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PSYC 3082: Chapter 3

by: Meghan Davis

PSYC 3082: Chapter 3 3082

Meghan Davis
Developmental Psychology

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About this Document

Chapter 3: Clinical Assessment and Diagnosis
Developmental Psychology
One Day of Notes
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Popular in Developmental Psychology

Popular in Psychlogy

This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Meghan Davis on Friday September 19, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 3082 at Louisiana State University taught by Gros in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/14
Chapter 3 Weelnesday September 13 2 14 624 PM 0 Assessing psychological disorders 0 Assessing Systenntic evaluation and measurement of biological psychological and cultural factors 0 Purposes of clinical assessment I To understand the individual I To predict behavior I To plan treatment I To evaluate treatment outcome 0 Analogous to a 1nnel I Starts broad I Multidimensional in approach I Narrow to speci c problem areas 0 Reliability consistency in measurement I EX test retest and inter rater reliability 0 Validity what an assessment approach measures and how well it does so I EX concurrent discriminant predictive validity O Standardization I Standards and norms help ensure consistency in the use of a technique III EX include structured administration scoring and evaluation procedures 0 Donnins of Assessment 0 Clinical interview I Most common and clinical assessment method I Structured or semi structured 0 Mental status exanr systenntic observation of a person39s behavior I Appearance and behavior I Thought processes I Mood and affect I Intellectual mctioning I Sensorium 0 Physical exam 0 Behavioral assessment I Focus on the present here and now I Focus on direct observation of behavior environment relations purpose is to identity problenntic behaviors and situations I Identity antecedents behaviors and consequences 0 Psychological testing I Must be reliable and valid 0 Projective tests I Project aspects of personality onto ambiguous test stimuli I Roots in psychoanalytic tradition I Require high degree of clinical inference in scoring and interpretation I Reliability and validity data tend to be mixed III EX Rorschach inkblot test thenntic apperception test 0 Objective tests I Test stimuli and less ambiguous I Require mininnl clinical inference in scorir1g and interpretation 0 Objective personality test I Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory I Extensive reliability validity and normative database 0 Neuropsychological tests I Assess broad range of moto cognitive memory skills and abilities I Goals is to understand brain behavior relations person39s assets and de cits 0 Neuroirmging pictures of the brain I Allows for a window on brain structure and mction 0 Innging brain structure I Computerized axial tomography CAT or CT scan utilizes x rays I Magnetic resonance irmging MRD utilizes strong nngnetic elds I Positron emission tomography PET I Single photon emission computed tomography SPECT I Both involve injection of a tracer substance containing radioactive isotopes I Functional MRI VIRI provides a view of brief changed ir1 brain activity 0 Psychophysiological assessment I Methods used to assess brain structure mction and activity o the nervous system I Electroencephalo gram EEG brain wave activity I Heart rate and respiration cardiorespiratory activity I Electrodernnl response and levels sweat gland activity 0 Diagnosing psychological disorders foundations in classification 0 Diagnostic classification Psychology 3082 Page 1 I Classi cations central to all sciences I Assignment to categories based on shared attributes or relations 0 Terminology of classi cation system I Taxonomy classification in a scientific context entities things I Nosology application of a taxonomy to psychologicalmedical phenomena 0 Issues with classifying and diagnosing psychological disorders 0 Categorical vs dimensional approaches I Classical or pure categorical approach Strict categories III Problenr single or unique cause cannot be found for each disorder I Dimensional approach Classi cation along dimensions involves severity rating I Prototypical approach Combines classical and dimensional views 0 Two Widely Used Classi cation Systems I Intemational Classification of Diseases and Health Related Problems ICD 10 published by the World Health Organization I Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM IV and DSM IV TR published by the American Psychiatric Association 0 The DSM IV 0 Basic characteristics I Five axes descr1bing 11l clinical presentation person and environment I Clear inclusion and exclusion criteria for disorders including duration I Disorders are categorized under broad headings I Prototypic approach to classi cation one that is empirically grounded 0 The ve DSM IV Axes I Axis I Clinical Syndromes I Axis II Stable enduring problems e g personality disorders mental retardation I Axis III Medical conditions related to abnorrml behavior I Axis IV Psychosocial problems affecting mctioning or treatment I Axis V Global clinician rating of adaptive mctioning 0 Other Unique Features of the DSM IV 0 Unresolved issues in the DSM IV I Comorbidity III De ned as two or more disorders for the same person III High comorbidity is the rule clinically III Comorbidity threatens the validity of separate diagnoses Psychology 3082 Page 2


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