Sight, Sound, and Motion
Sight, Sound, and Motion EMC 3120
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristobal O'Reilly on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EMC 3120 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Robert Spires in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/212997/emc-3120-middle-tennessee-state-university in Media and Public Affairs at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 6 The 2 7 dimensional eld area Height y aXis Width X aXis Real World space versus screen world space selectivity Why are most screen horizontally oriented 1 Simply because they were invented that way other shapes were tried circles ovals squares 2 Most likely because it is the way or sidebyside stereo vision relates to the horizon and so is more natural and comfortable to watch Aspect Ratio the relationship of screen width to height Chart of standard aspect ratiostext pp 8284 Because there is no one standard aspect ratio lm and video directors and producers must constantly be concerned about how their final productions will appear to the viewer o EX Widescreen framing viewed in 4 X 3 must be letterboxed pillarboxed panned and scanned or digitally stretched or squeezed 0 Everything to be seen must be grouped into the 4 X 3 area Framing deciding where an image begins and ends Composition arrangement of people and objects within frame Common framingcomposition terminology 1 By distance from camera to subject or object 1 Closeup CU a Bust shot b Head shot c xcu 2 Medium Shot a Waistknee shot 3 Full shot long shot 2 By number of people in the frame a Twoshot three shot group shot 3 By position of the camera a Low or high angle i Low subject dominance ii High subject submissive b Over the shoulder OTS c Point of View POV i Physical POV ii Emotional POV 4 By purpose ofthe story a Establishing shot b Reaction shot 5 Additional framing practices a Secondary masking b Frames within frames splitscreens c Moving cameraframe pan tilt dolly The aesthetics of size 1 Objects a Actual size of something can be heightened or diminished through framing Impact of object size based on 1 Audience s prior knowledge of the object 2 Objects relation to screen area 3 In comparison to other objects scale Framing impact on actor size real size versus screen size or a person EX Mel Gibson is 5 9 Tom Cruise is 5 7 34 Framing exaggerates emphasizes or diminishes size A summary of the conventional wisdom of 2d imaging 1 Largest object or person in the frame gets more attention and has most impact Chapter 7 two I 2 Medium framing approximates the horizontal way we see the world so it interferes with reality the least 3 wide or loose framing opens screen space and allows the audience choice of where to look Part of the director s style and preferences 39 eld forces Zettl 6 major field forces types of energy which pull audiences attention and in uence their perceptions Note Remember these are conventions ithe most commonly used and accepted practices Force 1 Main directions horizontal and vertical space Horizontal space is restful calm tranquil humanistic amp gives a sense of balance and normalcy o Tilting dutch angle disrupts the feelings of normal Vertical Space is powerful strong inspiring spiritual ex a person s rst trip to NYC or the feeling ofbeing a oor level in a cathedral Force 2 Magnetism if the frame edges Tendency to pull obj ectpeople toward the frame edge Conventional practice is to place objects amp people nearer screen center even if it makes them appear smaller Leaving space at the edges It s also possible for the magnetism to be exploited as the story dictates Convention is to allow headroom lookspace and walkspace to avoid fram edge magnetism The rule of thirds is a framing guide to avoid frame edge magnetism Force 3 Asymet of the frame Force 4 F igure ground Convention is that the two sides of the frame are seen by the audience as unequal asymmetrical and the right side has more weight or importance Iquot I39 Human tendency to separate important or signi cant things from their background Foreground more important and or larger Foregroundbackground shift can be used to change the emphasis or importance Superimposing disturbs the gure ground relationship It s nonreality can be exploited to suggest feelings memories etc Force 5 Psychological Closure Mentally filling in the gaps when presented with incomplete information Gestalt a pattern which emerges when the mind applies closure Force 6 Vectors Frame forces which have direction and power Vector directions Ni Continuing point in the same direction Converging point toward each other eX Two people talking to or walking toward each other 3 Diverging point away from each other 7 opposite of converging Vector Fields The vector eld is a mixture of continuing converging and diverging vectors When there is no point of reference for up or down vector can more easily be manipulated Chapter 8 Structuring TwoTquot 39 39 Field Forces Definitions of a shot 1 A single uninterrupted running of the camera a From filmrunningthruthecamera days 2 A single continuous point of view of actors or objects or actions 3 Everything that happens between the director s command of action and cut Shots have aesthetic elements of Lighting natural or artificial style Color or grayscale Framing composition Fi gure ground relationships bP N Additional shot elements 1 N 5 Mass size and location of peopleobjects within the frame Conventional wisdoms is that the eye automatically goes to largest and brightest area External motion moving camera movement of the camera frame edges may or may not change Balance especially the rule of thirds and the golden section Shot length Any and or all these factors are present in any moving image Information density multiple screens amp graphic blocks Describe Chapter 9 7 The three 139 Lighting Color Framing Fi gure ground Composition Mass In shot motion amp vectors External motion the camera Balance Closure Composing against convention Shot length 39 f1eld Depth and Volume zaxis is the illusion of depth and is easily manipulated by bP NE camera position lens choice manipulation of the lens framing and composition Audiences help the illusion by using gestalt and associative context Graphic depth factors and 39 quot of depth overlapping planes layers of images extending back from the front plane LA UI a most commonly mentioned are i foreground ii middleground iii background Relative size the more space an object occupies usually means being placed closer to the front plane the larger it is perceived to be Height in plane as peopleobjects move up in the place we perceive them further from us until the horizon Linear Perspective the illusion that parallel lines converge in the distance at a vanishing point which is always at or near eye level a Forced Perspective Making parallel lines converge faster by camera angle of lens Creates distortion compressing distances or exaggerating proportions of obj ectspeople near the screen Distance Perspective Objects near are clear objects far are hazy Objects near are usually warmer in tone brown orange yellow and Color gray and blue as colors fade with distance UNLESS there is a strong warm color in the distance Depth and Lens Choice The 3dimensional field can also be manipulated by lens choice and objectperson placement in front of the lens 1 Field of View Framing a Wide angle short lens b Narrow and long lens Zoom lens can vary from short to long 2 Depth of Field the area along the zaXis that appears infocus C Capturing and Displaying in 3D N E Capturing Stereoscopic or multiscope Recreating Synthesizing zaXis from 2D images or multiple cameras Display twocolor glassed Alternating shutter glasses 3D TV wo glasses in development Chapter 10 7 Structuring the 1 J39 39 39 eld Reminder Depth of eld the area in front of the lens which is in acceptablefocus Foreground midground amp background are the most common references when discussing DOF depth of eld In general the wider the angle of the lens the greater the depth of eld but the lens opening and subj ecttocamera distance also affects DOF Manipulation of DOF directs the audience s eye to a speci c area or character Positive and Negative Volumes 0 Dominant positive volume 0 Objects or people dominate Environment is secondary Usually follows a wider shot which has established the setting 0 Dominant Negative Volume 0 I y39 39j areJ quotbethe 39 andareJ39 quot39 Jin importance or impact zaXis articulation placing people objects along the zaXis Helps tell the story by indicating distance andor space and also eases following action of people or objects 0 ZaXis amp lens distortion 0 Narrow long 7 lenses reduce negative volume and compress objects together 0 Wide short 7 lenses exaggerate size space and features of an objects or person nearthe camera and increase negative volume away from the camera 0 Summary of ZaXis compositions blocking o Adds or compresses depth and volume 0 Keeps large numbers of peopleobj ects in the frame with less camera movement that yaXis shots 0 Allows DOF manipulation to isolate and point out speci c peopleobj ects o Allows visual statements to the story I Ending shots tend to move away from the camera I Objects and people moving toward the camera are power moves Special effects and spatial paradoxes l Graphication lines letters secondary frame 2 First order space total frame and second order space spaces with in frame 3 Personification feelings close to presenter Zettl Firstorder space best at this Not always possible First order space with graphication Conventionally the most important person gets the most space and graphication identifying them are also first order Presently graphication may be additional information unrelated to either first or second space First down marker graphication is electronically inserted in first order space for the convenience of the audience The same process is used for ads which appear on telecast but which stadium crowds cannot see and in events like swimming Exam 2 Books chapters 610 Glossary of terms in back ofbook 1 Media and Storytelling 1 Humans are natural storytellers Mass Media content is almost always a quotnarrativequot story told in familiar formulas or styles with a familiar elements conflict beginning middle and end characters dialogue music etc 2 Storytellers use coding systems of sight sound and motion to assemble messages in ways that are acceptable and meaningful to audiences 1 Examples 1 Design Lighting and Color 2 Framing and Composition 3 Rhythm and Pace 4 Literal and nonliteral sounds 3 Audiences can learn and enjoy more sophisticated coding systems as long as they are in service to the stay 4 A media aesthetics continuum 1 New styles and techniques appear in the mainstream media but conventional methods are still used most The economic risk of failure is too great to allow otherwise 2 Zettl text is a n illustration of conventional methods of imagesound storytelling 3 Can nonconventional image making and storytelling ever be in a mainstream file 2 Chapter 1 1 We make aesthetic choices every day quotI know what I like and quotthat lookssounds good are aesthetic statements 2 Applied Media Aesthetics media tools and practices used by professionals to communicate to an audience 3 How Applied Media Aesthetics differs from quotpurequot art 1 In pure art an artist creates for the joy selfexpression and the act of creation without regard for an audience s needs or wants 2 In pure art an artist can create without regard for conventions of structure or genre 4 In popular media quotartquot Applied Media Aesthetics begins with a concern for clear communication with an audience Aesthetics and media 1 Applied media aesthetics is a selective process The content creator has decided sights and sounds for the audience 2 Meanings that audiences get from this process is partly a result of the creator s coding s1ylel but ali of what the audience brings to the media environment 1 quotMeaning is made at the intersection of audience and messagequot 3 The context in which the message appears is also critical to its meaning 4 Zettl s two types of context 1 Associative audiences compare new sights and sounds to what they already know 2 Aesthetic the manipulation of form sights and sounds to enhanceplace meanings or messages in the audience s mind 5 Zettl s five contextual image elements 1 Light and color 2 Two dimensional space 3 Threedimensional space 4 Time and motion 5 Sounds How are applied media aesthetics developed 1 From life experiences 2 From studying the work of others 3 From practice 4 From collaborations with skilled people Storytelling process llRaiders of the Lost Arkquot 1 Concept 2 Storyboard 3 Production 4 PostProduction a Scoringthe music rhythmically mirrors the action but in a sustained context of building moods and atmosphere for the scene It essentially is both It hits physical and emotional highs and lows sustains 5 More than 2 weeks of editing 6 Final Mix music dialogue and SFX What s the balance between aesthetics and stem Notes on quotVisions of Lightquot 1 Role of the DP andor Lighting Director a Responsible to the director for lighting and imagemaking 2 llThe Studio Look a Stressed the dominance of the quotstarquot through high key and other special lighting techniques 3 Film Noir a Sparseness of light low key Little light tightly controlled High contrast Matched quotdarkquot subject matter 4 New York Style a Realistic llGrittyquot Documentary feel No glamour or stars 5 llThe Magic Hourquot a Last 20 minutes of the day No direct sun but sky full of light Light quality soft amp diffused llGolden Hourquot 6 Use of color in llThe Last Emperorquot a Red birth Orange warm memory Yellow childhood Green knowledge 7 Creating other and inner orientation in llDo The Right Thing a Use of red in creating outer and inner quotheatquot CHAPTER 2 Lighting Dramatic production light manipulation both natural and artificial News and sports less light control amp manipulation Quality intensity and direction are ways to manipulate light Zettl Lighting is control of both gm and shadows Two reasons for lighting 1 Technical minimum light level needed to produce a professional quality image also called a baselight 2 Aesthetic A creative use of light to a establish time andor place b create mood andor feeling c reveal textures of locations amp faces Shadows Using shadows adds depth to twodimensional space 0 attached permanently fixed to the object or person Adds texture amp shape 0 Cast falls from object onto something shows time location distance 0 Falloff contrast between light and dark areas How quickly light fades away 0 Fast falloff obvious part dark part light 0 Slow falloff Outer Orientation how we see a person or even 0 Slow falloff makes objectpersons quotsmootherquot 0 Fast falloff emphasizes texture nner Orientation how we feel about a person place time or event red hot blue coldnight Two major lighting styles 1 High key lots of light Slow falloff Sometimes called quotflat lighting when used in news casts quotBrightquot or happy feeling in sitcoms or game shows In news it is a quotneutralquot look 2 low key less light overall Fast falloff Shadowy amp moody Dramatic quotFilm Noirquot Lighting at and abouteyelevel feels quotnormalquot because we see it all the time 0 When the light moves beloweyelevel other messages are communicated o Fearsuspense Sadsomber Mystery Warmsafeloving fireplace OOO Predictive lighting used to foreshadow or build anticipation The effect of production lighting Who wants to be a Millionaire example Chapter 3 Lighting Technigues 0 Standard techniques 0 Photographic principle quotthreepoint or triangle lighting I Key light brightest source at an angle causes a sharply cast shadow across neck I Fill light from the opposite direction with a little less intensity that a kill light I Back light dim light from in front just highlights the edges of the person against the background I Limitations 0 Good for one camera angle 0 Subject can t move wo lighting change 0 Chiaroscuro I lightdark lowkey Fast falloff high contrast highly directional quotselectivequot sets a thememood conveys heavy emotion quotfilm noirquot is classic example Ideal for lowbudget production 0 Flat Lighting I Highkey Slow falloff nondirectional generally upbeat little texture Sitcoms most game shows news Silhouette quotbackground bright subject darkquot to conceal identity or to add emotion 0 usually not happy emotion o Mediaenhancedcomputergenerated lighting Manipulation of the image after production by adding lighting effects or altering the original some way 0 Singlecamera noncontinuous vs multicamera quotlivequot continuous lighting styles Lighting aesthetics is about controlling and manipulating 1 Quality of light direct or diffused 2 Amount of light intensity 3 Direction of light eyelevel or abovebelow Notes on llMasters of Production 1 Production Designer Creates the world in which the story is told llCapturing the basic visual ideas of our culture Mixture of art architect historian psychologist 2 Tools used by production designer a Color b Line c Texture 3 Production Design is a collaborative process with Producer Director DP and sometimes actors 4 The Hollywood tradition is that good production design quotinvisiblyquot manipulates audience s feelings about the story and characters Chapter 4 Color 0 Phychologically aesthetically color evokes emotion and feeling 0 llI ve got the blues quotSo mad I see redquotetc Our emotional response to colors gives imagemakers a way to enhance and manipulate the emotional qualities of stories The most color manipulation of images occurs in drama and music Live TV news and sports usually do not manipulate color except to keep it as quotnaturalquot as possible Color attributes o Hue the color itself ROY G EN 0 Saturation the amount of the color 0 High rich 100 being the richest 0 Low washed out 0 being white 0 Brightness o Lightness o Darkness 0 Gray scale 0 A way to measure brightness and saturation on a scale ranging from white to black 0 Each color has a corresponding gray scale value Color in video and film 0 Color Temperature is a reference scale Kelvin for the quotwhitenessquot of light 0 3200k white 0 Less than 3200k red 0 More than 3200k blue 0 Video camera base all other colors on what they see as white in a setting white balance 0 Color encoding in imagemaking is done by 0 Choice of film stock B amp W r color and lens filers 0 Using gels and filterscolors placed in front of lights or lenses 0 Color manipulation after shooting either as a laboratiory or a difital process ex 0 brother where Chapter 5 Structuring Color Zettl s three functions of color 1 Informational to tell more ofabout the story 2 Compositional the balance of colors within the frame Can guide the eye andor give a sense of energy 3 Expressive adding a personal quotstatementquot of color This use is quotriskyquot because there s a chance audience will not see it or quotget itquot the way it s intended Structuring color in film and video 0 Color Symbolism Culturebased same color means different things in different cultures 0 Color Energy an emotional response to the dynamics of color Typically warm colors 0 Color Expressivism for mood and tone Colorization adding color to something originally created in B amp W 0 Reasons for 0 Expand the audience 0 Make more money 0 Zettl intensifies movies that are predominantly landscape Reasons against 0 Destroying the imagemakers intention Exam 3 Content from the video The Cutting Edge l N 9939er History of motion picture editing a Porter amp The Great Train Robbery b Russian collision of images to evoke emotion c Griffith Hollywood amp invisible editing d French new wave The editor is a disassociated viewer Editor has more objective eye than writer actor or director Spielberg Collaboration with the director Traditional and changing role of women in editing Editor and actor relationship Some traditional practices a Chase scenes build excitement by increase in rhythm and pace of images and sounds b Suspense Scenes build fright by withholding visual information then scare by ood of images and sounds c In talking scenes shot length pauses air and reactions of actors to each other are key edit elements d Eroticism can be intensified by what is not shown Newer practices a breaking continuity b Increased pace in uence of video games and MTV c Impact of new technology on editing The last draft of the script is the first cut of the movie the final cut of the movie is the final draft of the script 7 Tarantino SOME NOTES ABOUT EDITING 7 ON D2L l 2 3 Kuleshov Effect the mental tendency of viewers to create new meanings from a series of images even if each image is totally unrelated to the other Same footage new meanings Russians reedited from propaganda purposes a Would these techniques still work today Audiences learn editing codes Rhyme Pace Shot sequencing Time manipulating Sound amp music Etc In 1903 the audience could not understand a Audience sophistication level constantly grows Bournestyle editing will seem boring in 100 years Editing involves 1 Selecting amp assembling from available choices coverage 2 Eliminating unnecessary material 3 Correcting errors 4 Creating or enhancing a narrative psychological feeling Editing is done 1 live a football telecast an awards show newscast etc by the director 2 After raw materials are collected postproduction may involve an editor as well as director Chapter 11 7 Building Screen Space V 39 Visualization Thinking in Pictures Converting words and ideas into images and sequences Tools of visualization imagination life experience sense of drama and emotion awareness of what has worked before Deductive Visual Approach from general to specific viewer is lead into the scene thru a logical progression of images Classic or invisible style of visualization Simple and easily followed Casablanca 628 Inductive Visual Approach from specific to general Begins with small detail and works its way out until the obvious More impressionistic and relies on audience understanding and maybe patience Zettl s four basic visualization factors 1 Ways of looking visualizing a Looking at objectively observing b Looking m revealing insights or emotions not possible by simply looking at c Creating using the medium to create something not possible in reality Storytellers try to determine which is best for that story at that moment Field of View perspective Distance of audience from the event or person Story and cultural factors affect visualization choices 3 Point of View Physical 7 viewers see as character sees emotional 7 viewers feel as character feels 4 Angles coverage ofa scene or event For continuity For visual variety To intensify an event For aesthetics N 9 0quotm Chapter 12 7 Building Screen Space Time Time Objective real vs subjective screen story In narrative storytelling real time is almost never the same as screenstory time because of 1 Commercial constraints 22 in sitcom 120 min lm 2 Elimination unnecessary real time elements 3 The conventions and nature of drama Other events live news coverage and sports are much closer to objective time but even then real time us manipulated Via instant replay or slow motion or news story editing Time manipulation techniques 1 Shooting and replaying slow and fast motion instant replay a More frames per second m then normal frame rate playback slow motion b Fewer frames per second shot then normal frame rate playback fast motion playback 2 Techniques of editing jump cuts ashing forwardsback cutaways shot repetition etc Time Manipulation Compressing Time Extending time Flashback conventional Unconventional Jumping forward in time Zettl s 3 means of quot39 nbiective time Event Density Packing a lot of Visual information into a short space of screen time Example 1 Car chase 2 Moment after a touchdown s Event Intensity The perceived energy of an event Example Boume fight s Experience Intensity adding emotion Chapter 13 The Fourth 139 39 39 fieldmotion Frame single visual image Basic unit of lm and video Persistence of vision theory 24fpsstandard shooting and projection rate for normal motion Manipulation of this rate can add affect the story Exposing lots of FPS and playing back at normal rate slow motion The conventional wisdom is motion slower says 1 Powerheroism 2 Grace beauty 3 Suspensefearhorror 4 Freedom from reality Exposing few FPS and playing back at a normal rate fast motion Motion faster than normal says 1 Comedy 2 Outofcontrol feelingsfrantic 3 Passage oftime The brain judges the speed of something moving by comparing it to nonmoving objects This gives imagemakers tools to play With the perceived speed of something 1 Lens choice effects of wide vs marrow lens 2 Perspective lateral motion harder to follow 3 Moving frame Ch 14 Timing and principal motions Types of time in media productions 1 Clock time literally real time The time of day 2 Running time total program length Equot Sequence time in drama a block of content made up of scenes Equals a book chapter No set length or number of scenes Scene time smaller unit within a sequence usually happens in one time and place Shot time one continuous running of the camera regardless how much of it is used in nal version Equot None of these should be confused with Story Time the total time which has elapsed with the story EX A split second thousands of years Subjective time How time feels to the viewer 1 Pace the perceived speed within a scene a amp Action verses dialogue scenes or a love scene vs a ght scene 2 Rhythm the beat of a story The combining of fast and slow scenes Genre traditions of drama And individual style of the storyteller help determine rhythm and pace Rhth feeling of scenes combined 1 Cut Instantaneous change Most used Lease obtrusive unless manipulated to call attention to itself jump cut ash cut repeat cut etc 2 Dissolve gradual overlap of images A bridge across time or space Can be establish an emotional mood 3 Fade to black fade out or from black fade upin signi es the beginning and ending 4 Wipe replacing one image with another using a geometric pattern To transition between scenes to direct an audience s attention or to connect two images not possible in reality Exam 3 Book Chapter ll 14 Notes on Some notes on editing D2L Video The Cutting Edge Thursday 7 PM BAS State farm Lecture Hall Movies Kill bill Requim for a dream All that Jazz Vantage point Close Encounters of the third kind The graduate
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