Introduction to MIDI and Sound Synthesis
Introduction to MIDI and Sound Synthesis RIM 4190
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ms. Karli Schneider on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RIM 4190 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Joseph Akins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/212977/rim-4190-middle-tennessee-state-university in Music Industry at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
DAY 2 Midi Message Parts 1 Note on Message 2 Midi Channel 3 Note 0127 0 Middle C is 60 4 Velocity o How hard you press down on the note 0127 0 Velocity is not linear 64 vs 32 velo is not double the loudness It uses more of a logarithmic scale DAY 3 3 Important Sound Properties PitchFrequency Timbre Loudness Musical Properties Pitch Timbre Loudness Physical Frequency Spectrum Amplitude PITCH Consist of 1 Octaves a Double the frequency 2 Semitones a 112 of an octave 3 Cents a 1100 of a semitone TIMBRE The timbre of a musical instrument is created by the harmonic content associated with the fundamental note All frequencies of a note that are sounding are called partials Lowest partial is the FUNDAMENTAL Harmonics are whole number multiples of the fundamental The second harmonic is always an octave above the fundamental Exercise of harmonics With a fundamental of 100hz What are the harmonics HARMONIC SERIES Fund 100 2nd 200 3rd 300hz 4th 400hz 5th 500hz However there is harmonic content that is not whole number multiple They are called nonharmonic partials Found in drum hits cymbals Loosely random Engineers and Musicians have differing ideas about harmonics Engineers Musicians 100 1st Harmonic FUND 100 Fundamental 200 2nd Harmonic 200 1st Overtone 300 3rd Harmonic 300 2nd Overtone 400 4th Harmonic 400 3rd Overtone fund 1st Harmonic 2nd harmonic 1st overtone Harmonic Series Exercise 2 1 250 Fundamental 2 500 3 750 4 1000 5 1250 Synthesis Two Types of sound synthesis 1 Additive Synthesis a Takes one or more of waves to create a more complex waveform 2 Subtractive Synthesis a Take a wave rich in harmonic content then subtracting with filters to create desired sound Types of Waves Sine Wave Contains no harmonic content Just the fundamental Sawtooth Wave Contains all harmonic content Sounds a little crunchy Triangle Square Contains odd harmonic content a Square wave contain stronger harmonics at higher frequencies Thus both waves are unique and not identical See Image b A square wave is like a pulse wave at 50 Pulse Wave Duty Cycle of 13 Misses every third harmonic 1100 2200 3xxx 4400 5500 6xxxx 7700 88 9xxx Pulse wave example Duty Cycle 150 2100 3150 4xxx 5200 6250 7300 Synthesis Signal Flow Audio Audio SOURCE gt MODIFIER gt AMPLIFIER timbre FILTERS Analog Synth Flow OSC gt Filter gt Amplifier OSC Could be anything gt AUDIO gt MOD gt MOD 9843 4 MAIN CONTROLS ON AN OSCILLATOR 1 Waveform Selection 2 Coarse Fine Tuning a Course Semitones 12 Semitones b Fine Cents 100 cents in a semitone 3 Octave Switch 4 Pulse V dth Duty Cycle Noise Generator a White i Equal energy per band 100 200hz 1100 1200 hz b Pink ii 100 200Hz 1k 2k Wave Mixing Wave at 400 Wave at 400 NEW SOUND Beating a 400hz tone with a 404hz tone 4hz beat V th a herd pitch at 402Hz b To not hear a different pitch tune both voices equal and opposite 398 amp 402 hz will still equal at 4hz beat 9913 Timing Clock Pulses 24 per quarter note ppq For each pulse there is 480 ticks Control Change Messages i Values between 0127 Controller 7 Volume NOT VELOCITY i Micro vs Macro Dynamics a Micro Dynamics are between each note Velocity b Macro Dynamics Controller 7 Controller 10 Fan Controller 64 Sustain Midi Event List Option Automation Modes 1Read Playback automation 2 Write write as soon as playback begins 3 Touch begins with fader automation then snaps back to previous level 4 Latch begins with fader automation then stays at written level Quantization 0 Used to tighten pocket a performance 1 Creates Invisible grid lines 2 960 Ticks per quarter note i 960 ticks per 14 note ii 480 ticks per Ax iii 240 ticks per 116 3 To get to quantization In pro tools event gt event operations gt quantize 4 When using quantization use the smallest note value that was played Quantization Strength 1Gives a quantized performance a more human character 2 How much the notes are going to get quantized Quantization Sensitivity 1Excluede Include 2 Which notes 92313 VCO ltaudiogt VCF ltaudiogt VCA Keyboard Controller 1 Volt per octave 112 semitone VCO Voltage Controlled Oscillator VCF Voltage Controlled Filter VCA Voltage Controlled Amplifier Voltage Controlled Filter Basically EQ Controls the TAMMMBRE of the sound Types of Filters High Pass Low Pass Band Pass Band Reject Filter Parameters Cutoff frequency is the point where the frequency has been attenuated by 3db How Steep of a cutoff there is after the cutoff frequency Slope DB per octave attenuation is measured in POLES i 6db slope is equal to 1 Pole 2 pole 12 db per octave Resonance i Boots the area at the cutoff frequency Example question SLOPE AND POLES Question If the Cutoff Frequency is 1OOHz What is the amount of attenuation at 400hz with a 2 pole filter Answer 27db of attenuation 12db per octave 3 db of attenuation at cutoff frequency LOW PASS FILTER img example here Allows harmonic content to pass under a certain frequency HIGH PASS FILTER img example here Opposite of the low pass Allows harmonic content above a certain frequency to pass Not used in synthesis that much because if you cut out the fundamental you lose most of your harmonic content BAND PASS FILTER img example here Center frequency replaces the cut off frequency Allows a band of harmonic content through Poles attenuated on both sides of the center frequency BAND REJECT FILTER Cuts out a specific frequency Surgical to Notch Filter in Audio Keyboard Filter Tracking Duplicates control voltage going to vco to vcf Receives the same information Varies filter cutoff frequency depending on what notes you are playing Allows the same amount of harmonic content above your fundamental at all time Maintains a consistent timbre across the entire keyboard 10213 LFO vco gt VCF gt VCA A A EG quot Keyboard Controller gtADSR LFO Low Frequency Oscillator Frequency Spectrum and Amplitude Modulation Controls for LFO 1 Control Waveform 2 RateFreqSpeed 3 AmplitudeDepthAmount 10713 Voice Contains all info for sound Patch Src for the OSC Stock prerecorded sound element 1 edited patch up to 4 elements in every voice string patch element piano patch element 1 voice AEG Amplified Envelop Generator Common Mode On a user bankEdit gt Drum Kit Favorites where you can edit the patch name To edit voice while on a user bank sound you can just press edit VIBRATOOOOOOOOOOO Ways vibrato can work 1 All the time U nrealistic 2 Delayed 3 Delayed w ramp up Smooth transition into vibrato Basic rules for vibrator w LFO 1 Sinewave 2 Low Amplitude 3 Rate somewhere between 68hz REVIEW What type of modulation does an LFO use Physical Props spectrum Frequency AMplitude Waveform rate amp amount Sinewave Sawtooth square Timbre change Spectrum Modulation SofterLouder Amplitude 102113 One different way of controlling an oscillator Sample and Hold Module JUst a module that control that osc OSC A Cntrl Voltage I SAMPLE AND HOLD works like a DA Samples data then interpolates as best as possible Star stepped plot A Audio Source samples the sound at regulated intervals and uses that to create a control voltage of whatever the input is If noise you will get a random output eg old scifi noises 103013 Midi has 16 Channels but binary starts at 0 so binary 15 equals decimal 16 Status 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 STATUS F UNCTION MIDI CH SENT ON or data Note 21 108 is an 88 keyboard Middle C is Note 60 Data Bytes Midi Transmission Speed 31250 bps bits per second 3096 Bytes per second 11413 Midi Device Interfacing Maximum Length of midi cable 13 meters 50 feet Sends information one way Male connector always on cable Female connector on devices Daisy Chain Out gt In gtThru gt In Devices are linked together in series The thruport acts as a duplicator for the signal at each device being retransmitted to the next device in the midi device chain The Midi devices after the first keyboard will play exactly what the 1st midi device is playing Can be affected by Midi Delayquot MultiMaster Out gt In gt Out gt In Devices are linked together in series The output acts as a master device controlling the next keyboard in series So you could play Keyboard A and Keyboard B together Likewise you could place Keyboard B amp C together The main difference it s not just a copy from the original device that is continually repeated it is only communicated between the device being played in the next device in series ThruBox Star Topology Networkquot Thru box receives an input from one device then retransmit the signal to all the outputs on the thru box All devices connected to the outports on the thru box receive the midi data at the same time Thus eliminating Midi Delayquot Midi Merger Two Keyboards connected to a merger box via there outports will play one or more device with both of the input keyboards information 11613 Quantization Setting invisible grid lines to snap tightennotes to Purpose Rhythmically tighten a performance General Rule Use the smallest note Value in the performance as the quantization grid Event Operations Quantize midielastic audio altoption 0 Event gt Tempo gt Event Operations i think Strength How much the notes are going to be quantized include within exclude within Sensitivity controls sensativity WHICH NOTES Field of effectiveness Happens on each side of the grid markes 50 one way 50 opposite way at include within 100 default Midi Tlcks 1 quarter note 960 ticks 1 eighth note 480 1 sixteenth 240 1 32nd 120 16460 111113 Midi Modes How the receiving device is functioning to receive data Mode Name Short Name 1 omni onpoly omni receiving information on all channels polyphonic play back multiple notes 2 omni on mono NA Redundant and less powerful than mode 1 Not really used 3 omni off poly poly polyphonic only receiving information on one channel both devices synth amp controller must be on the same channel or the synth could be in omni mode 4 omni off mono mono Mono Mode MultiMode Mono Multi Timbral Voice Mode on motif Song Mixing What the motif Calls it Play Back mutliinst at one time 111313 MIDI MESSAGES Control Change Messages Status byte 1011 Sends Control Number Control Value Types of Control Change Messages a Continuous Controllers Norm Vals O 127 b Switch Controllers OnOff c Channel Mode Messages Vals121127 gtnitialize local control midi mode Pitch Bend Status Byte 1110 sends two data bytes that work as one to give more possible values 1 2 4 816 32 64128 256 512 1024 2048 4096 8192 16384 values this value is split in half so you can have pitch bends Therefore each side of pitch bend has 8192 possible values Program Change Secure way of saving your patches Backs up your patchesquot Midi Event List option See midi events CommandP or Top right menu gt Insert Program Change 111813 Vibrato Lab Concerns Pitch Timbre Loudness Frequency Spectrum Amplitude vibrato pitch amplitude tremelo AfterTouch channel voice message When you play a note after note on push down a little after you play the note it SENDS OUT A STREAM OF INFORMATION 1 23456789 how hard you press down the higher the numberquot drops back down to 0 on release 0 no change 10 max change Can be used control almost any paramater volume filter timbre etc Can be used to imitate real instruments timbre change
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