferson Most successful recording blues and country artist 0 Mamie Smith Crazy Blues 1920 0 Ralph Peer An important talent scout and producer in the 205 and 305 Associated with early blues and the beginning of country music Introduced the term race records Worked for Okeh and made commercial field recordings 912011 73900 PM Blues Race Records 0 A term used in the 205 to describe recordings by and mainly for African Americans 0 Most established mainstream record companies set up separate labels for black music Blind Lemon Jefferson 0 Most successful recording blues and country artist Mamie Smith 0 Crazy Blues 1920 The first blues song ever to be recorded Ma Rainey 0 Known as the Mother of the Bluesquot 0 Grew up in 1890s rural Georgia Bessie Smith 0 On of the earliest famous blues singers o Empress of the Blues Ralph Peer An important talent scout and producer in the 205 and 305 Associated with early blues and the beginning of country music Introduced the term race records Worked for Okeh and made commercial field recordings 0 Fiddlin John Carson made the first country record The recording industry adopted electrical recording in 1925 DeFord Bailey 0 One of the first solo stars of the Grand Ole Opry and its only black member in the early years 0 Accomplished harmonica player Very few recordings with earliest tracks in 192728 Opry performances were from 19271941 Finally inducted into the Country Music Hall of Fame in 2005 o Robert Johnson 0 Early recordings issued on Vocalion amp Okeh labels 0 O O O HISTORY OF THE RECORDING INDUSTRY Spring 2012 Early Technology Selected Dates amp Devices Early Technology Timeline CHARLES BROS Amiquot r f 442 l Y I 1877 Edison and Charles Cros a Frenchman separately invented the phonograph 5 Early machines used foil or wax coated cylinders 1887 Emile Berliner developed the flat gramophone disc 0 He planned to use it for office dictation Early Technology Timeline 01887 Columbia Records was formed 01901 The birth of the Victor Talking Machine Company which later became part of RCA 01902 Introduction of the twelveinch shellac disc 01904 The doublesided disc was introduced 78 rpm Early Technology Timeline 1855 The phonautograph was invented by Frenchman Leon Scott it was the rst machine to record sound An 1860 recording is the oldest one available 0 Edison s phonograph used features of Scott s phonautograph 0 The device employed tin foil and could only be used a few times J Edison s Tin Foil Phonograph1879 Later replaced by wax Graphophone Introduced in 1886 by Charles Sumner Tainter working with Alexander Graham Bell Originally made as a dictation devicel
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