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American Media and Social Institutions

by: Cristobal O'Reilly

American Media and Social Institutions EMC 1020

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Media and Public Affairs > EMC 1020 > American Media and Social Institutions
Cristobal O'Reilly
GPA 3.52

Edward Kimbrell

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Edward Kimbrell
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristobal O'Reilly on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EMC 1020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Edward Kimbrell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see /class/212998/emc-1020-middle-tennessee-state-university in Media and Public Affairs at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Study Guide for Exam 1 Chapter 1 How does the communication process work 0 Three ways how people communicate Intrapersonal talk to self Interpersonal talk to another person amp Mass Communication message from one person through a device to a large audience 0 Six key terms sender message receiver channel feedback and noise Department store sends a message sale through a TV channel medium to a person sitting at home watching TV receiver and person goes to store to buy items feedback Noise is included throughout What are the elements of mass communication 0 A messages is sent out in some form of mass communication system intemet print broadcast o The message is delivered rapidly o The message reaches large groups of different kinds of people simultaneously within a short time period What is vertical integration 0 An attempt by one company to simultaneously control several related aspects of the media business They own more than one type of media property Newspapers TV stations radio Why do media converge 0 Convergence is the melding of the communications computer and electronic industries Also used to describe the economic alignment of the various media 39 1 companies with each other to take A of Media properties can be attractive investments Pro t 10 a year Newspapers and broadcast stations are becoming scarcer Government regulates the number of them which means they are valuable Attractive investments Newspapers and broadcast stations are handed down among families If the family member doesn t want it they sell it to get their money Newspaper and broadcast stations are easier to buy than to create Requires huge investments and huge labor Invest the minimum about necessary to save money when market is favorable they sell it for a large prof1t Internet changed all the economics of media industries Had to adapt Forced to invest in a company that already had a successful Internet product Because Internet was so popular many newspaper companies went bankrupt Easy to sell What are pictographs and phonetic writing 0 Pictograph A symbol of an object that is used to convey an idea 0 Phonetic writing The use of symbols to represent sounds What revolutions did Gutenberg s printing system cause 0 Price of books went down drastically 0 He was able to print books that were identical each time 0 They were the first books printed by movable type Gutenberg Bible What is the communications revolution 0 Knowledge was now available to everyone 0 This caused the rise of modern governments 0 Scienti c and technological progress 0 Knowledge was now portable and storable traveling amp libraries 0 Societies could store information for future generations Chapter 2 What is the importance of Thomas Paine s pamphlet Common Sense 0 Persuasive political argument best seller 0 Throughout the Revolutionary War Paine was America s bestread author 0 It argued for the United States independence from Great Britain What was the importance of the International Copyright Law of 1891 o All authors foreign and American had to give permission to publish their works 0 For the first time American authors cost publishing houses the same amount as foreign authors 0 This motivated publishers to look for more American writers What is the importance of the Grove Press to American Literature 0 First literature to test the limits of free expression 0 Published a sexually explicit books Chapter 3 What is the importance of James Franklin s New England Coultant 0 James started his own newspaper o It was the first American newspaper to appear without the crown s published by authority sanction 0 He began the tradition of an independent press in the United States What is the paltisan press 0 Dissatisfaction with British rule grew in the colonies 0 Newspapers became political tools that fostered debate which led to the independence of the colonies What is the stamp act 0 It taxed publishers a half penny for each issue that was a half sheet or smaller and one penny for a full sheet Each advertisement was taxed 2 shillings All the newspapers were against this act and fought it Many newspapers threatened to stop publication The stamp act was soon repealed no taxation without representation What is the importance of the Alien and Sedition Acts 0 This was the federal governments rst attempt to control its critics 0 Government said that anyone who writes anything that is false or bad about the government including the president would be ned 2000 and put into jail 0 These acts expired after to years and were never renewed What is the importance of the alternative or dissident press and Freedom s Journal 0 De nition Media that present alternative viewpoints that challenge the mainstream press 0 Emancipation and women s suffrage brought new voices to the American press 0 Newspapers became an outlet to protest 0 African American people started the Freedom s Journal Why are Ida B Wells William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer so important in the history of the American press 0 They all fought the racism by publishing newspapers 0 They used newspapers for lobbying social change Chapter 12 Why are Matthew Brady Ernie Pyle and Edward R Murrow important 0 All photographers They were government accredits journalists working for the government They photographed war zones Their pictures were extremely popular Their pictures helped the rest of the world see the war and what was actually happening 0 Photojournalism was invented What is accreditation o The process by which the government certi es members of the press to cover government related news events What impact did TV have on Watergate and the Vietnam War 0 Protests became appearing on TV 0 Images of the war were exposed that other Americans had never seen before 0 This caused Americans to have an appetite for news 0 Watergates scandal hearings were televised What are all platform journalists o Broadcast journalists who act as their own producer cameraperson and editor and sometimes even transmit live video Chapter 13 Does political advertising make a difference 0 Of course Did the Obama campaign change politics forever 0 Yes What impact does the amount of time students spend with media make on their own academic performance 0 More Media less academic performance D0 media make social value or re ect it 0 Make it Chapter 14 What did the Founders mean when they protected the press in the First Amendment 0 That the press should operate freely Espionage Act of 1918 0 Made it a crime to say or write anything that could be viewed as helping the enemy Smith Act of 1940 o Placed restrictions on free speech 0 Press was required to submit stories so the government could check them first HUAC Near vs Minnesota 0 The government could limit information about troop movements during war and could control obscenity 0 Near posted an article about this but didn t violate anything Pentagon Papers 0 The New York times published this first 0 It detailed decisions that were made about the Vietnam war 0 They were secret but given to a reporter o This was the first time in the nation s history that the federal government stopped the information from being printed The Progressive Case 0 Article was almost published about how to make a hydrogen bomb 0 Published received a restraining order 0 The article was eventually published Obscenity Standards 0 The material is considered sexually explici o The material contains offensive language 0 The material is unsuited to an age group Roth Test 0 A stande Court test for obscenity named for one of the defendants in an obscenity test The rst amendment does not protect obscenity Obscenity is defined as material utterly without redeeming social importance Sex and obscenity are not synonymous Obscene material is material that appeals to prurient obsessively sexual interest A test of obscenity is whether to the average person applying contemporary community standards the dominant theme of the material taken as a whole appeals to prurient interest Communications Decency Act 0 Adds program blocking o Addresses indecent material on the intemet 0 Child online protection act 0 Supreme court upholds intemet filters for public libraries Privacy Intrusions o By intruding on a person s physical or mental solitude o By publishing or disclosing embarrassing personal facts 0 By giving someone publicity that places the person in a false light 0 By using someone s name or likeness for commercial benefit Intellectual Property Rights 0 The legal right of ownership of ideas and content published in any medium Chapter 15 Ethics Placing Responsibility Aristotle s golden mean fairness Kant s categorical imperative what if everyone acted this way Mill s principle of utility overall bene t for the most human beings Rawl s veil of ignorance respect for everyone regardless of social position JudeoChristina view of persons as ends in themselves trust in people and they will trust in you


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