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Radio Station Operations

by: Cristobal O'Reilly

Radio Station Operations EMC 3110

Cristobal O'Reilly
GPA 3.52

John Egly

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John Egly
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This 30 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cristobal O'Reilly on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EMC 3110 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by John Egly in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see /class/213001/emc-3110-middle-tennessee-state-university in Media and Public Affairs at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
PROGRAMMING 1 Station group manager duties 1 4 5 P9 5 2 To be the best manager you can be for your workers 1 P P PP E J 7 3 The qualities that make a station manager 1 wwwp s eww Having the right people in place Cutting costs Having a plan for the future You need to remember you have five sets of constituencies 1 Share holders 2 Advertisers 3 Listeners 4 Staff 5 Corporate needs Must be change friendly Did you recognize some today Did you make an impact today What did you do to increase ratings for our business Did you provide energy in the office today Did you listen today Did you motivate someone to do their best today Did you lead by example today As you go home think of one thing you will tomorrow to make that station better Intelligence Organized Can communicate Strategic thinker Must be motivated Must be a business person and understand dollars You must show leadership Track record Energy Level 10 Honesty and Integrity Programming definition 1 2 3 This is typical it can happen all the time in radio when they go to war over programming It is war there are winners and losers Example of it being war Don Imus 1 We live in a vulgar culture it s accepted 2 We can tell people what we think of them Because its war you must think 1 Think offense and defense 1 Defense in perfect selection of music for your format and offense is everything else jingleetc 2 Everything you have at a station is a weapon and must be treated as such 3 Need to think proactivelyhow can I strike the opponent first 4 Need to consider the ER factor bigg badd funni l 6 Why do people listen to radio 1 Relax and unwind when you feel tense EDWNQP PP E J Keep you company when your alone Gets you going when you need a lift Take your mind off your problems Add to the fun when your with other people Be reassured that nothing bad is happening Hear things that make you laugh Learn things that make your life better Give you things to think about 10 Hear things that are comfortable and familiar 11 Keep in touch with what s hot and what s not 12 Learn things that make you smarter than other people 7 The listener who you are after 1 The resistors listeners who believe they know what you have on the station and are not interested 2 The Rejecters already tried the station and rejected it these people you can not convert 3 The seekers the listeners who are waiting for your message can t find what they like and could be unaware that you are out there 4 The fence jumpers those that have no commitments that just scan and hit various stations 5 You core listener aka P1 listener 1st preference targeting these people with everything that you do 8 Simple definition ofa P1 listener 1 The listeners who show they are more likely to listen to one station than any other 9 Research directors study 3 years study showed the following 1 P1 listeners contribute 70 ofa stations listening 2 8 of listeners are exclusive listeners 3 Off air marketing has little effect on P1 listeners 4 The highest loyalty of P1 listeners 1 2 3 4 Easy Listening Classical Country NewsTalk 10 The marketing bridge 1 Unawareness no idea the stations exists 2 Awareness listener knows you re their but doesn t know what your about 3 Comprehension 1 Listener knows what the station is about but doesn t know if it will benefit them 4 Conviction 1 ndentify 2 Advocacy 1 Do what it takes to make your listeners feel like they are champions for listening 5 Action 1 am listening and I am loyal 11 Branding your station 1 Branding is much more than a slogan it s an umbrella that encompasses everything about the stations existence it s the total listener experience of your stations offerings from on air to internet to how you answer the phone 12 Curly s law 1 The rule of one thing radio stations cannot to be all things to all people 13 How to brand in a philosophical sense 1 Jack Trout how do differentiate or brand 1 You must identify ordinary bananas become the best bananas because of the sticker 2 Personify green giant 3 Create a new generic 4 Change the name 5 Reposition the category 14 Disney s big picture of building an impervious brand 1 Surprise 1 Amaze 2 Shock 3 Wow 4 How did they do that 2 Touch 1 Have to have heart 2 nfiltrate lives 3 It s a good way to raise money for charity 3 Orchestrate 1 50 piece orchestra is more memorable than a trombone 2 Treat each day as a new movement 3 Freshin the approach but stay focused 4 Play for and expect a standing ovation 4 Choices 1 Discover what people want and fulfill it 5 Keep sake 1 Become irreplaceable 2 Learn to create memories 15 Practical application for radio 1 If you re the only rock station in town make sure you say there is only one rock station in town and we are it 16 Branding tools for radio 1 Playlist 2 Features 3 The talent 4 Production values 5 Liners and positioning statements 6 Contests and promotions 7 Websites 17 How radio stations brand top of mind awareness created by 1 All aspects of the station is linked together with a singular appeal 2 Attitude 3 Must be consistent and persistent it s a long term situation 18 You know you ve won the branding war if 1 You own the position 2 If you stations has depth of imagethink of that station for more than one reason 3 Magnitude of image the awareness of your station is sky high 19 Overlooked truths of radio branding 1 Format heritage does not equal brand 2 Branding does not insulate a station from a new competitor 3 Brand loyalty is not earned by asking for it you get it by meeting listener expectations and fulfilling the claims it makes to customers 4 Radio station can lose brand equity faster than it can build brand loyalty 5 Stations who brand through a syndication in the morning have a very hard time continuing throughout the day 20 Successful stations use for basic strategies 1 Technical strategies to maximize audience 1 Some stations put a little reverb to sound a little more crisp 2 Some stations give their station a pitch boost 3 How fast you get back on the air after a break down 2 Programming strategies 3 Sales strategies 4 Reinvestment strategies 21 The three stages programming 1 Find a whole in the market place 2 Take down the walls to broaden format appeal 3 Become that 1000 lb gorilla that everyone else in the market wants to be 22 Very broad generalizations about the country 1 Northeast consider it older and more sophisticated 2 Northwest young and sophisticated 3 Southwest younger and not sophisticated cartoon crowd 4 Southeast older not sophisticated WalMart crowd 23 Stage one Market analysis 1 Demographics 2 Developing trends in the demographic area 3 The number and types of media available to the community or how the advertising dollar is split The communities major industries The statistics of the competition in radio format share and power Public needs ascertainment When people listen to the radio quot SJ EJquot gt What types of formats people tend to listen to due to the demographical data 9 Psychographics 24 Psychographics definition 1 Joining a listeners measurable demographic characteristics such as age and sex with the more abstract aspects of activities opinions and interests which can be described by one s quotlifestylequot 2 Measure lifestyle through the AIO formula 1 ACTIVITIES 2 INTEREST 3 OPINIONS 3 You get the AIO by asking listeners to respond to a series of statements 1 Activities work hobbies social events entertainment 2 Interest family home recreation 3 Opinions yourself social issues political issues opinions on products and the future 4 These choices in lifestyle become preferences in a single piece of music 1 Thru lyrics that relate to your personal experience 2 The texture of the song 5 Relevancy of the AIO in news depends on 1 Heart strings compassion or hate 2 Purse string that s going to cost me money 3 Interest in your families health or safety 4 Local topics that can have personal significance to you 25 Of all the elements of the AIO the consumer goes thru a decision process which involved several steps There is a stimulus commercial piece of music news storybut it s a stimulus There is a search for information on the stimulus You evaluate any alternatives to the stimulus might be something else I want to do PPP f positive you purchase what the station offers 5 Post purchase behavior does the person keep purchasing the product Iistenuseetc 26 Exhausting surveying and data crunching produces a lifestyle that shows your listeners Your AIO can be used to mold your format and everything else to cater to your audience Molding by what language the jock uses what jokes are on air If you look beyond the numbers you can predict spending patterns and shopping habits In the same vein musical tastes and tastes in news are affected by wealth age and other demographics 27 Some broad generalizations about psychographics of p1 listeners of a few formats 1 2 3 4 If you re an all news p1 you desire social suppiourity to know more than the next person All talk the desire for companionship Urban p1 listener want to know music better than next person you run into Country p1listenership are different depending on age 1 2 Old country want the old music and companionship Young Country is called a party and peer 28 Geodemoprahpic research 1 Combines demographic and psychographic data 2 3 Pin points geographic locations clusters using zip codes and census data Used in advertising and marketing to aim messages at specific geographic areas 29 Primary research 1 1 2 3 4 5 2 Current Data gathering thru the following elements Survey Focus groups Experiments Theater studies Website 3 Community based 4 Specifically applied to local station 30 Types of surveys Market Study 1 7 8 1 Broad look that lets a station find the unique characteristics of the market Format Study 1 Determines the needs and desires of the target audience of that format Personality study 1 To investigate the success or failure of specific air talent Format search study 1 To uncover format opportunities A straight marketing study 1 To study call letters position statements slogans contest Custom studies 1 From the stations themselves when they want specific answers Commercial testing 1 How well the commercial is getting through to the listener Performer Queue 1 Popularity of various performers that are on the radio station 31 Getting most out of surveys HANDOUT 32 Focus groups definition 1 Not concerned with sophisticated sampling procedures or quantifiable statistical analysis it collects groups of people with similar interests and conducts face to face discussions on topics of concern to the participant 33 Focus groups include 1 812 respondents recruited based on certain qualifications Demographics Listening behavior Attitude Size is important to small 1 or 2 members could dominant to the group to large not enough people could be involved and people become frustrated 2 Last about 90 minutes 3 Focus group moderator starts out very general then focuses in on key issues 4 They are used as research tool to get insights into particular issues 1 Your stations ratings are tanking and you have no idea why 2 The morning team isn t succeeding with its target listeners and you want to bring those folks in and ask why 3 Use them to test new positioning liners 5 They have the advantage over other methods because you can probe the respondent visual signals they are giving you 34 Theatre studies 1 Test the format against another you are thinking about using 2 Test personalities you may want to bring in 3 Music testing 4 Station slogans and positioning lines 35 Advantages of auditorium testing 1 Very short retrieval time 2 You have total control of the situation 3 There is little responded fatigue 4 Spouses and close friends are not allowed to participate in the same survey 36 Secondary Research locating already available data 1 Industry organizations 1 Broadcast promotion and marketing executives 2 National association of broadcasters 3 Radio advertising bureau 2 References 1 The standard rate and data service 2 The survey of buying power 3 Duncan s radio market guide 3 The census data 1 Federal government bureaus 2 Chamber of commerce 3 State data centers 4 websites 37 Examples of Arbitron 1 Arbitron isn t used only in market analysis but it s used several times a year and it defines a stations success or failure in ratings 2 Arbitron takes a small sample for a population deemed represented for your area and it 3 4 Used by most of the trade outlets in determining the success or failure of a format measures audience listen It s the golf standard for the radio industry 5 The quarter hour and its new equivalent is the basic breakdown of this measurement technique 6 Arbitron is best used as an average over several rating periods 38 Examples of Arbitron can answer 1 2 3 You can find when your listeners leave and where they go 39 What will have an effect of Arbitron s Ratings 1 l l N 1 RDOOVOHU39IbUJN 0 Monitor your performance in hot Zips those zipcodes that you are supposed to be doing well in Keep track of sharing patterns Stations format Any changes in formatics Management changes On air talent changes Playlist changes Why a listener completes a diary A listeners desire to keep an accurate diary A stations external advertising Other stations external advertising Onair promotions and contesting signal strength significant news happening during the ratings changes in listeners radio habits affected by personal circumstance 40 Portable people meter 1 Automatically records what people are listening to and it is transmitted to arbitron at the end of the day 2 Are used in all the major markets but not all markets diaries still used even with PPM 41 Ramifications for the PPM 1 2 3 P Equot 9 Wipes out diary keeper error or laziness Phantom audience Formats that traditionally do well at work such as adult contemporary could slip because listeners have been overly general in diaries in the past Stop sets and music sweeps are no longer bothered by quarter hour maintenance ts predicted that PPM is changing the currency the of buying and selling radio time Rating periods are measured monthly instead of quarterly 42 7 Cell phones are now being brought into the sample if the number is known 8 Lead to a more intensive battle for PM drive time loyalties 9 Cume is tested to be more important than share 10 Where morning drive personalities are the kingpins of radio stations PPM could shift the importance to other parts of the day 11 PPM has shown that top of the hour means little in radio Research traps to avoid 1 Get our share trap 2 Follow the crowd trap 3 Trying harder trap 4 The chameleon trap 5 Wishful thinking trap 6 Evidence that your information is from a non P1 listener 1 Wont give there name To intense with their comments If they exaggerate to the extreme If they know to much about the music Will compare you to an inferior competitor P P PP E J Cites broad support for their position 7 Wont thank you for talking to them Programming after the studies triangle approach 1 Station manager sales manager and the programming director combine efforts To get excellence in programming that station owner must 1 Give the program staff the freedom and authority to make decisions Must see the consistent programming is on every second of the day Make sure your managers sharply define their audience Strongly emphasize hiring good people 919939 Make sure your programmers stay current with the industry and the market 6 Make sure you use research as feed back to fine tune the radio station The program director roles to fulfill Every great programmer has three things going for them Are you the person for the pd jb give yourself the passion test Attaining goals 1 Miss 2 Miss 3 Miss 4 Miss 5 Document what your people agree upon keeps the what he said she said down 6 Decide on a course of action once the standards are written 7 Observe and follow up how are things going and if not well step in and help 8 Be clear about the rewards 9 Ways to motivate your troops Management by walking around don t be a stranger Use teams to tackle problems Surprise folks with refreshments now and then Clean up the place WPP E JI Celebrate as a group achieve goals 6 Motivate by using encouragement rather than fear when you can 10 Ways to rewards 1 Money 2 Greater freedom to work your job 3 Promotion 4 Increased visibility within the organization 5 Additional resources provide the staff with something they need to do their job better 6 A more flexible work schedule 7 Material rewards 49 Basic duties of the PD program director 1 At one time the pd was the god of the station but now pd s are brand managers following a predetermined plan 2 More and more 3 This is turn the job into a partnership with many people and researchers 50 Specific Duties 1 Monitor and listen to the station have them check out all the day parts Give feedback to your staff Act correct errors immediately Create come up with new ideas to make the radio sound fresher Involve yourself with your people show them that you care Get input ideas and constructive criticism can come from anywhere Be aware of the competition Involve yourself with the community EPWNP P PP E J Share your programming strategies with your staff 0 Set an example follow the rules you set for others 1 Review your goals 51 Program director and research 52 News talks station 53 When programming music needs to remember 1 A few major record labels control much of the western worlds pop music 2 Half dozen groups such as clear channel and finity owns much of the countries radio stations 3 Syndicators formulate the playlist for hundreds of stations creating a very tight playlist 4 on average a new piece of music only has a few weeks to climb the charts or its out 5 add dates are very important to labels because they focus in on that day 54 More details on the add date 1 Can be before the same as or after the street date 2 Everything a radio promoter does when talking to a station centers around the add date 3 Four weeks before the add date the promoter tells the stations what to expect 4 Three weeks before the add date the radio promoter is giving much more detail about the music 5quot 2 weeks the promoter silicates the program director for their interest 6 Also 2 weeks out trade advertisements are run by the promoter 7 1 week out the radio promoter tries to get verbal commitments for the most interested stations 55 Music selection research 56 Life cycle of any piece of music 1 Intro 2 Adoption 3 Maturity 4 Decline 57 Research focuses on three types of music 1 Currents that which changes week to week 2 Library testing song by song all the music you have 3 Positioning analysis how putting three songs together affects their desirability 58 Basic research techniques 1 Study of music trade publications 1 Polestar tells you how many people are drawn to a venue with an artist 2 Billboard magazine sales of artist albums 3 Specialty trades and websites for your format 2 Requests from listeners 1 There is no scientific basis or sampling possible for this type of research 2 Very hard to keep track of and to calculate 3 Telephone research the callout the interviewer takes a participant from a screened pool plays a hook for them and then hits the with a questionnaire about the hook is the traditional number one way 1 Most call out research begins about 50 plays in 2 Considered a short term feedback loop 59 Questionnaires on the call out 1 Familiarity is the caller familiar with the song 2 Positive acceptance is it liked 3 Burn factor how fast its burning out in the listeners ears 4 Unfamiliarity the caller just doesn t know the tune 5 Compatibility is the song compatible to other songs running at the station 60 Basic research techniques continued 1 4 snail mail studies very popular because of low costs 2 5 online music selection research 1 The farther you get from your core audience the less valid internet research is 2 Using your P1 database is very effective 3 Casual P2 listeners are going to be missed with this method 3 6 auditorium testing best way to test because 1 Best control of the survey takers 2 It s the only way you can test the whole library 4 7 music downloads can now be tracked and they create their own ranking tracking charts 61 Conclusions no one method is full proof but these are what stations usually use 1 Station requirement that a piece of music appears at a certain number of trades before consideration to be added 2 Piece of music must achieve certain levels of chart position before being considered 3 Are stations in your market with the same format adding the piece of music 4 Is it selling well in your market 5 Is the song playing on a direct competitor 62 Call out vs internet research debate general truisms 1 Use call out for the following methods 1 Expanding your audience 2 Format searches in the area to see if you want to change format 3 Station awareness 4 Determining listening patterns for a life group 5 Mapping musical preferences within a demographic 2 Use online research for the following 1 Polling your core audience 2 Helps determine personality issues 3 Nationwide surveys that seek a general portrait of a topic 63 More hits discovered by the following combination 1 A sales based chart 2 Requests if there are enough of them and you can track them 3 Stations features doing a features on an artist and their music and see if the audience responds 4 Artists history of success 5 Regional breakouts that starts to cross state lines 64 Other elements 1 The artists history or profile 1 Breaking artists breaking big now but will the be there next year Emerge stars those that can make a bad piece of music and recover Cycle tours then does new music then tours again Untouchable once in a lifetime gods beatles PPquot 0 U1 mm 103 0 00 0 RD l O l N 5 Renaissance 2 The kind of hits that your format deals with or accepts 1 Instantly familiar song 2 Depth familiar artists doing an unpredictable song 3 Novelty unusual but cool 4 Sell the air talent sells the song as a hit and they create a hit Music and censorship 1 Music is subject to the FCC indecency stipulations 2 Program directors music directors are the gate keepers when it comes to indecency 3 Advertiser boycotts and the threat of them have been effective against music 4 Political wins and who is in office very often determines what can get fined and what doesn t get fined Examples Self censorship today 1 Music labels try to cater to the needs of their customers 2 The labels set up review boards to screen lyrics of music they release 3 Will release clean versions or super clean versions if the chain stores want 4 Sometimes even advanced lyrics sheets are given to companies 5 Radio stations can edit the songs themselves Desired purpose of music segmentation and coding 1 You want to get music balance are you creating enough new and different types of music so the listener is satisfied 2 Music flow do you want a hot number to start after a very slow song ends 3 Music punch is the most desirable music of the format when the most amount of listeners are tuning in Segmenting music 1 Day parting what songs can play where 2 Tempo the song strength over all and at the beginning and the end of the song 3 Sound codes is the piece of music vocal Live or non live 4 Gender codes Rotating the music within the clock definition 1 The method by which the programmer decides when and how long a song will be played using computerized software Common categories for how often they are going to be played many different names possible 1 Power cuts the most popular song in the current survey and the most frequently used 2 Super Cuts songs in a survey going up or going down 3 Recurrents used that have recently appeared in the charts but are now gone 4 Gold former hits that the audience wants to hear time and time again 5 Bronze it could be a novelty song a regional hit or a special interest hit To be a great music station 1 Character brilliance between the records 2 Muscle swagger that comes when the station hits the mark 3 Musical confidence the listeners know you will be sending them the music you want to hear 73 To create music confidence 1 Celebrate new releases 2 Name your library 3 Reclaim your core artists 74 Some truisms of elements that aren t music 1 Image and branding it s the magic between the songs that gives the stations its edge if everything else is equal 2 The more background a music format is the more you have to use repetition to get the point home 75 Other elements and where they go formatics 1 Commercials are usually viewed as the largest tune out factor especially among the young 1 The entertainment is free 9 J It s really easy to switch channels Extensive research says there isn t a lot of advantage to a commercial once it s not number one 4 Listeners don t care if it s a 30 or 60 they only care about content 2 Station promos 3 Slogans 1 The M streetjournal counted 36 animals and 8 foods used in station names 2 During Arbitron sweeps the slogan cannot have more than 25 characters has two be used to identify the station has to be on air 4 times an hour 3 When possible the program clock should have as many dial positions as possible 4 Yourjingleslogan is successful if your listener remembers it 5 The whole purpose of slogans is the get people to remember where to turn to and to get people to put you on their presets 76 Some winners and losers in slogans 1 Young country winner 2 Classic rock winner 3 Hot hits winner 4 Music for secure adults loser 5 Bubba 107 loser 77 Other elements continued 1 Contests 2 Call letters 1 After the owner Market they are in City of license Dial position P1Pquot Religious 6 Characteristic of city they are in 7 Represents the format 3 Blah 1 Tie the service into the P1 listener 2 Holidays can be used in the spirit of the season in PSA 3 If you should cross the bounds of good taste as a station have a public service campaign ready to offset the criticism 78 Two goals of public affairs 1 Enhance your stations image and personalize it 2 Entrench your position in the market your remembered for this every year 945 March 28 h billboard limited accessand Radio Station World Design the radio programming clock for music stations Come up with 3 stations with call letters and a slogan WZZZ llMusic to Relax Byquot WLOL llMaking You Laugh Out Loud All Day Longquot WOMN llEasy listening for the Woman on the Goquot 1 Back in the Ancient Days 1 P P PP E J 7 AM would not play the emerging music of the day FM embraced the emerging music AM did not meet the emerging audio standard FM was a natural of stereo albums AM offered very limited format choices FM allowed many formats AM could not retool with the new technology of the time FM was completely fresh and different and within four years crushed AM radio 2 What s happening now 1 Radio is not only delivered in AM and FM but in a variety of ways 3 When do people listen to radio 1 2 3 4 Different ages listen at different times Teenagers are the most likely not to listen Men and women 25 55 are your drive time audience Most dedicated night time listeners are in the 1824 range 4 Problems for radio in today s environment 1 2 3 4 5 Commercial Claim two many commercials Young people hate commercials they have the sawy to go someplace else Radio is one sided Increased competition I The internet I Satellite Radio I Podcast I Mobile devices The Death of Scarcity I Traditional media was built upon scarcity I Scarcity of spectrum I Scarcity of hits I Scarcity of format choices I All of this Scarcity has disappeared 5 Radio vs Everything else 1 None of the sides have won 2 The war really began in 1995 3 This has now put stations in head to head competition with stations around the world and with all the various platforms 6 Serious internet advantages over radio 1 2 3 4 5 6 Can deliver messages to specific individuals Can get a hold of teens Can listen to stations not in the local market Reach rural markets more effectively Reach a higher end audience Consumer interactivity availability 7 Content can be audio or visual 7 Radio vs Satellite Radio 1 XM and Sirius launched with each company having about a billion dollars to spend 2 Almost all cars today are either satellite radio or satellite radio option 3 XM and Sirius merged in 2008 citing the fact that they would collapse if permission was not given 8 Terrestrials argument against satellite 1 Satellite is generally not local does not have as many commercials 2 The juke box stations have never made it in history why would satellite be any different 3 Nobody will pay a monthly charge for radio 4 There are at time signal problems in major cities 9 How to fight satellite radio 1 Increase your marketing efforts significantly and the more direct marketing the better 2 Create a series of listener endorsed promos that say your station is free 3 Talent coaching make sure that all your on air talent is up to snuff 4 Up your testing to at least two call outs a month at least twice a year test your whole library 5 Listen to the satellite channels and try to figure out there weakness 6 Increase heavily your marketing and promotion to the in car listening demographic 10 Satellite Radio s Today 1 Sports programming is really big 2 The main battlefield with terrestrial is with the car 3 pod and Mp3 equip cars are a threat to satellite radio 4 Subscriptions have slowed over the years and have not met the projections that the satellite radio investors thought 5 Satellite in cars remains strong in home listening is almost zero 6 New talent is very expensive 11 Radio on hand held mobile devices 1 Increase subscriber satisfaction 2 Add sharing opportunities 3 You can boost music download sales as you tag songs 4 EAS Emergency Alert System immediate compatibility 5 Radio is just there everywhere that theory is to be continued 12 Radio s environment was triggered by telecommunications act of 1996 1 Water shed year for radio allowed for consolidation in a very big way eliminating the clause that allowed that you could only own 20 AM and 20 FM stations There are still some limitations on market share and cross ownership 13 What did congress go with the Act 1 A recession in 1990 showed that 60 ofall radio stations were losing money 2 Stations were in the red because of big dept change and couldn t advertise as much 3 The big guys in the radio business lobbied congress and got in thru 14 FCC s broadcast ownership review and vote June 2003 1 Notes messed up so no 14 15 Consolidation not as a big threat as it used to be 1 Media environment is much more crowded 2 Media environment is much more competitive 3 Radio groups are looking for added value not bigger is better 16 Consolidation Concerns 1 Power being put in the hands ofa few mega companies 2 Owners can shape the news into there sense of reality and facts 3 Would allow the big companies to control the advertising in the countries largest markets Reduces the creativity as the big group owners have made radio sound vanilla Innovation in radio has always be drivin by the loser Couldn t shut up the controversial jockeys N539quot Grouping several stations under one general manager in a city takes the stations farther away from a community 9 The more debt that a group owned corporation gets from buying a station the less they will spend on talentetc 9 Formats or stations can be bought to protect superstations in a city 10 From a talent side its suppressing salaries benefits and working conditions 11 Drying up the talent pool that once existed in media markets 12 Consolidation is an aggregation game I Cut cost I Fewer employees I Collective contesting 13 Today s consumer wants just the opposite I Want a one on one with your entertain I Want to get things on your own time 14 In some cities there is no competition to spark the creative battles between stations 15 Group owned stations are on a 90 days schedule on doing business 17 Future of music consolidation 1 Fewer companies now own radio stations 2 The radio stations holdings of the ten largest companies have increased dramatically since 1996 3 Increased revenue concentration the top 4 radio station companies have at least 50 of the revenue 4 Increase ratings concentration top four stations have 60 of the listenership 5 Declining listenership since 1989 18 Radio programming in the wake of consolidation 1 15 formats make up 76 of commercial programming Owners who are at the local cap pick only 8 formats Folk music Americana music P94quot Small station groups do a better job in public interest programming 5 6 Format overlap radio formats its different names playing 80 of the time playing same things Playlist for stations owned by the same group in the same format the songs overlap 97 of the time 19 Consolidation Plusses 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Helps radio survive as internet and satellite are so competitive Cash flow and overhead are both improved when you consolidate Market dictates itself that the big boys can win The view of radio media stocks in now considered to be major Allows radio owners to bundle with newspaper and television and cable tv billboards and the internet Allows for power marketing a specific demographic in a specific market Makes outlying stations for profitable station mapping FCC studies after all this heavy consolidation has shown that creativity in radio has not dramatically dropped because of consolidation 20 Clear Channel Example 1 2 3 The largest radio company in the world Before the deregulation act of 1996 it owned 25 stations peaked at 1200 Has created some of the most interesting changes in radio history voice tracking and music airplay 21 Voice tracking 1 2 3 4 Definition The same talent hosts several company owned stations at once Technology allows the air talent to look at all five stations their schedules and run them ahead of the game The personalities that do this read faxes emails and newspapers from their host cities so they act as if they know what is happening in that city The average four hour shift for an offsite DJ takes on average 45 minutes 22 Music Airplay 1 2 Most station groups have a VP of programming that approves most music ads Gives you a big brother mentality 3 Those same local music directors don t argue with corporate 4 5 6 The local people historically have been the risk takers Garth Brooks was discovered by a local person Has a tendency to create narrower formats Clear Channel indeed started to charge labels to back sell artists 23 Surviving consolidation from an individual standpoint 1 F P PS JEquot Stop whining about the old days they are gone Learn about sales Become an all star at several positions Learn about more formats than just the ones you love Learn about nontraditional revenue Do not gossip but keep your ears open 7 Make your boss look good 8 Be proactive Present solutions not problems 9 Be flexible 24 HD Radio 1 Approved by the FCC in 2002 2 HD is the standard for converting analog to digital 3 Transmits the digital on top of the analog using the same frequency 4 Makes the FM signal sound as good as a CD the AM as clear as FM 5 You can display the name of the artist on the receiver 6 Allows for multicasting several different channels 7 Surround sound for your car 8 Ability to restore and replay audio 9 You can order products or services with a click of your radio button 10 Not mandatory and will take many years for most stations to convert 11 Individual HD receivers are now affordable 25 Advertising need to remember radio has two types of customers 1 Listeners and Advertisers 26 The Media Mix PNE 4 5 Radio for localism TV is for image Print advantage is can be reread Web Pages Other outdoor etc 27 Why do businesses advertise 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Create store traffic Attracts new customers Encourages repeat business Keeps your business top of mind with shoppers To position your company services and products To create enhance or maintain image To direct word of mouth advertising in your community To reposition the competition 28 How local advertisers choose media 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Ability to target a specific consumer Total cost to purchase an effective advertising schedule Frequency how often people hear it Total number of consumers you can reach How the cost efficiency of the media you are thinking about compares to other media Whether or not promotional opportunities or tie ins are included The amount of commercial clutter on the medium selected Can you reach the target on the move Type of professional and creativity production available to you and your client 10 Whether you can target your consumer at work or outside the home 29 Key findings on an Arbitron study of the above 10 1 Radio performs very well in the top three requirements I Radio targets effectively I Radio is very cost efficient I Radio is excellent at frequency in terms of cost 2 Television and the internet are the dominant reach mediums today 3 Radio is the most cluttered 30 Media Momentum 1 Radio continues to travel tv when it comes to sales presentation 2 Radio sales folks are seen as the most creative 3 Radio owns the most negotiable and cheapest perceptions 4 Radios biggest spenders say that radio is the easiest to work with 5 Nearly all adults 1849 with a college degree with an income over 60000 listen to radio each week 6 Radio reaches over 200 million listeners each week 7 90 of African Americans 2554 listen to radio each day 31 Decisions on if radio is a tool for a business 1 Reach how many people are listening at a specific time that wants there product 2 Frequency the number of times you can reach one customer 3 Is there a natural connection between your product and the stations message 4 Do you have an emotional message that can benefit from the power of imagination 5 Is it effective in combination with other media outlets 32 Radio station businessrevenue streams 1 On air advertising which is dependent on the following I Ratings I Great management An excellent sales department As consolidation peaked stations were averaging 21 minutes of commercials and hour I Today it has dropped between 6 and 10 minutes I 30 second spots continue to slowly grow in inventory 2 Nontraditionalrevenue I Sponsorships I The internet I Event marketing 0 Concerts etc I Job fairs 3 Sales drivin promotions I Clients at a remote location 33 General points on over the air advertising 1 The top 20 of your client base generates 80 of the money you bring in 2 Sales personnel should focus 45 of their energy on that top 20 3 35 of your timeenergy should be general on all your clients 4 20 of your time should be spent on new prospects 34 How long does it take radio ads to work 1 Depends on product purchase cycle 2 Share a voice what percentage of advertising done on 3 Impact quotient how convincing is your message the best ad is the one that makes your remember the ad 4 The media delivery vehicle auditory ads can be retained in memory and you don t even remember hearing them Radio commercial advantages mostly over TV14 1 much cheaper in terms of production costs 2 More flexable you change radio spots much quicker than orther kinds of spots A b U3 U1 9 7 8 9 If you have a lack of excess of inventory Changes in the economic environment C respond quickly to a hot trend the mass driving habits of the American public Radio is not a seasonal as TV radio can capture an audience anywhere Radio listeners tend to listen to the commercials while with TV they tend to leave the room Between 6am and 6pm people spend more time with radio than TV Radio listeners are more loyal than TV Vs Newspapers radio finds customers anytime anywhere You have to search for newspapers 10 you can segment your radio advertising by radio formats Important bc 75 of spending is done by women 11 On Group owned stations you can multibrand several formats 12 radio listeners don t do as much surfing as TV people 13 Last chance to reach a customer before a buy 14 the advertiser isn t competeing with any other company when their spots is running compaired to newspapers How radio sells its on air product the on air rate card6 price of commercials and various day parts Lots of discounts for large amounts of time TAP total audience plan its prepackaged scheule of spots PPN ROS run of schedule no guarantees of when it runs but it s the most expensive Con Can be preemptive BTA best time available guarantees the spots will be placed in the best spot available 6 Endorsement radio ads Ways to purchase time in radio7 Local spot box Regional radio networks National networks Aka CBS NBC etc Syndicated shows Group ownership local Ex buying only clearchannel stations in a given town Group Ownership National Ex Buying only ClearChannel stations nationally NP F PS JE JE Online access The media kit online and printed6The rate card is part of the overall media kit Should contain an overview page with all the radio station information A coverage map page An on the air page that shows your programming line up An about our listeners page A why advertise page P P PF N A why radio page Should not contain in media kit 3 1 bios or photos of talent unless they are part of the selling point 2 Technical dedcription of the Coverage Map 3 Never give negative information of the other stations Download a llradio media Kit from station of choice Commercial not noncommercial Print it out David Allen marketing professor2 1 shorter ads are about 75 an good as a 60 sec ad in promoting ads 2 Short commercials are only 50 as effective in giving you detailed information From Roy William s use 60 sec spots 4 When you message is complex You need to use specific details to help persuade You are in a business category that is new and not easily understood We need to baffle them with BS PPN Use 30 sec spots 2 1 when a product or service is clearly understood 2 when you have an easy to understand offer Internet Purchasing Terms when using banner ads6 1 CPM cost per thousand 2 Stickiness how long or deeply the user goes into the site 3 Unique visitors unduplicated CUM 4 Click through rate those who see a banner and click on it for more information 5 Time spent tuning hop long you are on the net 6 Page views how many pages the customer has stopped at Banner ads on station websites 5 1 Are usually branding devices 2 It s not a means to get you to click through immediately 3 They are sold as impressions how often you see the image 4 Stretches radio s ad budget because they are much less than over the air ads 5 You can put a lot of info in a small space and rotate it 35 To be able to produce spots in radio 1 To be able to work the machinery on a time efficient bases Be able to voice some of the spots yourself Be able to edit to achieve the desired effect To have an ear for production 9159quot Be able to write solid copy 6 Be creative 36 Essentials of an effective radio commercial 1 Identity your core message Touch emotions Paint a picture in the listeners mind using emotional experiences Don t sell products or services sell results Talk about the listener not your business Make a specific offer NP F PSNEquot Have a call for action 37 The Mix itself basic elements and influences 1 The music referred to as bed music You got to copy The sponsor The format of the station Time of the commercial and the time of all the elements P P PP E J Voice of the talent and all the characteristics of that voice bass tenor sex tone 7 Any sound effects that will be utilized 38 The spot itself contains the following 1 copy 2 talent 3 Music beds 4 Sound effects 5 Points of silence 39 What can you do with the dialogue the beds the effects the silence 1 You can mix them 2 You can give them pace 3 Transitions I You can do a segue I Cross fade I Vfadefirst sound fades to inaudible before the 2nd sound begins I Fade to black I Waterfall 40 Copy platform Checklist that allows you to prepare a sales strategy and comes just before you write the copy 1 You have the client product or service 2 The objective what must a commercial do 3 Who is your target audience 4 Positioning what makes that product unique 5 Approach which tone mood or style will be used 41 Consultant Dan O Days advice before you start writing a spot 1 Who is the sales target 2 Who cares about the benefits offered by the product or service 3 In realistic terms what will this product or service do for the listener 4 What is so excited about this product or service 5 Why should the listener act now 6 What might prevent the audience from acting now 7 What questions might the target audience have about the product or service 8 What objection might the target audience have about the product or service that you can overcome 9 Why should someone patronize this sponsor instead of another merchant 10 Is there a circumstance that allows the customer to take advantage of the merchant 42 Copy writing truisms 1 Radio rights for the ear and what the ear can decipher You have to replace with words what pictures can tell Each word creates an impression and therefore is critical of the overall commercial 2 3 4 Good rule is to repeat the product at least three times 5 Psychological studies show that on the mind the most powerful position on radio is the first few seconds 6 If the radio commercial doesn t work for the client they are not coming back 7 Commercials are already a tune out factor for listeners so bad commercials just speed the process 43 Basic Rules of writing copy 1 Use a conversational style unless the copy says otherwise 2 Grammar needs to be simple and clear in its message 3 Descriptions must be left as simple as possible 4 Keep numbers to a minimum unless they are the total focus over your copy 5 Must remember that spots like radio stations are fighting for positions so you must make your spot as unique and convincing as possible What are the features of your product or service that are important enough to use in your spot Is there a problem solved or need to meet for the listener Does the product have an ERis it biggER is it bettER is it cheapER factor Is the company well known How do you get the product 6 Contractionsdon tisn t are a very good idea 7 Talk to the listener don t announce or preach 8 Use the present tense and active voice whenever possible 44 Motivation handout 1 Appearance Star Ego Price EPWNQP PP E J Love and Family Convenience Curiosity Five Senses Personal Fulfillment 0 Appeal the authority or expertise 11 Be quotinquot with it or cool 12 Emotional Triggers 45 AIDA Formula 1 A Attention inviting people through the front door 2 Interest Keep them interested 3 D Desire 4 A Action a ready exit through which listeners want to go out and buy your services or product 46 The copy types 1 Live 2 Produced 3 Agency Spot 4 Live adlib 47 Radio copy styles 1 Single Voice 2 Two Voice 3 Dialogue Copy 60 second copy 4 Vignette short slice of life theme illustrating a problem and how it will be solved by your product or service 48 Commercial Types 1 Straight conversational usually one voice talk to me commercial 2 Hard Sale Copy also called bargain basement screamers hard hitters I Price Reductions I Urgency I Slogans repeated over and over Institutional Spoke person copy Testimonial P P PS Humorous I Humor attracts attention I Does not harm comprehension I Enhances liking 7 Vignette 8 Person on the street simple and believable 49 The Talent 1 Does the voice fit the spot 2 Articulation and inflection I Tonality I Pitch I Pace I Hypnotic language patterns I Voice Quality 50 Sound effects truisms from a theory standpoint 1 Conveys meaning 2 Stimulates our visual imagination 3 Radio is a hot medium 51 General Points 1 Sound effects must be set up by narration for effectiveness 2 Flashy tricks only work if they add to the presentation 52 Functions of sound effects 1 Define space I Showing distance I Indicates direction of movement I Dimension of where you are 2 Establishes location 3 Creates the overall environment I Emphasizes what type of action is going on I It can depict identity I Set the mood 4 Provides a counter point 53 Kinds of sound effects 1 The literal kind sounds like what it is supposed to beex Water train 2 No literal sound effect ex Ghost 54 Music Bed Functions 1 Location 2 Action 3 Establishes an identity 4 Fixes time in history 5 Mood 6 Musical sting 7 Music is the straightest path to the emotional centers of the mind 55 Other notes of music 1 Imitation is not a good thing 2 Frito lay lost a major lawsuit when they imitated a singer 3 Artists today are very happy to have their star music to made part of a commercial if paid 4 The price ranges today between 20000 into six figures to use a famous artists tune 56 Common pitfalls in producing commercials 1 Clutter I To much info I To many details I To many prices I More than one idea or theme 2 Clich s 3 Questions with obvious answers 4 Obvious yes or no questions 5 Unnecessary phone numbers 57 Some advertising mistakes to avoid 1 Quests for instant gratification 2 Trying to reach more people than the budget will allow 3 Assuming that the client knows about radio 4 Unsubstantiated claims 5 Creating one ad instead ofa campaign 6 Great production without great copy 58 Radio clearance policies general use advice only 1 Number of audience complaints 2 Station market power 3 Products which have never been accepted on your radio station as a matter of policy 4 Size of the market the smaller the market the more sensitive you are 5 Bible Belt vs New York 6 Degree to which the station makes you substantiate your claim 7 Does it fit with the format I Some stations wont except spots that say things like loose vowels I If the lifestyle of the age of the station listener doesn t fir I Does the spot attack the listener 8 The quality of the commercial not in the line with station standards 59 Sales career 1 Enthusiasm must bleed through to the customer Self organized You must think in terms of other peoples interest Questions cultivate the art of asking questions Key issues what are the basic needs of the customer Silence listen to the customer Sincerity Knowledge of the radio business wwwsnsnewvv p Smile and be happy Remember names and places TEST HIGHLIGHTS 22912 0 Advertising section only of lecture notes 0 Need to know about radio being part of the overall media mix 0 Need to know why businesses advertise o How do local advertiser choose specific media o If you are a local business how do you decide whether or not to use radio 0 Need to know radios main revenue streams 0 Know about radios advantages 0 How radio sounds it s on air productsthe on air rate card 0 What should a media kit contain Test 2 Review 1 N E 4 V39 0 gt1 Know the 10 qualities that make a good station manager Intelligence Organized Communication Strategic thinker Motivated Business person and understand dollars Leadership Track record Energy j Honesty and integrity In one word de ne radio programming quer 999 a war What types of listeners are there in radio a Resistors b Rejecters c Seekers d Fence Jumpers e Core Listener De ne the 5 main points of the marketing bridge a Unawareness b Awareness c Comprehension d Conviction e Action Know how Jack Trout de ned being able to differentiate a brand and the examples he used a Identify ordinary bananas become the best bananas because of the sticker b Personify green giant c Create a new generic 7 cantaloupe Crenshaw d Change the name Kiwi e Reposition the category pork Know Walt Disney s ve main points in building an impervious brand a Surprise b Touch c Orchestrate d Choices e Keep Sake Know the seven basic branding tools for radio a Playlist b Features c Talent d Production Values e Liners and Positioning Statements


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